He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Kei tĒnei wĀhanga

Introduction

Alphabetical List of Key People.

Māori Leaders 1840 - 1900

Māori Leaders 1900 onwards

Governors

Politicians Judges & Officials

Missionaries & Settlers

English version of this page

TĀngata Ingoa Nui

NgĀ KaihautŪ MĀori 1840-1900

Timi Kara (James Carroll)

Sir James Carroll. Photographer and date unknown.
James Carroll

Image: ATL 1/2-050150-G
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I whānau mai a Timi Kara ki Te Wairoa i te raki o Te Matau a Māui i te tau 1857. He Pākehā tōna matua, ko tōna whāea nō Ngāti Kahungunu. I te tau 1870, i te wā 13 ngā tau o Timi Kara, ka kuhu ia ki ngā riri ki a Te Kooti, ā, ka whakaingoatia ia i ngā pūrongo o ngā pakanga. Nō muri ka kuhu a ia hei kaimahi ākonga i te Tari Māori, ka tīmata anō ana hokonga whenua i Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Ahakoa tana pai ki āna mahi mō te kāwanatanga, i te tau 1875 ka hoki a Timi Kara ki Te Matau a Māui ki te mahi pāmu. Taihoa, ka hoki ia ki Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara hei kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha ki te Whare Pāremata. Nā tēnei ia i whakawai ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū, ā, nō te tau 1887 ka pōtitia a ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Ko te whāinga nui a Kara i te Pāremata ko te whakamana i te iwi Māori me te whai tūranga mō rātou i te ōhanga o Aotearoa. Hāunga tērā, kāore i whakaatatia tēnei tirohanga āna e ngā Ture Whenua Māori; hei tā Kara, kāore he āwhina i ngā ture nei ki te hiki ake i te mana o te Māori i runga i ōna ake whenua.

I te tau 1891 ka tohungia ia e te kāwanatanga Rīpera ki tētahi kōmihana, ka rangahau i ngā ture whenua Māori; kīia ai tēnei kōmihana ko te Kōmihana a Rees-Carroll. Arohaetia ai e te kōmihana te Kōti Whenua Māori mō tana tuku taitara whenua ki te tangata takitahi, kāpā ki te hapū, te iwi rānei. I tūtohu te kōmihana, mā te hapū te taitara whenua e pupuri i raro i ngā whakahaere o tētahi ‘komiti poraka’ ka tū hei māngai mō te hunga whai pānga.

I tua atu, ka riro mai he whenua ki te Karauna, me kī mā te rīhi, mā ētahi poari aua whenua e whakahaere. Ka ōrite te tokomaha o te Māori, o te Pākehā ki runga i ngā poari nei. Ka arohae a Kara i te kore akoranga, kore tautoko hoki mā ngā kaipāmu Māori.

Kāore i whāia ēnei tūtohu e te kāwanatanga. Ka arohaehae tonu a Kara i tēnei kaupapa, me tana whakahuahua i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei tautoko i ngā tika a te Māori.

I te tau 1892 ka uru ia ki te rūnanga kāwanatanga hei kanohi mō te iwi Māori. I tana ekenga ki te tūranga nei, ka mate ia ki te tautoko i te mahi a ngā Rīpera e apu ana i ngā whenua o te Māori. Ka tahuri te Kotahitanga ki te haehae i a ia mō tēnei. I te whai rātou kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakakāhoretia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia tū hoki tētahi Pāremata Māori.

Ko Wī Pere te hoa tauwhāinga o Kara hei Mema Pāremata mō ngā Māori i Te Tai Rāwhiti. I pūmau a Wī Pere ki te Kotahitanga. Koinei tētahi o ngā take ka tū a Kara hei Mema mō te rohe whānui o Waiapu i ngā pōti o te tau 1893. Ka toa ia, e 497 te rahi atu o āna pōti. Ka noho ia hei Mema Pāremata mō tēnei tūru tae rawa ki te tau 1908. I taua tau ka pōtitia ia hei Mema Pāremata mō Tūranganui.

