He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Kei tĒnei wĀhanga

Kupu Whakataki

Case 1 - NgĀi Tahu

Case 2 - Te Reo

Case 3 - Waikato Campaign

Take 3:  Te KĪngitanga

The first Māori King, King Potatau.
Ko Kīngi Pōtatau, Te Kīngi Māori Tuatahi

Pikitia: ATL
PUBL-0014-44
© Image copyright conditions

Portrait of Queen Victoria.
He whakaahua nō Kuini Wikitoria

Pikitia: ATL
1/4-016542-F

© Image copyright conditions

Scene showing Razorback Hill, on the road to Waikato, circa 1861. Photograph taken by William Temple.
He tirohanga whenua, me Razorback Hill, i te huarahi ki Waikato, c 1861.

Pikitia: Urquhart album, ATL
PA1-q-250-50
© Image copyright conditions

Riverside settlement with tents and huts. Watercolour by John Philemon Backhouse, 1881.
He kāinga i te taha o te awa, he tēneti, he wharau ōna whare

Pikitia: ATL
E-052-q-008

© Image copyright conditions

View of the exterior of the whare belonging to King Tawhiao, 1885. Photographers: Burton Brothers.
He tirohanga ki ngā pātū o waho o te whare o Kīngi Tāwhiao, 1885.

Pikitia: ATL PA7-36-24
© Image copyright conditions

Formal head and shoulders portrait of Sir William Alexander Sim, wearing his cap and gown. Photograph taken by Stanley Polkinghorne Andrew in 1924.
Ko Tā William Alexander Sim e mau ana i tana pōtae me tōna kākahu.

Pikitia: ATL
1/1-018427-F

© Image copyright conditions

The Māori Parliament building at Maungakawa, taken in the 1890s by an unknown photographer.
Te whare o te Pāremata Māori i Maungakawa.

Pikitia: ATL
PAColl-0940-1

© Image copyright conditions

About a thousand people turned out at the Court of Appeal in Wellington on 28 August 1989 to support the Tainui Māori Trust Board's bid to stop the sale of Coalcorp. Robert Mahuta sits on right.
Tata ki te kotahi mano tāngata i tae ake ki te Kōti Pīra i Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara i te 28 o Ākuhata i te tau 1989, ki te tautoko i te mahi a te Poari Kaitiaki o Tainui kia aukatingia te hoko o Coalcorp.

Pikitia: ATL
EP-1989-3161-14-F
© Image copyright conditions

Members of the Waikato Tainui iwi, in the public gallery of Parliament to witness the enactment of the Waikato Tainui land settlement. Photographed on 20 October 1995, by Evening Post staff photographer Craig Simcox.
He tāngata nō te iwi o Waikato Tainui, i te kauhanga tūmatanui o te Whare Pāremata, e mātakitaki ana i te whakaotinga o te Whakataunga mō ngā whenua o Waikato Tainui.

Pikitia: ATL EP/1995/4228/4a-F
© Image copyright conditions

 

 

 

 

 

Te Kingitanga

Toro ai ngā whenua tuku iho o Waikato-Tainui mai i te kūrae whaka-te-tonga o te  Manukau, taea noatia te awa o Mōkau. Ko tēnei whenua, tāpiri atu ki tō Ngāti Maniapoto, te rohe pōtae o te Kīngitanga. I ara mai te Kīngitanga i ngā tau whakamutunga o te ngahurutanga tau 1850-1860, he maha anō ōna pūtake ārau. Me kī pēnei, he mahi te Kīngitanga hei whakapōrori i te whakanoho whenua e te tini o te Pākehā mā te whakakotahi i ngā iwi ki raro i tētahi kotahitanga, hei whakakāhore i ngā hoko whenua.

I te tau 1858, tērā ētahi rangatira i whakauru i ngā whenua o ō rātou iwi ki raro i a Kīngi Pōtatau, hei mea e kore ai e hokona atu. Te tikanga kia whakahaeretia aua whenua i tō rātou rohe i raro i te Ture o te Kīngi, arā, e tōna rūnanga, ka noho ko tō rātou kupu hei mana whakamutunga. Kāore te iwi Pākehā i kapea ki waho, engari me mātua whakaae rātou ki te mana o te Kīngi. E ai ki te titiro o ngā kaitautoko o te Kīngi, ehara te Kīngitanga i te whakatuma hāngai ki te mana o te Kuini o Ingarangi, engari hei huarahi e ahu whakamua ai ngā iwi e rua. Mā roto i te puritanga o ō rātou whenua, ka mau tonu te mana Māori: "Kia noho tonu te Kīngi ki tōna wāhi, te Kuini ki tōna wāhi, ko te Atua kei runga, ko te Aroha hei paihere i a rāua."

