He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Kei tĒnei wĀhanga

Introduction

Alphabetical List of Key People.

Māori Leaders 1840 - 1900

Māori Leaders 1900 onwards

Governors

Politicians Judges & Officials

Missionaries & Settlers

English version of this page

TĀngata Ingoa Nui

NgĀ KĀwana

Thomas Browne

Freeman Brothers (Sydney) fl 1860-1867 – Portrait of Sir Thomas Gore Browne 1807-1887.
Thomas Browne.

Image: ATL PA2-0740
© Image copyright conditions

He rite a Thomas Browne ki ērā o ngā kāwana tōmua, he hōia ia. Ka tohungia a ia hei Kāwana o Aotearoa i te tau 1855, hei whakakapi i te tūranga o Hōri Kerei. Ko te tikanga, ko te whakatinana i te kaupapa taketake o Aotearoa o te tau 1852 te mahi nui māna, heoi ka rerekē katoa tēnei i te tipu o te riri ki waenganui i ngā iwi.

Kei te tini haere ngā tāngata whai me tō rātou hiahia whenua; kei te māharahara te iwi Māori kei toremi rātou i te tini mano e taetae mai ana ki Aotearoa, kei riro hoki te rahi o ōna whenua. Ka noho te Kīngitanga hei waha mō ngā āwangawanga o te iwi Māori i te tekau tau atu i 1850.

Ka rapua e Browne he huarahi ki te whakarite i ēnei tukitukinga. Ka haere tonu ana kaupapa hoko whenua, heoi ka ngana ia kia pupuri tonu he whenua ki ngā ringaringa o te Māori; i tua atu ko tāna, me wātea ngā hōhipera me ngā kura ki a rātou. I oke ia kia noho ngā kaupapa Māori māna hei whakahaere, kāpā mā te Pāremata kikī ana i te tangata whai. Ko tāna i māharahara ai, ki te horo te tau mai o tauiwi ki Aotearoa, kāore e kore ka pakaru te riri.

Kua hau te rongo mō tōna wā hei kāwana, nā tana tautohe ki te hoko whenua ki Waitara i Taranaki i te tau 1859, hāunga te ātete a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke, te rangatira nui o taua rohe. Ka pakaru rā te riri, ko te kuhunga atu tēnā o ētahi toa o te Kīngitanga mai i Waikato.

I te tīmatanga o te tau 1861 ka mau te rongo ki Taranaki. Ka whakaaro a Browne ki te urutomo i te riu ki Waikato, heoi ka eke tana ono tau hei Kāwana. Nā Hōri Kerei, te Kāwana o muri tēnei urutomo i whakatinana.

Robert FitzRoy (Pitiroi)

Robert Fitzroy (1805-1865) around 1850. Lithograph made by Herman John Schmidt, photographed around 1910.
Robert FitzRoy.

Image: ATL 1/1-001318
© Image copyright conditions

Ka whānau mai a Pitiroi ki Ingarangi i te tau 1805. Nō muri ka haere ia ki te Kāreti Roera Tauāmoana. Ko te Beagle tōna kaipuke tuatahi. I te tau 1831, nāna i whakamahere ngā takutai o Patagonia, o Tierra del Fuego, tae atu ki Ngā Ara o Magellan. Ko tōna hoa i tēnei haerenga āna, ko te tohunga pūtaiao a Charles Darwin, ā, ko āna pānuitanga rongonui i puta mai i ana tūhuratanga me ana tirohanga i tēnei haerenga. Ka peka te Beagle ki Pēwhairangi, ā, nō te tau 1838 ka takoto tana pūrongo mō tēnei whenua ki mua i te aroaro o tētahi komiti o te Whare Ariki (House of Lords) o te Pāremata o Ingarangi e hāngai ana ki Niu Tīreni. Ka mīharo ngā māngai o te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare ki ana kōrero, ka tohungia ia e rātou ki ētahi tūranga teitei ake.