Ka ātete tonu a Kara i ērā o te Kotahitanga e ngana ana kia tū motuhake te Māori. Ko te whāinga a Kara, kia whanake te Māori i roto i ao Pākehā. Ko tāna, he pai ake kia rongo te Māori i te “mamae wā poto”, e whiwhi ai ia i te “painga wā roa”.

Ka rapu tonu a Kara i ētahi huarahi, ētahi hanganga hei whakawhanake i te iwi Māori, pērā i ngā komiti ka pōtitia hei whakahaere i ngā whenua. I te tau 1899 ka tohungia a ia hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori e Te Hētana (Seddon), te Pirimia o te rōpū Rīpera. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi kia eke ki tēnei tūranga. Ka noho ia ki tēnei tūranga tatū ki te tau 1912.

I te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1890, i runga i ngā akiaki a Kara, ka kuhu te Kotahitanga ki tētahi whakaaetanga me te kāwanatanga. Ko te whakamanatanga tērā o te Ture Kaunihera Māori me te Ture Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori. Ko tā te tuatahi he whakamana i ngā komiti Māori wā kāinga ki te whakahaere i ngā mahi hauora. Ko tā te tuarua, he whakatū kaunihera whenua Māori ko te nuinga o ngā mema he Māori, ā, kia hoatu ki a rātou te mana hoko, rīhi rānei i ngā whenua i tukua tūaotia ki raro i a rātou. Ka whakatūria anōtia ngā komiti poraka ki te āwhina i te Kōti Whenua Māori i roto i ana whiriwhiringa.

Heoi anō, ka ātete ngā tāngata whai i ēnei mahi a Kara; i tua atu kāore ētahi Māori i whakapono ki ngā kōrero i takoto. Iti noa te pūtea i hoatu ki ngā kaunihera, ā, iti noa te whenua i taka ki raro i ngā whakahaere o ngā poari whenua. Whai muri i te tau 1905, nā runga i ngā whakakīkī a ngā tāngata whai, ka waimehatia, ka unuhia rānei ngā pākai; ko te pikinga tērā o ngā hokonga whenua.

Kāore he paku aha i te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1909 ki te taupare i te hokonga o ngā whenua. Tērā te kōrero e mea ana kāore i tareka e Kara ngā hiahia me ngā pānga o te Māori me te Pākehā te whakaea. E ai ki te tumu kōrero a Alan Ward, he nui rawa te hunga e hāparangi ana kia hokona ngā whenua o te Māori – ko ētahi mai i tōna ake rōpū Rīpera – tē taea e Timi Kara te tāmi.

E rua ngā wā ka tū a Timi Kara hei kairīwhi mō te Pirimia, i te tau 1909 me te tau 1911. Ka utaina te taitara Tā ki runga i a ia i te tau 1911. Ka hinga ia i ngā pōti o te tau 1921, ko tana kakenga tērā ki te Kaunihera Ture. Nō te tau 1926 ka mate ia.

Hone Heke (Hone Wiremu Heke Pokai) (Hone Wiremu Heke Pokai)

[Gilfillan, John Alexander] 1793-1863 Honi Heke [about 1846].
Hone Heke.

Image: ATL A-114-003
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He rangatira a Hone Heke nō Pēwhairangi, nō Ngā Puhi (? -1850). He tino reo rongonui, he reo whai mana, he reo i tautoko i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ahakoa, ka huri ia i muri hei tino pou whakahē i te mana whakahaere o Ingarangi ki Aotearoa.

He Karaitiana a Heke, ā, he hoa piri tata tonu ki a Te Karuwhā. I te hainatanga o te Tiriti i te tau 1840, koia tētahi i whakapono ki ngā kī taurangi a Te Karuwhā tērā tonu e tiakina te mana o ngā rangatira Māori.