Ngā reo whakahē ki te Kīngitanga

Ki te Karauna (ki te tini o ngā Pākehā anō hoki) ko te Kīngitanga tētahi whakaititanga kino i te mana taketake o te Kuini. Kāore i tika kia rua rawa ngā mana ki Aotearoa. Kāore hoki te kīngi e āhei te whakapūmau i ana hiahia ki runga anō i ngā Pākehā i runga i ōna whenua, kāore hoki i āhei te whakaruruhau i ngā Pākehā, i ngā Māori rānei e rere ana i ngā kōti whakawā o te Kuini o Ingarani i ētahi atu rohe. I tino whakarihariha hoki ki ngā Pākehā rapu whenua te hanganga o tētahi ‘rōpū pupuri whenua i te hoko.” Me kī, mō te taha Pākehā, kāore rawa i taea te tūhono i ngā whāinga o te taha Kīngi ki te mana taketake o Ingarangi, me te piki haeretanga o ngā whakanohonga whenua e te tauhou. Ahakoa he maha ngā rangatira o te Kīngitanga i huri ki te pupuri i ō rātou toa i te whawhai i Taranaki i te tau 1860, he maha anō i tūhono atu, i tautoko rānei i ngā “rebels”. Nā reira ka puta te karanga kia haere tētahi whawhai tino nui ki a Waikato, me ō rātou hoa o Ngāti Maniapoto.

Te pakanga i Waikato

Kāore i tino roa te tāringa i te pakanga. Kāore i peka kē ngā whakaaro o Kāwana Kerei, ka mārō tonu tana mahi ki te whakawhānui i te mana o Kuini Wikitoria huri noa i Aotearoa, kia wāhia hoki ngā mahi whakakāhore i tōna mana a te iwi Māori, mō ake tonu atu. Ka whakaritea e ia ētahi o āna tikanga, ko tētahi ko te takatū ki te pakanga. Ka whakakāhoretia e ia ngā tono kia houhia te rongo e ngā rangatira ngāwari o te Kīngitanga, ā, ka whakamahia ana hōia kia keria he rori hōia mai i ngā maunga o Hūnua ki te awa o Waikato.

I “kitea” hoki he kōrero kōhuru kia tahuna te tāone o Tāmaki-makau-rau, engari ki te whakaaro o ngā tino tohunga ināianei kāore he tino kiko o te kōrero huna nei. Ahakoa rā, ka whakamahia e Kerei hei tautoko i āna whakapuaki e rua. I karanga te tuatahi o aua whakapuaki, o te 9 o Hūrae 1863, kia oati ngā tāngata Māori katoa i noho rā ki te raki o te awa o Mangatāwhiri (te taupā whaka-te-raki o te Kingitanga) i tō rātou piripono ki te Karauna. Ko te kōrero o te tuarua i puta i ētahi rangi torutoru i muri mai, tērā e whakatūria ētahi puni ope hōia i te tonga o te awa, ā, ko ngā Māori i ātete atu ka murua pea ō rātou whenua.

Kua whakawhiti kē ngā hōia a General Cameron i te whaitua o te awa i mua i te tukunga o tēnei pānuitanga tuarua, ā, ki ngā kaitautoko a te Kīngi, he whakarewa ope taua tēnei. I whai i muri tētahi whawhai mō te 15 marama. Ko te pakanga matua, ko te pakanga nui rawa hoki tēnei o ngā pakanga i Aotearoa.

Te kaupare i ngā ope hōia i Ōrākau

Ka uru mai ētahi Māori i ētahi rohe maha ki te tautoko i a Waikato me Ngāti Maniapoto. I te aroha mai hoki ētahi o ngā iwi kāore i tae-ā-tinana mai ki te whawhai, ka tuku rākau, ka tuku taonga mai hoki. Engari kāore i neke ake i te 1,500-2,000 ngā toa o te taha Māori i te wā kotahi. Otiia, i piki te tokomaha o ngā hōia a Kerei ki te 14,000 i ngā tau tuatahi o 1864.