I te tau 1843 ka tohungia a Pitiroi hei Kāwana mō Niu Tireni, hei whakakī i te tūranga o Kāwana Hopihona, i mate i te tau 1842. I taua wā, kua pakaru kē ngā pūtea o te koroni, kua pakaru mai tētahi riri i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā ki Te Wairau. I te hau te rongo mō te pakanga ki Te Tai Tokerau hoki. Heoi, kāore i homai he pūtea, he hōia rānei mā te Kāwana hou. Ko ngā tohutohu kē ki a ia, me whakawhitiwhiti kōrero kē ia, mā konei pea ngā raruraru e ea. Kāore a Ngāti Toa i pākia e Pitiroi mō te raruraru ki Te Wairau, he kore nō Pitiroi i āta mōhio mēnā i tika te riro mai o ngā whenua i te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni; i tua atu, i te mōhio a Pitiroi, e kore e tareka e ia te riri ki a Ngāti Toa. Ka tahuri anō a Pitiroi ki te rangahau i ērā atu hokonga o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni; kia ea rā anō tēnei mahi, kātahi anō ka whakamanatia aua hokonga. Ka riri rā ngā tāngata whai o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, ka ngana rātou kia panaia a Pitiroi kia hoki ki Ingarangi.

Ko tētahi atu āhuatanga i te wā ko Pitiroi te Kāwana, ko te Native Exemption Ordinance o te tau 1844. He pire whakahaere i te ture, e aro ana ki ngā tikanga Māori, arā, ki te hara te Māori me utu paremata ia, kāore ia e whiua ki te whare herehere. Ahakoa tērā, poto noa te wā e mana ana te pire nei. He wāhi anō tō ngā rangatira ki te whakatau raruraru.

I te wā ko Pitiroi te Kāwana, ko te Karauna anake te mea whai mana ki te hoko whenua Māori, he ritenga i whakamanatia e te Tiriti o Waitangi. Heoi, nā te kore pūtea, kāore te Karauna i tareka te hoko whenua mai i te Māori hei hoko atu ki ngā tāngata whai. Me te aha, ka pupū te riri i waenganui i ngā Māori me ngā tāngata whai, ka kino kē ake te heke o te ōhanga.

Ko te whakautu a Pitiroi ki tēnei, kia whakaaetia te hoko tika a te Māori i ōna whenua ki ngā tāngata whai. Kāore te Tari mō ngā Koroni i whakaae ki tēnei, ā, i te pakarutanga mai o te riri i Te Tai Tokerau i te marama o Mei o te tau 1845, ka karangahia a Pitiroi kia hoki ki Ingarangi.

Kāwana Tā George Gipps

Nicholas, William, 1807-1854. [Portrait of Sir George Gipps, late governor of New South Wales].
Sir George Gipps.

Image: National Library of Australia an8178112
© Image copyright conditions

I whakarerekētia ngā kupu whakamana i a George Gipps (1791-1847, Kāwana o New South Wales 1837-1846) i waenganui i te tau 1839. I tōhua anō ia i taua wā hei Kāpene-Tianara, hei Kāwana Matua hoki mō te rohe o New South Wales. I roto i ngā taupā hou, ko ngā whenua katoa o Aotearoa tērā ka taka ki raro i te mana o Ingarangi. I whakaarotia he mahi rangitahi tēnei, hei whakaruru mō te whakahaere o aua whenua, kia taea ai ngā whakaritenga tūturu. Ka whakapūmautia aua whakaritenga tūturu i te 18 o Noema 1840, e rua wiki noa iho i muri i te rongonga kua tau te mana o Ingarangi ki runga o Aotearoa. Ka whakapuakina e te Kāwanatanga o te Emepaea ētahi Reta Whakamana, hei whakarite i Aotearoa hei koroni motuhake, i raro i tōna Kāwana, i a Te Hopihona.

I a Te Hopihona ka wehe mai i Poihākena, ka whakawhānuitia e Gipps te horanga o tōna mana ki ngā whenua i riro mai i te pounga o te mana o Ingarangi ki Aotearoa, me tana whakapuaki hoki kua rāhuitia ngā hoko whenua katoa mai i te iwi Māori, arā, e kore ngā hoko tae mai ki taua rā e whakamanaia e te Karauna. I puta ēnei whakapuaki āna i te 19 o ngā rā o Hānuere 1840. Ka pāngia a Te Hopihona e te mate i te marama o Māehe 1840, ā, ka whakatūria a Meiha Thomas Bunbury me tētahi ope hōia, hei tautoko i te mana o Hopihona. Te tikanga, ki te tino hē a Te Hopihona, ki te mate rawa rānei, ka noho ko Bunbury hei Rūtene-Kāwanatanga kairīwhi. He pai ngā tohutohu a Gipps i a Hopihona, i roto i ngā mahi o tana tūranga. He toka tū moana ēnei tohutohu mā Te Hopihona i te taenga mai o ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, i tō rātou kore e whakaae ki taua mana kāwanatanga ki runga i a rātou.