“E te Kāwana,” te kī a Heke ki a Te Hopihona, "me noho mai koe ki a mātou,ānō he matua atawhai. Ki te wehe atu koe i a mātou, ka riro tō matou mana i te Wīwī, i ngā kaihoko rama hoki." I te rā o muri mai, ko ia te tuatahi o ngā rangatira 40 neke atu o Te Tai Tokerau ki te haina (ahakoa ko tōna moko te mea tuawhā i te Tiriti ina pānuitia, i te mea i whakaurungia ngā hainatanga o ōna rangatira ki runga ake i tāna).

Ka pā te pōuri me te mamae ki a Heke i te whā tau i muri mai, nā te mea kāore te whakatū koroni i whakawātea i ngā huarahi oranga mō te iwi, ā, i te whakangaromia e te Karauna o Ingarangi te mana o te iwi Māori. Ka tono a Heke kia topea te pou haki i te kāinga Pākehā o Kororāreka. Ko te take i pērā ai, he āta whakaatu i tō rātou riri ki te mana kāwanatanga o Ingarangi, engari kia kaua e whakatumatuma ki ngā kaiwhakanoho Pākehā. I roto i ngā marama whai muri, e toru atu anō ngā whakatūranga me ngā topenga i te pou. I te tau 1845, i te topenga tuawhā, ka pakanga a Ingarangi ki ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau.

Riperata Kahutia

Te Aitanga-a Mahaki leader Riperata Kahitia.
Riperata Kahutia

Image: Tairawhiti Museum
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Ka whānau a Riperata Kahutia (1838/39?-1887) ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Ko Te Whānau-a-Iwi te hapū, ko Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki te iwi. He rangatira tōna matua a Kahutia i te rohe o Tūranga. Ka mate ia i te tau 1860, ka riro tōna mana i a Riperata Kahutia i roto i a Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki.

Whāia, ka rongo te rohe katoa mō ngā kerēme a Riperata ki te Kōti Whenua Māori me te Kōmihana o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. I whakatūria te Kōmihana ki te whakahoki whenua ki ngā Māori i pūmau ki te Karauna pērā i a Riperata Kahutia i ngā riri i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ka hua ana mahi ki roto kōti, ka whai taitara a ia ki te whenua nui mōna, tōna whānau, tae atu ki tōna iwi. He nui ngā whenua o Riperata i roto i te poraka Tūranganui Nama 2, i hokona rā ki te kāwanatanga i te tau 1869 hei wāhi whakatū i te tāone o Tūranga (Gisborne).

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka tahuri a Riperata ki te āwhina i te whakaoranga anō o ngā tikanga a tana iwi, whai muri i ngā putanga kino o ngā riri o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ka whakatūria e ia he marae ki runga i ōna whenua i Awapuni, ko Te Poho-o-Materoa te ingoa. Nā Horonuku Te Heuheu, ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, te rākau i tuku mai hei tāhuhu mō te whare.

Ka mate a Riperata i te mate kohi i te tau 1887, whai muri iho i te whakatuwheratanga o te whare. E 48 ōna tau. Ka moe tētahi o ana tamāhine, a Hēni Materoa i a Timi Kara, te Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti mō tētahi wā roa. Ko ia hoki te Minita mō ngā Take Māori atu i te 1899 ki te 1912.

Hēnare Kaihau

Henare Kaihau, circa 1905. Photographer unidentified.
Henare Kaihau

Image: ATL 1/2-071414-F
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Nō te iwi o Ngāti Te Ata a Hēnare Kaihau, i whānau mai ki te taha tonga o te whanga o Manukau i waenganui i ngā tau 1854 me 1860. I tana tamarikitanga ka ākona ia ki te nui rawa atu o ngā kōrero me ngā whakapapa o tōna iwi. Kia eke ia ki ngā tau rua tekau, kua hiahia katoa ia ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū a te Māori. Nō muri ka tū a ia hei kaitautoko pūmau ki te Kīngitanga, ā, ko ia te kaitohutohu matua mō Mahuta, te Kīngi Māori tuatoru.

