He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Kei tĒnei wĀhanga

Kupu Whakataki

Case 1 - NgĀi Tahu

Case 2 - Te Reo

Case 3 - Waikato Campaign

Take 1: NgĀi Tahu

Ngāi Tahu’s sacred maunga (mountain) Aoraki or Mt Cook, in 1846.Watercolour by Charles Heaphy.
Ko te maunga tapu o Ngāi Tahu, a Aoraki, i te tau 1846. He paniwaituhi nā Charles Heaphy.

Pikitia: ATL
A-144-013

© Image copyright conditions

Port Lyttelton Immigrants disembarking, January 1851. Watercolour by Sir William Fox.
He tāngata tauhou mai i tāwāhi, ki Whangaraupō, Hānuere 1851

Pikitia:Uare Taoka o Hakena, Whare Wānanga o Ōtākou 02
© Image copyright conditions

Settlement on Bravo Island in Paterson Inlet, Stewart Island 1879. Watercolour by Christopher Aubrey.
He kāinga i Bravo Island, i Paterson Inlet, Rakiura, i te tau 1879.

Pikitia: ATL C-126-010

© Image copyright conditions

Portrait of Walter Baldock Durant Mantell, circa 1870.
He whakaahua o Walter Baldock Durant Mantell, takiwā o 1870

Pikitia: ATL
35mm-00129-e-F
© Image copyright conditions

Matiaha Morehu in 1849. Watercolour by William Fox.
Ko Matiaha Tiramōrehu Mōrehu i te tau 1849. He paniwaituhi nā William Fox.

Pikitia: Hocken Collections, Uare Taoka o Hakena, University of Otago
© Image copyright conditions

Charles Crofts (Negotiator for Ngāi Tahu) and Doug Graham (Minister in Charge of Treaty of Waitangi negotiations) hongi after signing the Ngāi Tahu settlement, 24 September 1997.
Ko Charles Crofts (Māngai mō Ngāi Tahu) rāua ko Doug Graham (Minita mō ngā Whiriwhiringa e Pā ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi) e hongi ana i muri i te hainatanga o te whakataunga o Ngāi Tahu, 24 Hepetema 1997.

Pikitia: The Dominion Post
© Image copyright conditions

Members of Ngāi Tahu at Parliament to witness passage of Ngāi Tahu settlement legislation, 30 September 1998. Photographer: Craig Simcox.
Ētahi tāngata o Ngāi Tahu i tae ake ki te Whare Pāremata kia kitea e rātou te whakamananga o te Ture mō te Whakatau o Ngāi Tahu i te 30 Hepetema 1998.

Pikitia:Te Kohinga o te Dominion Post, ATL
EP-1997-3761-17
© Image copyright conditions

“Ngā Rākau Teitei e Iwa o Ngāi Tahu"     

I whakaurua Te Kerēme a Ngāi Tahu ki Te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi e Rakiihia Tau, mō te Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāi Tahu, i te tau 1986. E iwa ōna wāhanga i te whakaurunga atu, ka whakaingoatia ēnei “Ko Ngā Rākau Teitei e Iwa o Ngāi Tahu.” Hei ingoa whakarite tēnā rākau, tēnā rākau, mō ngā rohe whenua rerekē i hokona mai i te iwi. Ko te rākau tuaiwa hei tohu mō ngā tauranga ika o te iwi o Ngāi Tahu.

Ngā hītori o Ngāi Tahu

He tino roa te hītori o te kerēme. I takea mai a Ngāi Tahu i te rohe o Tūranga-nui-a-Kiwa i te Ika-a-Māui, ā, ko tō rātou ingoa nō tō rātou tipuna mai, nō Tahu Pōtiki. Mā roto i ngā hekenga me ngā moenga maha, ka noho tūturu ko Ngāi Tahu te tangata whenua o te nuinga o Te Waipounamu i ngā tau o waenganui i te rautau 1700-1800. Kia tae ki ngā tau tuatahi o te rautau 1800, he nui tonu ngā moni hua mai ki a Ngāi Tahu i ngā hokohoko ki ngā kaiwhai tohorā, kaiwhai kekeno Pākehā. Nā ēnei tūtakitanga ki te Pākehā i mau mai ngā mate urutā ki uta, kāore kē he kaha o te tinana Māori o taua wā ki te kaupare atu. Ā, i tīmata mai hoki ngā moemoenga i waenga i ngā iwi e rua, me te mātauranga ki ngā tikanga Pākehā. Nō te tononga a Meiha Thomas Bunbury ki reira kia rapu i te whakaaetanga o ngā tino rangatira ki te Tiriti i te marama o Mei 1840, ka mīharo ia ki te tini o ngā rangatira kua mōhio kē ki te kōrero Pākehā.

