He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Kei tĒnei wĀhanga

Kupu Whakataki

Ngā Hainatanga

Te Rokiroki i ngā Tānga o te Tiriti

Pānuitia te Tiriti o Waitangi

Tiriti o Waitangi

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TE RERENGA O TE TIRITI

NgĀ Hainatanga

I te tau 1840, he uaua, he mōrearea anō ngā ara whakapāpā ki ngā tāngata e noho ana ki ētahi atu tōpito o te motu. Ka whakatauria kāore e pai te tuku i te tānga kotahi nei kia kōpikopiko haere i te motu, kei ngaro. Nā reira i mahia ai ētahi tāruatanga. Ka hoatu ēnei ki ōna anō āpiha, mihingare anō hoki, ā, he mea tono rātou kia kohi waitohu atu anō i ngā rangatira Māori puta noa i te motu. Hāunga te tānga i kawea ki Waikato, i tuhia te katoa ki te reo Māori. Kāore i te mōhiotia he aha i tuhia ai tō Waikato ki te reo Pākehā, engari ko te whakaaro, i whakaaturia ngātahitia me ētahi tāruatanga reo Māori.

Kua ngaro te tuhinga Pākehā taketake ake nō reira mai te whakamāoritanga, tae atu ki ngā tauira hukihuki o te whakamāoritanga o te Tiriti. I te mea i mahia ētahi whakatikatika ki te tauira Māori i te 4 me te 5 o Pēpuere, ka tahuri te mihingare a te Church Missionary Society (CMS), a Richard Taylor, ki te hanga tauira hou mō te hui o te 6 Pēpuere, me te pupuri ki te tauira pepa tuatahi. Ko tēnei tauira hou, i tāia ki te kiri o te nanekoti, o te hipi rānei – he momo pepa tonu tēnei i whakamahia nuitia i ērā wā mō ngā tānga ture, i te mea he kaha ake i te pepa noa iho.

Ko te tānga matāmua i hainatia i Waitangi te mea kāore e tino mōhiotia ana ngā ingoa katoa o runga me ngā wā i tāpiria ai. Ko te hainatanga tuatahi, i Waitangi tonu i te 6 Pēpuere, ā, e toru ngā ripa, e whakapaetia ana e 40 pea ngā ingoa, ngā waitohu rānei e rārangi mai ana ki aua ripa. Tekau mā tahi neke atu rānei ngā rangatira i tuhi i ō rātou ingoa, i tāia e ētahi anō ō rātou waitohu me ngā kōrero tautuhi i te taha, hei tauira, ko “Te tohu o Hori Kingi Warerahi”. E whitu anō ngā rangatira i haina i te 9 Pēpuere, i Te Waimate. He tokomaha ngā rangatira o Hokianga i haina i Hokianga i te 12 Pēpuere, ko tō rātou tohu whakaae, he rīpeka kau, ā, ko te Hēkeretari o te Koroni, a Shortland, te kaitaunaki. I tēnei wā ka tāpiria he ripa tuawhā. I te 17 Pēpuere, ka tāpiria atu ngā waitohu o Kawiti, o Tirarau me Pōmare ki runga ake i tō Hone Heke. Ka tīmata i konei te hē haere o te raupapa o ngā ingoa. I te tāpiritanga o ētahi atu huinga ingoa, waitohu i Waitematā i te 4 Maehe, kātahi ka tino hē kē atu. Ka tāpiria e Kāpene Nias, o te Herald, rāua ko George Cooper, te Kaitiaki Pūtea mō te Koroni, he pepa kirikoti anō ki raro o te kirikoti taketake, i te mea kua kapi katoa te mea tuatahi. Ka tāpiria ki tēnei pepa kirikoti tuarua ētahi ingoa i Kaitaia, i Tāmaki-makau-rau, me Kororāreka. Nā te maha me te putuputu o ngā tāpiritanga ingoa, kāore e taea te kī e hia rawa ngā rangatira nō rātou ngā ingoa me ngā waitohu i tēnei tānga mātāmua o te Tiriti, engari e whakaarotia ana kei te takiwā o te 240.