I te tau 1896 ka pōtitia ia hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Hau-ā-uru. Ko tana mahi tuatahi, he whakatakoto i te Pire Kaupapa Taketake mō ngā Kaunihera Māori. Ko tā tēnei Pire, he tuku i te mana o ngā whenua me ngā tauranga ika ki tētahi kaunihera Māori e 56 ana tāngata. Ka whakatahangia te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia riro māna tonu e whakatau ngā take e pā ana ki ngā taitara whenua. Ka whakakāhoretia tana Pire.

He nui ngā take i kōrero a Kaihau i te tekau mā rima tau a ia i te Pāremata – ngā tika a te Māori i raro i te Tiriti ki te hī ika, mahi kai hoki; ka whakahē ia i ngā ture whenua Māori ka tāmi i te mana o te Māori i runga i ōna whenua. Kore rawa i mutu ana tohenga mō tētahi paremata mō ngā whenua o Waikato i raupatutia.

Tae rawa ki te tīmatanga o ngā 1900, kua hōhā a Kaihau ki te kore aro o te kāwanatanga ki ngā take Māori. Ka aro kē ia ki te whakatū anō i te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga i raro i te Kīngi Māori. Whai muri i te tau 1900 kua paheke haere te Kotahitanga. Ko tā rātou i whai, kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakakāhoretia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia whai mana whakahaere te Māori ki ētahi taumata.

Ka tū ngā hui nui i te tau 1907. Ahakoa te kaha i whakapaua e Kaihau kia whakakotahi te Kīngitanga, tē taea; i tua atu, kāore te Kīngitanga i pono ki ngā iwi o waho atu.

I te tau 1908 ka hokona, ka rīhitia rānei ētahi whenua e ngā rangatira o Waikato hei whakatū i te tāone o Ngāruawāhia. Ka whiua ngā whakapae ki a Kaihau he whānako mō te wāhi ki a ia i roto i ngā hokohoko nei. Whāia, ka rere ngā whakapae mōna he tango moni mai i te hunga pitihana, he whakatenatena hoki i ngā mahi hoko whenua. Ka rangahaua, ka tautokona e te Kaiwhakahaere o te Pāremata ngā whakapae mō Kaihau. Heoi, kāore a Kaihau i whiua i te mea kāore i whakamāoritia ngā tikanga whakahaere o te Whare Pāremata, nā reira, e ai ki te Kaiwhakahaere, tērā pea kāore a Kaihau i te mārama ki te hē o ana mahi.

Taro iho, ka mutu ngā tautoko a te Kīngitanga mōna. Ka hinga a Kaihau ki a Māui Pōmare i te pōti whānui. Ka mate ia i te tau 1920.

Te Ruki Kawiti

Te Ruki Kawiti.
Te Ruki Kawiti.

Image: ATL 1/2-037353-F
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I whānau mai pea a Kawiti i ngā tekau tau mai i 1770, i Te Tai Tokerau. He tino rangatira ia nō Ngā Puhi, he toa tū taua, he tangata mōhio ki te whakahaere pakanga. I te tau 1840, i te taenga mai a Te Hopihona ki Aotearoa, ka ātete tonu a Kawiti ki te mana whakahaere o Ingarangi ki tēnei motu. Kāore ia i whakaae ki te haina i te Tiriti i te 6 o Pēpuere i te taha o ētahi atu, engari nā ngā ākinga a tōna iwi, ka hui takitahi ia ki a Te Hopihona i te marama o Mei 1840, hainatia atu ana, ahakoa i te hopohopo tana ngākau. I te 11 o Māehe 1845, ka tū tahi ia me Hone Heke i Kororāreka, ka whakatītaha ana tāngata i ngā hōia. Nā konei i wātea ai te huarahi ki te puke ki Maiki, kia taea ai te pou haki te tapahi. Ko te topenga tuawhā tēnei, te topenga whakamutunga.