George Grey (Hōri Kerei)

George Grey.
George Grey.

Image: ATL PA2-1182
© Image copyright conditions

I whānau mai a Hōri Kerei i te tau 1812. Ka ako ia hei hōia, ka eke ki te tūranga rūtene. Ka roa tana mahi hōia ki Airana, nō konei i pakari ai āna tirohanga tōrangapū. I waenganui i ngā tau 1837 me 1839 kei Ahitereiria kē a Kerei e hōpara haere ana. Nō muri ka rangahau ia i ngā ahurea o ngā tāngata whenua o te ao. I te tau 1840 ka tuhi kōrero a ia ki te Tari mō ngā Koroni mō ana ariā mō te whakawhenumi i ngā iwi. Ka aro nui ōna rangatira ki ngā kōrero a Kerei, nā whai anō ka eke ia hei Kāwana o te koroni pōhara o te Tonga o Ahitereiria. Nāna ka pai ake te pūtea o te koroni, engari anō te noho pai a ngā iwi.

I te tau 1845 ka tohungia ko Kerei hei Kāwana o Niu Tīreni. He rite ngā raruraru o Niu Tīreni ki ērā i pā mai i Niu Taute Wēra – kua kore ngā moni o te pūtea, i te rīriri ngā iwi, tētahi ki tētahi. Heoi, ka whakawhiwhia a Kerei ki ngā pūtea me ngā hōia kāore rā i hoatu ki a Pitiroi, te Kāwana i mua i a ia. He rerekē a Kerei i a Pitiroi, he tangata mārō.

Ka hinga i a ia ngā rangatira o Ngā Puhi, a Hone Heke rāua ko Kawiti; he pakanga i Te Awakairangi, i Te Ūpoko o te Ika. I te wā o ngā rīriri i Te Awakairangi, ka kahakina a Te Rauparaha, rangatira o Ngāti Toa, ka mauheretia, ahakoa kāore he whakapae i runga i a ia. Ko Donald McLean (Te Mākarini) te taituarā matatau a Kerei, nāna te rahi o ngā whenua mōmona o te Māori i hoko. Nā tēnei mahi ka kaha te tipu o te taupori Pākehā. Nō te tau 1848 ka whakawhiwhia a Kerei ki te taitara ‘Tā’. Koia te kaitito matua o te kaupapa taketake o te tau 1852; nā tēnei ture i puea ake ai ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe me te kāwanatanga nui.

I te tau 1853 ka wehe a Kerei i Niu Tīreni, ka haere ki Āwherika ki te Tonga hei Kāwana mō te Koroni o te Cape. Heoi, nō te tau 1860 ka pakaru mai te riri ki Taranaki mō te hoko ki Waitara. Ka tohungia anōtia a Kerei hei Kāwana o Niu Tīreni. Ko te tūmanako, mā tōna mana e tau ai ngā riri. I te tau 1861 ka whakatūria e ia ētahi ‘hanganga hōu’ arā, ngā rūnanga, ko tā rātou kaupapa he whakahaere, he whakawā hoki. Ko te whāinga o ēnei, kia kaua e pā mai ngā raruraru pērā i Waitara, kia nui ake ngā whenua ka hokona, kia tere ake anō hoki te whenumi o te iwi Māori ki roto i te iwi Pākehā. Kāore tēnei whāinga o Kerei i tutuki. Ka pakanga anō ki Taranaki i te tau 1863, nā tana whakaroaroa tonu ki te whakahoki i a Waitara ki te hunga nō rātou ake aua whenua.