I tērā wā kua kahakore haere a Ngāi Tahu i ngā matenga o te tini tangata, me ngā pakanga o te pū Pākehā ki a Te Rauparaha me ōna hoa. Engari i te whakamanawanui anō te iwi ki te whakapakari i a rātou anō, i te tīmatatanga o ngā hoko whenua i ngā tau i waenganui i ngā tau 1840-1850.

Ngā hoko whenua

I hokona te poraka o Ōtākou – e whakaarotia ana ināianei e 534,000 eka te rahi – i te tau 1844 e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. Nā te whakatārewatanga o te motika motuhake a te Karauna ki te hoko whenua (e tākina rā i te Upoko Tuarua o te kaupapa reo Pākehā o te Tiriti) tēnei i taea ai. I riro i a Ngāi Tahu te moni £2400, iti iho hoki i te 10,000 eka hei nohoanga mō rātou, ā, ko te kaupapa whānui, ka whiwhi rātou ki ngā painga o te noho hei iwi “whai mātauranga.”

Engari he tino iti rawa iho tēnei hoko i te hoko a Te Karauna i te poraka o Waitaha i te tau 1848 – i hokona ai tētahi 20 miriona eka, kotahi hautoru tēnei o Aotearoa katoa. Nō te taenga ki te tau 1864, te tau i hokona ai a Rakiura (Stewart Island), neke atu i te 34 miriona eka kua hokona mai i Ngāi Tahu, mō te £14,750 (ka rite anō tēnei ki te kotahi kapa mō te eka) me tētahi 37,000 eka hei whakamahi mā te iwi. Ka mahue ki a Ngāi Tahu kotahi eka i roto i te kotahi mano o ō rātou whenua ake.

Ka tīmata te whakahē

Ka tīmata ngā hītori whakahē roroa o Ngāi Tahu i muri i ēnei hoko i te tau 1849. Ka puta ngā kupu whakahē a te rangatira nei a Matiaha Tiramōrehu mō ngā whenua me ngā rāhui, me tana kī, ko ngā whenua, arā, ngā rāhui, i hiahia rātou ki te pupuri, i ngaro ki roto i te wāhi i hokona. Ka noho tēnei hei whakapae matua ki te Karauna, i puta ai ngā kōrero a āna kaihoko "i mahi nui rātou kia whakahekea ngā whenua rāhui [o Ngāi Tahu] kia iti rawa".

Ka whakahē hoki a Ngāi Tahu i roto i te 150 tau mō:

  • te iti o ngā utu i tukua ki a rātou
  • ngā kī taurangi i takahia, mō te mana pupuri i te pounamu
  • te rironga o ngā mahinga kai
  • te hapa a te Karauna i kore ai e tū ana kura, ana hōhipera, i oatitia e te Karauna ka whakatūria e ia
  • ngā taupā o ngā whenua kāore i mārama te whakatakoto
  • te rīhi ki ngā tauhou noho mai mō ake tonu atu o ngā whenua rāhui, kāore kē i whakaaetia e te iwi
  • te hoko i runga i te whakahau o ngā hea i roto i ngā whenua, i te mea kua hokona kētia e te Karauna mai i ētahi atu iwi.

Nā tētahi kaihoko Karauna o tau kē, nā Walter Mantell i tautoko ēnei aureretanga. Ka pau ngā tau o tōna oranga i te whawhai ki te kāwanatanga kia whakaeangia e ia ngā kī taurangi o mua.

Te whakatika i ngā kerēme: ngā tau 1870 ki 1950

Mai i ngā tau tuatahi i muri i 1870 i tū te tini o ngā komiti me ngā komihana uiui, nāna i wherawhera, i whakaae hoki ki te tini o ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu. I ngā tau whakamutunga i te rautau 1800 – 1900 ka whakapakari anō te iwi, (ko Hori Kerei Taiaroa te kaihautū), kia huri mai te Kāwanatanga kia tohua he komiti uiui anō. Engari he tino roa kē atu te whakawhiwhinga kapiheihana a te Karauna ki te iwi. Nō te tau 1897, me te tau 1891, ka whakaputa kōrero te tiāti o te Kōti Whenua Māori, te Kaikomihana  Alexander Mackay, ko te tino mate nui o Ngāi Tahu kia whai whenua rātou, kia nui anō kia hua ai he oranga mō rātou.

I raro i te ture e kīia nei The South Island Landless Natives Act 1906, ka whakawhiwhia tētahi 50 eka ki ia tangata o Ngāi Tahu kāore ōna whenua. Tino kore nei tēnei ture i whai take. Ko te tini o ngā whenua i roto i ngā rohe tītohea, he tino koretake hoki; nā reira kāore a Ngāi Tahu i āhei te whai wāhi ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua kua mārō te tū i taua wā hei poutokomanawa mō te ōhanga o Te Waipounamu.