I ētahi wā i kaokaotia ngā ope o Ingarangi e ngā taua o te taha Māori, i kōkiritia rānei e te taha Ingarihi te taha Māori. I mutu te pakanga i Ōrākau i te marama o Māehe-Āperira 1864. Ka puta i reira ngā kōrero rongonui a Rewi Maniapoto, i te whakahautanga a tētahi taha i te whawhai i a Rewi kia tuku ia: "Ka whawhai tonu mātou, Ake! Ake! Ake!".

Te mutunga o te pakanga i Waikato

Ahakoa kāore i oti tūturu te taha Māori te whakahinga, kua pāngū anō ētahi o ngā rangatira Māori i Ōrākau. Heoi anō, kua hangaia e te Kāwanatanga, kua whakapuakina hoki e ia āna tikanga rahi tonu mō te raupatu whenua. Kotahi anō te momo tikanga i tāpaetia e Kerei me ana Minita ki ngā kaihautū, he tikanga mārō tonu: me tuku ki raro i te Kuini, me whakatakoto katoa ngā rākau me ngā whenua, hāunga ia ngā rāhui whenua nā te Kāwanatanga i whakaroherohe mō rātou. Kāore kau tētahi wāhi o te iwi i pai ki ēnei whakahau, ā, ka kounu te iwi o Waikato i ngā raorao mōmona o Waikato me te Waipā. Ka neke whaka-te-tonga rātou ki te nehenehe-nui o Ngāti Maniapoto ki reira whakatū ai i ō rātou pā. Kāore i whāia e ngā hōia Ingarihi. Kua mutu te pakanga i Waikato ināianei, ā, ka nuku te pakanga ki Tauranga, ki tētahi atu rohe piri ki te Kīngi Māori.

Ngā muru raupatu

I raupatutia tētahi rohe tino nui whakaharahara, ki te raki o te rārangi i rere i Whāingaroa ki Tauranga, i raro i ngā whakaritenga o te New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 me ērā atu ture. I raro i te ture o te tau 1863 i whakaaetia te Kāwana kia raupatutia he whenua nō tētahi iwi, nō tētahi wāhanga rānei o tētahi iwi, i whakaarotia kua whakaeke whawhai ki te mana o te Kuini.

Ko te rahi o ngā muru raupatu o Waikato, ko te 1,202,172 eka, ā, i reira ētahi o ngā whenua tino mōmona o Aotearoa katoa. Tata ki te 314,364 eka i "whakahokia" e ngā Māori o Waikato i whakaarotia kāore i whakaeke whawhai, otirā ki ngā tāngata Māori e kīia ana e Tainui ināianei, ehara i ngā kaipupuri tika o aua whenua.

Ko te rahi o ngā whenua i raupatutia e 887,808 eka. Ko ngā whāinga matua e rua o ngā mahi raupatu, tuatahi he hora whenua mō ngā hōia whakanoho whenua, tuarua, hei utu i ngā nama o te pakanga. Kia tae ki ngā whenua hei raupatu, ko te mōmona o te whenua me te nui o te pai o te wāhi te kaupapa matua, i mahue te titiro ki te mahi a te tangata nōna te whenua, i roto i te pakanga. I puta ētahi iwi pēnei i a Ngāti Maniapoto i te raupatu, ahakoa i reira anō rātou i te pae o te riri. Engari i mate nui ētahi atu pēnei i ngā iwi i waenganui i Waikato, i ngaro katoa ai ō rātou whenua.

Ka ātete tonu

Hāunga te pakanga, ko ngā muru raupatu ia te take o ngā nawe katoa, koirā hoki te maioro nui i kore ai e houhia te rongo i waenga i ngā taha e rua, i ngā tau o muri mai. I mahi nui anō a Kerei me ngā Pirimia whai mai i muri kia huri mai te Kīngi me te hunga tautoko i a ia, kia hoki ki ētahi rāhui i ngā whenua raupatu. Kāore a Kīngi Tāwhiao, te Kīngi whai i muri i a Pōtatau i whakaae ki tētahi wāhanga noa, i ngā huihuinga katoa i kī ia, me hoki whenua mai, arā, ngā whenua raupatu katoa. He tono tēnei e kore e taea te whakatutuki, inā hoki kua hoatu katoa ngā whenua ki ngā tauhou noho mai, e te Karauna. Ahakoa i hoki atu te Kīngi ki Pukekawa i raro o Waikato i te tau 1881, ka noho tonu ngā mamaetanga o te raupatu.