Ko te tānga o te Tiriti i hainatia i Manukau me Kāwhia te mea tuarua. I tukuna ki a Kāpene William Symonds i te 13 Maehe 1840, ā, nāna i kohikohi ngā ingoa me ngā waitohu o ētahi rangatira i te whanga o Manukau. Kāore ngā rangatira o Waikato i whakaae ki te haina i te Tiriti, engari e toru ngā rangatira o Ngāti Whātua (ko Kawau, ko Tinana me Reweti, he mōhio anō a Reweti ki te pānui me te tuhi) i haina, i te 20 Maehe. Ka kohia e ētahi mihingare Wēteriana tokorua, (e James Wallis rāua ko John Whiteley) ētahi atu ingoa 10 i Kāwhia, i waenga i te marama o Aperira me Hepetema. Koia nei te tānga whakamutunga kia whakahokia atu Pewhairangi, i te tau 1841. He mea haina te tānga nei e Shortland, kāore i hainahia e Hopihona, i te mea i pā he ikura roro ki a ia i te 1 Maehe, me te aha, pākia ana tana tinana e te mate iokerewai.

Ko te tānga i hainatia i Waikato me Manukau (koia anake te mea i tuhia ki te reo Pākehā, e whakamahi ana i te tauira reo Pākehā “whaimana”) he tānga i āta tuhia ā-ringa ki te pepa. E mau mai ana ki runga te hīra a Hopihona me tana waitohu anō. He āhua rerekē tana waitohu, i te mea i tuhia ki tana ringa mauī. Nō te pāngia ōna e te ikura roro, ka raru tana ringa matau i te iokerewai. Ka tukuna te tānga nei ki te mihingare CMS, ki a Robert Maunsell i te wāhanga whakamutunga o Maehe, me ētahi tāruatanga anō pea o te tauira reo Māori i te taha. Ko Maunsell rāua ko B. Y. Ashwell ngā kaitaunaki i ngā waitohu me ngā ingoa e 32 i mau i a Ashwell. He mea whakaū e rāua ēnei ingoa i te 11 Āperira. E whitu atu anō ngā ingoa i kohia e Symonds i Manukau (i Awhitu pea) i te 26 Āperira. Arā anō tētahi tāruatanga, nō ētahi rangatira e rima o Waikato ngā waitohu o runga, engari kāore i tuhia atu te rā. E whakapaetia ana he tāpiritanga tēnei ki te tānga o Waikato-Manukau. Tērā pea e toro ana ngā rangatira o Ngāti Pou, o te awa o Waikato, me Ngāti Te Wehi, o Whāingaroa, i te teihana o Maunsell i taua wā. Ko tēnei kape tētahi o ngā tāruatanga e 200 o te tauira reo Māori o te Tiriti i tāruatia ki te pūreretā CMS i Paihia, i te 17 Pēpuere.

E rua ngā tānga o te Tiriti i tukuna ki Tauranga mā Alfred Brown, te mihingare CMS e noho ana ki reira. Ko tētahi o ēnei, he mea āta tuhi ā-ringa ki te pepa, me ōna hīra harare e toru. Heoi, kāore i whakamahia te kape nei, kāore rānei i whakahokia. Kei ngā ringa tūmataiti kē e pupuri ana ināianei. Tērā anō tētahi kape, kāore he hīra o runga, ka mutu, ko te waitohu o Hopihona, he mea tuhi kē pea e tētahi atu. Heoi, kua noho koinei te tānga ki Tauranga. E 21 ngā rangatira i haina i te tānga ki Tauranga, engari karekau i tuhia he rā hei whakaatu nōnahea i hainatia ai. Ki tā ētahi, ko te take i āhua tokoiti ai te hunga nāna i haina, ko ngā riri Māori tara-ā-whare, ko te pura o Brown, ko te noho mai rānei a Pompallier, te Pīhopa Katorika, i tau atu ki tērā takiwā i te 7 Maehe. Ka pā ngā tohutohu a Hopihona ki a Brown i te 1 Āperira “e mea ana kia kohia e au ngā ingoa o ngā tino rangatira e noho ana ki te rohe”. E ai ki ngā tuhinga i te rātaka a Brown mō te 10 Aperira, i pau he rā ki te kohikohi ingoa, he aha te aha. Ka mutu i konei ngā kōrero i tana rātaka mō tēnei kaupapa. Ka tae atu a Meiha Thomas Bunbury, te tuarua a Hopihona, ki Tauranga i te 11 Mei, kia kitea ai e pēheatia ana tā Brown kohikohi haere i ngā ingoa, me tana kite iho kāore e tino whaihua ana. Whakaritea ana mā te mihingare mā James Stack e tā ētahi atu kape e rua o te Tiriti. Ko tētahi i tukuna ki Rotorua, ki Taupō, engari ka tū ngā ihu o ngā rangatira o Te Arawa me Ngāti Tūwharetoa. He aha rā, ka ngaro tēnei o ngā tānga.