Ka mate i a ia ngā tāngata ‘whakakeke’ o Taranaki, ka mārō te hiahia o Kerei kia huakina a Waikato, te pū o te Kīngitanga. Ko Waikato hoki te rohe e nui ana te whakahē ki te hoko whenua me te hora o ngā tāngata whai. Ko te take a Kerei mō te huaki i te riri ki Waikato, ko tana whakapae, e whakaaro ana ngā iwi o Waikato me Maniapoto ki te huaki i a Tāmaki-makau-rau. Kei te tautohetohe tonu ngā karu hītori mō te tika, te hē rānei o tēnei kōrero, nā Kerei me ana apataki rānei ngā kōrero i whakamōmona. Ahakoa tō rātou kaha i roto i ngā whawhai, ka peia te Kīngi Māori me tōna iwi i ō rātou whenua. I te tau 1864 ka whakatau e Kerei me ana minita kia raupatungia ngā whenua e 3 miriona eka te rahi i Waikato me ētahi atu wāhi mai i ngā iwi ‘whakakeke’. He rahi ēnei whenua i wehea mō ngā hōia, i hokona rānei hei utu i ngā whakapaunga o te pakanga.

I te tau 1865 ka tono ngā manahautū o te Emepaea mā ngā tāngata whai anō rātou e tiaki, ā, kia tangohia ngā hōia o te Emepaea. Ka whakakeke a Kerei ki ēnei whakahau, i tana mōhio kāore anō kia pakari ngā taua o Aotearoa, me te mea anō, ko wai ka mōhio mēnā ka pakaru anō te riri. Nā tana whakaroaroa, i te tau 1868 ka whakamutua tana tūranga hei kāwana.

Poto tana wā ki Ingarangi, ka hoki a Kerei ki tana kāinga noho i Niu Tīreni, i te moutere o Kawau, ki reira ako ai i te mā tauranga mō te takenga mai o te tangata.  Nō muri ka kuhu a Kerei ki te Pāremata, ka eke hei Pirimia i te tau 1877. Whāia, ka hoki ia ki Ingarangi. Nō te tau 1898 ka mate ia.

Mēnā kīhai a Kerei i hoki hei kāwana i te tau 1861, kāore e kore ka nui atu ngā whakaaro pai mōna. Heoi, i paruparu tōna ingoa i runga i ana whakahaere ki Taranaki, te urutomo ki Waikato – e whakaaetia whānuitia ana te hē o taua mahi – tāpae atu ko te raupatu o te nui o te whenua Māori. Ka mau te riri me te whakamau mō hia ngā tau mō ngā whenua i raupatutia.

William Hobson (Te Hopihona)

William Hobson.
William Hobson.

Image: ATL G-826-1
© Image copyright conditions

He roa tonu ngā mahi a William Hobson (Te Hopihona) (1792-1842) i te Roera Nawi, i haere ai ia ki te Riri o Naporiono, ā, e rua rawa ana mauheretanga e ngā kaiwhānako kaipuke i ngā moutere i te Karipiana. I muri ka whakatūria a Te Hopihona hei Rūtene-Kāwana tuatahi mō Aotearoa. Kua tonoa kētia ia e Kāwana Bourke ki Aotearoa i te tau 1838, ā, i runga i te pai o Lord Glenelg ki tāna pūrongo, nō te tūmautanga o ōna whakaaro, i te marama o Tīhema 1838, kia tonoa tētahi kanohi kāwanatanga ki Aotearoa, ka inoi a Glenelg ki a Te Hopihona kia tū koia ki taua tūranga. Engari a Te Hopihona, ka noho mō te rua marama ki te āta whiriwhiri whakaaro, i mua i tana whakaae i te marama o Pēpuere 1839, i te mea ko tōna tino tūmanako kia piki haere tonu ia i ngā taumata whakahaere o te Nawi.

I tonoa mai ia e Lord Normanby me ana tohutohu hōhonu i te tau 1839, ā, ka peka atu i te tuatahi ki a Kāwana Gipps i Poihākena, inā hoki ko Hopihona tana rūtene, kia rongo ai ia i te roanga atu o ngā tohutohu. Ka tae atu a Te Hopihona ki Pēwhairangi i te 29 o Hānuere, engari ka tau ki uta i te 30 o Hānuere ki te pānui i ngā tikanga o tōna whakatūranga, ā, ka whakaritea kia huihui te iwi whānui i te whare o Te Pūhipi i te 5 o Pēpuere, i te wā e takā ana te Tiriti. I te rā tonu i muri mai, i te 6 o ngā rā o Pēpuere, ka whakatata mai tēnā rangatira, tēnā rangatira ki te haina, ā, ka mihia e Hopihona me tana whakahua i ngā kupu “He iwi tahi tātou”. I te mutunga o te tau 1840 ka mutu te noho o Aotearoa hei whenua tāpiri mō New South Wales, ka karangatia he koroni motuhake, ā, ko Hopihona te Kāwana, ko Tāmaki-makau-rau te tāone matua. Kāore i tino nui ngā pūtea o ngā kaiwhakahaere, ā, he nui ngā tauwhāinga ki ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua, i tō rātou apu i te whenua, i tō rātou hiahia ki te tango i te mana whakahaere mō rātou ake. I muri i te rua tau noa iho hei Kāwana, ka mate ia i te roro ikura. E 49 noa iho ōna tau.