Ka uru ngā ope a Kawiti rāua ko Heke ki te pakanga i Te Tai Tokerau (1845-46), he pakanga ki ngā hōia o Ingarangi me ngā iwi kūpapa. E toru rawa ngā taua a te taha Ingarihi ki te tuawhenua o Pēwhairangi. I te kakari tuatahi, ka riro te tāhuna i te Māori, ka raru te taha o Ingarangi, ahakoa ngā kōrero rerekē a te taha Ingarihi. I hangaia e Kawiti tētahi pā ki Ōhaeawai. He mea āta hanga mārire te pā, ā, i tū kaha i te aroaro o ngā pū a ngā ope o Ingarangi i te 1 o Hūrae 1845. E ono ngā hōia Ingarihi ki te toa Māori kotahi, engari ka hinga te tino parekura o te taha Ingarihi. Ka mutu te pakanga mō te rima marama, ā, ka whakamātau a te Pitiroi ki te hohou i te rongo, engari kāore a Kawiti i whakaae ki ana whakaritenga mō te hounga i te rongo.

Nō te taenga mai a Kāwana Hōri Kerei i te marama o Nōema 1845 hei kaiwhakakapi mō te Pitiroi, ka whakatau a Kerei kia rima ngā rā hei whakahoki kōrero mā Heke ki ngā whakaritenga mō te hounga i te rongo, i muri ka whakaara a Kerei i tana ope e tūria ai te pā hou o Kawiti. Ka māmingatia ngā hōia o Ingarangi e Kawiti ki te pā o Ruapekapeka, he wāhi tūpoupou nei. Tata ki te marama kotahi ngā hōia 1100 e muhumuhu haere ana kia takahia te 15 māero mai i Pēwhairangi. Ka tukia te pā e Ingarangi mō te rua wiki, ki ngā pūrepo. Ka tomo ngā hōia o Ingarangi ki te pā i te Rātapu, te 11 o Hānuere 1846, engari kua mahue te pā i ngā toa o Kawiti. Kua paheno atu ētahi o ngā toa o Kawiti ki te ngahere, me kore e whai mai ngā hōia i a rātou. E 45 o te taha Ingarihi i mate, i taotū rānei, 30 o te taha Māori. Ka whakarērea te pā, ā, ahakoa ehara i te wikitōria mō te taha Ingarihi, ka noho a Kawiti rāua ko Heke ki te hohou i te rongo i te mutunga o te marama o Hānuere. Ko ēnei toanga i hua ake i ngā pūkenga a Kawiti ki ngā tikanga kawe riri me tana mōhio ki te hanga pā tūwatawata me ōna maioro.

Ka mate a Kawiti i Waiomio i te 5 o Mei 1854.

Meri Te Tai Mangakāhia

Davis Collection,.
Meri Te Tai Mangakahia

Image: Davis Collection, Auckland War Memorial Museum C5101
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I whānau mai a Meri Te Tai Mangakāhia (1868-1920) ki Te Hokianga. Ko Te Rarawa tōna iwi. Ko tana tāne ko Hāmiora Mangakāhia, o Hauraki, i tohungia hei Pirimia mō te Kotahitanga (te Pāremata Māori) i te tau 1892. Tērā tētahi hui a te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga i tū ki Te Matau a Māui i te tau 1893; ko ia tērā ko Meri Te Tai ka tāpae i tana mōtini kia whai wāhi ngā wāhine ki te pōtitanga o ngā tāngata. Nō muri ka tū a ia ka tuku kōrero tautoko i tana mōtini ki te Pāremata – te wahine tuatahi kia tū ki mua i te aroaro o taua huinga.