Ko te tānga tuarua, i hoatu ki a James Fedarb, he kaihokohoko tūmataiti. He whārangi pepa āhua roa tonu tēnei, ko te waitohu o “William Hobson” i tuhia e tētahi atu (ko te “W Hobson” kē te waitohu tūturu o Hopihona), ā, kāore i tuhia atu te tūranga o te kāwana ki runga (i pērā anō te āhua o te tānga mō Tauranga). Ka wehe atu a Fedarb i Tauranga i te 22 Mei, me te kohikohi haere i ētahi ingoa e 26 i Ōpōtiki, i Te Kaha, i Tōrere me Whakatāne. Ka hoki ia ki Pewhairangi i te 19 Hune, me te hoatu i tēnei tānga ki a William Colenso (Te Koroneho), te kaitā a te CMS, hei hoatu māna ki a Hopihona. Ko tētahi āhuatanga motuhake o tēnei tānga, ko ngā rīpeka Karaitiana i tāia ki te taha o ētahi o ngā ingoa, e whakaatu ana kua tahuri mai ngā rangatira nō rātou aua ingoa ki te hāhi Katorika. Tērā pea e tohu ana tēnei i whai tonu ngā kaikohikohi i ngā tohu nei kia parea atu te awe o Pompalier. I Pewhairangi hoki a Pompallier mō tētahi wā, ā, kua whakanihoniho ia me ngā mihingare Karaitiana ki te Uru i reira.

Ko te Rev. Henry Williams (Te Karuwhā) te tangata nāna i whakamāori te Tiriti. I rere mai ia i Pewhairangi mā runga i te Ariel i te 2 Āperira, me ētahi tānga e rua o te Tiriti. Ko tētahi i whakarerea atu ki tana teina, ki a William Williams, i Tūranga i te 8 Āperira. Ka tae mai a Te Karuwhā ki Pōneke i waenga o Aperira, ā, e 39 ngā rangatira i haina i te Tiriti i konei i te 29 Āperira. E 34 atu anō i haina i Arapaoa me te moutere o Rangitoto. I te marama o Mei, ka hoki haere ia mā Te Tai Hauāuru, ka mau i a ia ngā waitohu o ētahi rangatira tokomaha i Ōtaki, i Waikanae, i Manawatū, i Whanganui, me Motu Ngārara (he moutere iti e piri ana ki Kapiti). Nōna ka hoki ki Kapiti i te tīmatanga o Hune, ka rongo ia kua haria e Bunbury tāna ake kape ki te tonga. Ka hoki a Te Karuwhā me ōna ingoa rangatira 132 ki Pewhairangi. He tino rerekē te tānga i mauria haerehia e ia i ērā atu tānga katoa. He taitapa huarua ōna, me te noho mai o ngā kupu o te Tiriti ki ngā ripa e toru. He momo tohu anō e whakaatu ana ko wai ngā rangatira nui o mea iwi, o mea iwi, me ētahi atu tohu whakamārama i te taha. Nō Hopihona taketake ake te waitohu o runga, engari he tūretireti te tuhi.