I tērā tau, ka tuku a Tāwhiao me te 500 ki te 600 o āna kaitautoko i ā rātou rākau, ahakoa kāore i whakaae kia oati i tō rātou piripono ki te Kuini. I muri i tērā i mahi nui te Kīngi Māori me te hunga tautoko i a ia kia whakahokia ō rātou whenua i runga i te tikanga o te rangimārie. Ka mauria e Tāwhiao tētahi pitihana ki te Kuini i te tau 1884, engari ka whakahokia mai ki te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, ka whakakāhoretia tāna inoi.

Ka huri te Kīngitanga ki te whakatū i tāna ake Pāremata, i te Kauhanganui. Ahakoa kāore i tautokona nuitia te Kīngitanga pērā i te tekau tau mai i 1860, tae atu ki te mutunga o te rautau tekau mā iwa he mana nui anō tōna, he huarahi tonu mō te Māori hei whai i ō rātou tūmanako me ō rātou nawe.

Ko tētahi atu hua o te raupatu ko te whakakāhoretanga a ngā Māori o Waikato kia uru ki ngā ope hōia o Aotearoa i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Nō muri ka utaina te māperetanga ki runga i Waikato anake, o ngā rohe Māori katoa. Nā te wahine rongonui nā Te Puea i whakahaere ngā mahi whakahē i te māperetanga o Waikato, ā, nāna hoki i hāpai ngā mahi a te Kīngitanga i taua wā.

Te Sim Commission, 1926

I muri i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka tīmata te Kāwanatanga ki te aro mai ki ngā whakapae a Waikato. Nō te tau 1926 ka whakatūria he Komihana Roera “hei uiui ki ngā raupatutanga o ngā Whenua Māori me ērā atu Whakapae a te iwi Māori o Waikato." Ko te Tiamana o te Komihana ko W.A. Sim. Ko tāna mahi he tirotiro noa iho mehemea i tika “te rahi o te whenua i raupatutia, i tika hoki ngā whakawā,” mehemea āe, kia hia ngā moni kapiheihana ka utua. Kāore i āhei kia tirohia te tika me te āhei o te whakaeketanga o Waikato e ngā ope hōia i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I muri i tāna rongonga i ngā kōrero a ngā taha e rua, ka whakaae te Komihana he nui rawa ngā whenua i raupatutia. Ka whakaaetia e rātou tētahi utu £3,000 ia tau, ka utua ki tētahi Poari Kaitiaki.

Kāore tonu te iwi o Waikato i rata, ā, i haere anō ētahi atu whakawhitiwhiti kōrero me ētahi atu hui i roto i ngā tau. Ko te kī a Waikato, “nā te mea i riro whenua atu, me hoki whenua mai". I roto i te Pakanga Tuarua o te ao ka tautoko ngā iwi o Waikato i te pakanga, ā, ka puta te kōrero a te Rōpū Reipa ka whakatauria e ia ngā nawe.

Ka whakaaetia e Waikato tētahi utu £5,000 ia tau, ka utua ki tētahi Poari Kaitiaki. Ka tākina tēnei whakatau i te Waikato-Maniapoto Māori Claims Settlement Act 1946. I te kōrerotanga i te whakamanatanga o te Ture ka kī te Pirimia a Peter Fraser, kāore āna māharahara mō te pono o ngā kōrero i kī rā "i tino whai take ngā nawe o te iwi Māori". I pērā anō hoki ngā kōrero a te Āpitihana. He mārama tonu ko te whakaaro o te Kāwanatanga, koirā te whakaeanga whakamutunga o ngā take nei mō ake tonu atu.