Ā, i te tau 1921, ka whakatau te Komihana mō ngā Whenua Māori kia whakawhiwhia a Ngāi Tahu ki tētahi kapiheihana £354,000. Ka whakahē a Ngāi Tahu mō te iti rawa, ka whakakāhore te Karauna me tana kī he nui rawa tēnā moni. I te tau 1944 nā te Ngāi Tahu Claim Settlement Act i whakarite kia takoto he utu ā-tau o te £10,000 mō te toru tekau tau ki tētahi Poari, arā, ki te Ngāi Tahu Māori Trust Board. Kāore te Karauna i whakapā atu ki te iwi mō tēnei, ahakoa rā, ka whakamanaia te ture. Kāore hoki te Ture i aukati i te whāinga a te iwi i tana kerēme.

Kāore te utu ia tau i eke ki te nui e taea ana ana te utu i aua wā, ā, i muri ka hurihia hei utu ka tukua ia tau mō ake tonu atu. I te mutunga, ka whakamahia ngā moni e ngā kaihautū o te iwi o Ngāi Tahu ki te whaiwhai i ētahi kerēme whānui kē atu, i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ngā whakawā me ngā whiriwhiringa mō te take: 1985-1992

I ngā tau e rua mai i 1985 ka whakaaetia te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi kia whakarongo ki ngā take i hoki whakamuri ki te tau 1840. I ngā tau e rua mai i 1987 ka whakarongo te Rōpū ki te take a Ngāi Tahu, ā, ka whakaputaina tāna pūrongo, e toru ōna pukapuka, i te tau 1991. Ko tana kitenga matua "āe, kua tino hara te Karauna, he takahi tonu tana mahi i te Tiriti o Waitangi me te hoki tonu ki te hara anō" i roto i ana whakahaere whenua mō te iwi, ā, kia nui ngā kapiheihana, e ai ki te Rōpū. I taua wā, koirā te wherawheratanga nui rawa pea a te Rōpū, ā, tae noa mai pea ki nāianei.

I tīmata ngā whiriwhiringa ki te Karauna i taua wā, engari nā tētahi atu take a Ngāi Tahu mō ngā tauranga ika i whakauaua ngā mahi. Ka whakapuakina e te Rōpū ana kōrero mō tēnei take i te tau 1992, ā, tatū rawa atu te take nui mō ngā tauranga ika i raro i ngā whiriwhiringa i tū ai te Ohu Kaimoana.

Te tīti whakatau, 1998

I te tau 1998, i muri i te takiwā o 150 tau, ka oti i a Ngāi Tahu āna mahi nui kia whakaeangia e te Karauna ana nawe, ā, ka hainatia tētahi Tīti Whakatau. Ko te kapiheihana i tēnei whakatau $170 miriona tāra te wāriu. Ka whakapūmautia hoki i raro i te Tīti te whāinga mana o Ngāi Tahu ki te pounamu me ngā motika ki ētahi wāhi nui te mana, ka whai wāhi hoki ki te whakahaere i ētahi o ngā taonga o te taiao i roto i tō rātou rohe.

Ka whakaputaina hoki e te Karauna tōna "pōuri nui", ā, ka whakapāha hoki, "kāore he here o te whakapāha," mō ngā mamaetanga me ngā tūkinotanga i hua ake i tāna kore e whakatutuki i tāna i kī taurangi ai. I tua atu i whakaaetia kia whakahokia te maunga tapu o Ngāi Tahu, a Aoraki, ki te iwi, otirā ko te ingoa tonu kia whakahokia, i muri ka tukua ki te whenua katoa o Aotearoa. (Kei te haere tonu ngā kōrero o ngā taha e rua kia kitea ai me pēhea e tino pai ai te whakahaere i tēnei mahi). I raro i tēnei takoha aroha a Ngāi Tahu rāua ko te Karauna, te āhua nei kua pai anō te noho tahi o ngā hoa i roto i te Tiriti, he tohu pai mō ngā tau kei mua i te aroaro.



NgĀ Hoko i NgĀi Tahu

 

RĀRANGI TOHU

Akaroa 1856. Akaroa 1856
Arahura 1860. Arahura 1860
Arahura 1860 / Kemp 1848. Arahura 1860 / Kemp 1848
Kaikōura 1859. Kaikōura 1859
Kemp 1848. Kemp 1848
Murihiku 1853. Murihiku 1853
North Canterbury 1857.

Āmuri 1857

North Canterbury 1857 / Kaikōura 1848. North Canterbury 1857 / Kaikōura 1848
North Canterbury 1857 / Kemp 1848. North Canterbury 1857 / Kemp 1848
Ōtākou 1844. Ōtākou 1844
Port Cooper 1849. Whangaraupō 1849
Port Levy 1849. Kaukaurarata 1849
Rakiura 1864. Rakiura 1864
Map showing Ngāi Tahu Land urchases.
 

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