He rite te āhua o te tuhinga ā-ringa o te tānga ki Tūranga ki tērā i a Te Karuwhā, he whai taitapa huarua anō. Nō Hopihona tūturu anō te waitohu o runga, me te tūretireti anō o te āhua, e tohu ana kua āhua whakamāui ake ia i tana ikura roro. Nā Te Karuwhā tēnei i whakataka atu ki tana teina, ki a William Williams i te 8 Āperira, mei kore e mau i te teina te whakaaetanga o ngā rangatira mai i Te Tai Rāwhiti ki Ahuriri. I waenga i te 5 me te 12 o Mei, e 25 ngā rangatira i haina i tēnei tānga o te Tiriti i Tūranga. Ka tāpiria ētahi atu i wāhi kē. Ko William Williams rātou ko Henry Williams Jnr, ko George Clarke Jnr ngā kaitaunaki. Hui katoa, e 41 ngā ingoa i kohia. I tana reta ki a Shortland i te 8 Mei, ka kīia tēnei tānga e William Williams he “tauira hukihuki o [te] Tiriti”, e tohu ana i whakapono ia ka puta he whakatūturutanga ā tōna wā. Ko ia anake te mihingare i whakapuaki i tēnei whakaaro. I āna tohutohu ki a Bunbury i te 25 Āperira, ka mea ake a Hopihona ki a Bunbury, ko te katoa o ngā waitohu ka tāpiria i muri i te 6 Pēpuere, he tohu tautoko noa, kāore e tino whaimana.

I a Meiha Bunbury anō tētahi tānga o te Tiriti (te tānga o te HMS Herald) i kawea ki te tonga i runga i te Herald i te tīmatanga o Mei. He torutoru ngā ingoa i mau i a ia i Te Tara o te Ika i te 4-5 Mei, ā, i reira anō ētahi kore rawa i whakaae ki te haina. Heoi, he tokoiti anō i haina i Ahuahu i te 7 Mei. Nō te 11 Mei ka ū ia ki Tauranga, korekore nei he rangatira i whakaae ki te haina i reira, me tana kite kua āhua pūhore anō te mahi a Brown rāua ko Stack i reira. Mahue atu ana a Tauranga, ka tau atu ki Akaroa, i Te Waipounamu, i te 11 Mei. Mā te aha anō i te tokorua i haina i reira. Ka pā he marangai kino i kore ai te Herald e tapoko atu ki Ōtākou, engari ka waimarie i Ruapuke, he moutere i Te Ara a Kewa. E toru ngā rangatira i haina i reira i te 10 Hune. Ka hoki haere mai te Herald mā te taha rāwhiti, me te tuku waka iti ki uta i te Whanga o Ōtākou. Kātahi ka rere mā Te Moana o Raukawa, ka puta atu ki Kapiti. He roa te haere, engari he poto te rārangi ingoa i hua ake – e 27 noa te tapeke. Heoi, ka poua e ia te mana o te Kuini ki te moutere o Rakiura, i runga i te tikanga ‘kitenga tuatahitanga’ (i te kore ōna i kite i ētahi Māori i reira). I pērāhia anō e ia te “moutere o waenganui”, arā, Te Waipounamu. Ko te tānga o te Herald, i tāia ki te kirikoti, ā, ka takakinohia i muri mai e te kiore. Ko te waitohu māori o Hopihona kei runga, ā, ko ngā tuhinga ā-ringa, nā Henry Tacy Kemp pea. Ko ia tētahi o ngā kaiwhakamāori kāwanatanga tino pai o ērā wā.

I te Oketopa 1840, ka tukuna te tānga whakamutunga o te Tiriti ki te Tari o ngā Koroni i Rānana (kei te Tari Mauhanga Tūmatanui e pupuri ana, CO 209/7, 178). He whārangi rahi tēnei nā, he whai taitapa huarua, e mau mai ana ngā kōrero reo Māori me ngā kōrero reo Pākehā whaimana, he mea whakatūturu anō ki te waitohu o Hopihona. He kupu anō kua tāpiria atu e mea ana “kua tangohia ngā waitohu”, engari tē kitea te tikanga o tēnei kōrero, i te mea kāore kē i whakapaua he kaha ki te āta tuhi, ki te tatau rānei i ngā ingoa me ngā waitohu. Ko te kaupapa kē o tēnei karere, he whakaatu noa e tukuna ana ngā tauira whaimana e rua o te Tiriti hei tānga tōtika, he mea whakatūturu anō nā te Rūtene-Kāwana, hei rau atu ki te kōnae. Koinei anake te tānga o te Tiriti ko ngā kupu “Te Tiriti o Waitangi” (ki te reo Pākehā) e mau mai ana hei ūpoko.

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