Te titiro whakamuri ki te take nei: ngā tekau tau mai i 1980

Engari nō te taenga ki te ngahurutanga tau 1980-1990 nā te ekenga o te wāriu kua tino heke haere te wāriu o te utu ā-tau, ahakoa kua whakapikia ki te $15,000 i te tau. Kua wherawherahia anō ngā āhuatanga o ngā pakanga whenua i Waikato me te muru raupatu. I puta te kī a Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Manukau Report o te tau 1985 “kāore i tukua te huarahi o te rongomau ki te iwi Māori, ka pēhia rātou kia whawhai mō ō rātou whenua te take…ko ngā tohunga katoa e mea ana kāore te iwi o Tainui, i roto i a Waikato i whakaeke whawhai, engari i kōkiritia e ngā ope hōia Ingarihi, nā, i hē noa tērā i raro i te Upoko II o te Tiriti o Waitangi.”

I roto i te pūrongo o 1989 R.T. Mahuta and Tainui Māori Trust Board v Attorney-General (mō te mana o ngā rawa waro) i kitea kāore i āta whakamāramatia e te Sim Commission te pānga tino taumaha o te muru raupatu ki runga i te iwi o Waikato, ā, he utu namunamu noa iho ngā utu ā-tau ina whakaritea ki ngā moni o nāianei. Nā te Perehitini o te Kōti Pīra nā Cooke i whakaputa tōna whakaaro "kua tae noa ki te wā kia whakatikaia anō ngā whakaeanga, arā, ngā kapiheihana mō ngā hara o mua, kia whai kiko ai, otirā kia whai tikanga ki te iwi.”

Kāore te whakatau o te tau 1946 i kīia he whakatau whakamutunga e te iwi o Waikato. Tētahi, kāore te Sim Commission i āta wherawhera i te tika o ngā pūtake o te muru raupatu, me ngā kōkiri tonu o ngā hōia ki roto o Waikato, i herea anō ki te titiro ki te taimaha o te muru raupatu.

I mea anō a Waikato, i te whakawhiwhinga o te tau 1946 kua maoa kē te taewa i te homaitanga, nō hea hoki e whakakāhoretia e tētahi iwi rawakore, noho pohara hoki i aua wā. I pēnei rātou me whakaae rātou ki te whakatau me ngā moni.

Kua whakaae hoki te Kāwanatanga me “hoki anō ki te āta titiro" ki te whakaeanga o te tau 1946, ā, i tīmata te kōrerorero mō tēnei kaupapa ki a Waikato i te tau 1989.

Tīti Whakatau, 1995

Ka tupu haere ēnei kōrerorerotanga hei whakawhitiwhitinga whakaaro tūturu i ngā tau tuatahi i muri i te tau 1990. Ka kōwhiri a Tainui me noho koia te iwi tuatahi ki te whakaoti i tāna whakatau Tiriti i raro i te kaupapa “kōrerorero hāngai” i tīmataria rā e te Kāwanatanga (ka tahangia atu ngā huarahi o te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti).

Nō te marama o Mei 1995 ka hainatia e te Karauna tāna Kupu Whakatau ki a Waikato-Tainui. Kei roto i te whakatau he moni, he whenua, ko te wāriu e $170 miriona tāra. I kī te Hōnore D. A. Graham ki te Whare Pāremata ko te kōkiritanga i te Waikato  “i tino hē, he take-kore noa… i hē rawa ngā muru raupatu, kāore a Waikato-Tainui i whakaeke whawhai, engari i te whakaora i ō rātou whānau me ō rātou kāinga… Nā te pakanga i Waikato me ngā muru raupatu i muri i whakapōraruraru te noho o te tangata... ka marara te iwi, ka tauria e te mamae, e te manawapā me te matekai”.



The Waikato Campaign 1863-64

 

Legend

Battle Site. Battle Site
Locality. Locality
British Advance. British Advance
Great South Road. Great South Road
Map showing the Waikato Campaign 1863-64.

Tirohia: Ngā hokonga i te rohe o Ngāi Tahu, e ai ki ngā tīti me ngā mapi. He nui tonu ēnei hokohoko i taupatupatu ngā taupā. I taupatupatu te hoko a Kemp ki ngā hoko o Kaikōura, o North Canterbury me Arahura, ā, ko te hoko o North Canterbury i taupatupatu ki tō Kaikoura. Te Puna: Te Pūrongo o Ngāi Tahu 1991, Puka 1, whārangi 6.


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