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NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

Ngā Kāwana

Browne, Thomas
FitzRoy, Robert
Gipps, George
Grey, George
Hobson, William

Ngā Kaihautū Māori 1840-1900

Carroll, James
Heke Pokai, Hone Wiremu (Hone Heke)
Kahutia, Riperata
Kaihau, Henare
Kawiti, Te Ruki
Mangakahia, Hamiora
Mangakahia, Meri Te Tai
Maniapoto, Rewi Manga
Matua, Henare
Nene, Tamati Waka
Ngapua, Hone Heke
Ngatata, Wiremu Tako
Niniwa-i-te-rangi
Nireaha Tamaki
Ormsby, John
Parata, Wiremu Te Kakakura
Pere, Wiremu
Pomare II
Taiaroa, Hori Kerei
Taiwhanga, Hirini Rawiri
Takamoana, Karaitiana
Taonui, Aperahama
Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia
Tawhai, Hone Mohi
Tawhiao, Tukaroto Matutaera Potatau
Te Hapuku
Te Heuheu Tukino III , Iwikau
Te Heuheu Tukino IV, Horonuku
Te Kawau, Apihai
Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki
Te Pahi
Te Rangihiwinui, Te Keepa
Te Rangi-puawhe, Te Keepa
Te Rangitake, Wiremu Kingi
Te Rauparaha
Te Waharoa, Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi
Te Wheoro, Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa
Te Wherowhero, Potatau
Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti
Te Whiwhi, Henare Matene
Tiramorehu, Matiaha
Titokowaru, Riwha
Tohu Kakahi
Tomoana, Henare
Topeora, Rangi Kuini Wikitoria
Tuhaere, Paora
Wahanui Huatare
Wahawaha, Rapata

Ngā Kaihautū Māori 1900-1975

Balneavis, Henare Te Raumoa Huatahi
Buck, Peter Henry
Carroll, Heni Materoa
Carroll, Turi
Cooper, Dame Whina
Henare, James Clendon Tau
Herangi, Te Kirihaehae Te Puea
Kenana, Rua
Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero
Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero
Mawhete, Rangiputangatahi
Mitchell, Henry Taiporutu Te Mapu-o-te-rangi
Ngata, Apirana Turupa
Paikea, Paraire Karaka
Pomare, Maui Wiremu Piti Naera
Rata, Matiu
Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu
Rickard, Eva
Te Heuheu Tukino VI, Hoani
Tirikatene, Eruera Tihema Te Aika

Ngā Kaitōrangapū, Ngā Tiāti, me ngā Āpiha

Ballance, John
Bell, F. D.
Bryce, John
Buick, T. L.
Bunbury, Thomas
Busby, James
Coates, Joseph Gordon
Eyre, E. J.
Fenton, F. D.
FitzGerald, J. E.
Fox, William
Fraser, Peter
Glenelg, Charles Grant
Grey, Henry George (Earl)
Gorst, John
Hanan, Josiah Ralph
Herries, William Herbert
Hunn, Jack Kent
Kirk, Norman Eric
Lewis, T. W.
Mair, Gilbert
Maning, F. E.
Mantell, Walter
Martin, William
McLean, Donald
Nash, Walter
Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps
Prendergast, James
Rees, W. L.
Richmond, J. C.
Rusden, G. W.
Russell, H. R.
Savage, Michael Joseph
Seddon, Richard
Sewell, Henry
Sheehan, John
Spain, William
Stephen, James
Stout, Robert
Vogel,Julius
Weld, Frederick
Whitaker, Frederick

Ngā Kaiwhakanoho me ngā Mihingare

Clarke, George
Colenso, William
Cowan, James
Grace, T. S.
Hadfield, Octavius
Marsden, Samuel
Pompallier, J. B. F.
Selwyn, G. A.
Taylor, Richard
Wakefield, Edward
Williams, Henry