I roto i tana kōrero, ka whakahau a Meri kia tukua ngā wāhine kia pōti, kia tukua hoki rātou kia noho hei Mema o te Pāremata Māori. Ki tāna titiro, ka taea e te wahine te noho hei rangatira i runga i ōna whenua, nā reira me āhei rātou ki te whakaputa kōrero. Kāore i kawea tana kaupapa. Ahakoa tērā ka pūmau ia ki ngā tōrangapū Māori me te oranga o te iwi; i roto ia i te Komiti Wāhine o te Kotahitanga. Nā tēnei komiti i para te huarahi mō te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora.

I mate a Meri Te Tai i te rewharewha i te tau 1920. E 52 tōna pakeke.

Hāmiora Mangakāhia

Whangapoua, Coromandel, 1890s, close to the birthplace of Hamiora Mangakahia. Photographer unknown.
Ko Whangapoua, i Moehau i te tekau tau 1880-1890, e tata ana ki te wāhi whānau o Hamiora Mangakāhia

Image: ATL PAColl-5671-03
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I whānau mai a Hāmiora Mangakāhia, o Ngāti Whanaunga, i te tau 1838 i te rāwhiti o Moehau. Pērā me te tokomaha o tōna whakatipuranga, i pakeke a ia hei Karaitiana, heoi, i ākona ia ki ngā whakapapa, ngā kōrero hōhonu a tōna iwi. Ka pau tana kaha ki te pupuri i ngā whenua o tana whānau e kaha tipuria ana e te kauri me ētahi atu rākau. Me kī kāore ia i whai hua i tēnei kaupapa, ka noho tūpato ia ki te Pākehā. Heoi, ka matatau ia ki ngā nekeneke o te Kōti Whenua Māori, nā reira i karangahia ai ia kia whakahaere take puta i te whenua. Hāunga tērā, ehara ia i te tangata tautoko i te Kōti; hei ko tāna, ko te Kōti kei te whakangaro i ngā whenua o te Māori me te rangatiratanga o te Māori.

I te tau 1891 ka tāpae tana kōrero ki te Kōmihana mō ngā Ture Whenua Māori (te Kōmihana Rees-Carroll) kia whakakāhoretia te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Ko te mahi nui rawa atu a Mangakāhia, ko tana mahi mā te Kotahitanga. I aru te rōpū nei kia whakakāhoretia te Kōti Whenua Māori me ngā ture whenua Māori katoa; ka whakatūria ngā komiti Māori ki te whakatau i ngā tautohetohe i raro i ngā tikanga a te Māori.

I whai anō a te Kotahitanga kia tū tētahi Pāremata Māori hei kāwanatanga mō te Māori ki ētahi taumata. E ai ki a Mangakāhia, kāore tēnei Pāremata e whakararu i te mana o te Kuini o Ingarangi, engari hei huarahi pea mā te Māori ki te whakahaere i ōna whenua, āna kaupapa. Ki tāna titiro, tiakina ai te mana motuhake o te Māori e te Tiriti o Waitangi me tekiona 71 o te Ture Kaupapa Taketake o 1852, e whai mana ai ngā tikanga Māori i ngā takiwā ko te nuinga o ngā tāngata he Māori.

I te tau 1892 ka pōtitia a Mangakāhia hei Pirimia o te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga. Ka tono ia kia tukua he pitihana ki te Pāremata o te koroni, e karanga ana kia whakakāhoretia ngā ture whenua Māori, i tua atu, mā te Māori anō e whakahaere ngā take a te Māori. Tatū rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1918, i te mahi tonu a Mangakāhia mā te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga.

Rewi Manga Maniapoto

A photograph of Rewi Manga Maniapoto. Taken by Elizabeth Pulman in June 1879.
Rewi Manga Maniapoto

Image: ATL PA2-1359
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I whānau mai a Rewi Maniapoto (?-1894) ki roto i a Ngāti Paretekawa, hapū o Ngāti Maniapoto. I ākona ia ki ngā tikanga, ki ngā kōrero tuku iho o tōna iwi. Ka ako ia ki te pānui me te tuhi i te mīhana Wēteriana i Te Kōpua.

He kaha tana tautoko i te Kīngitanga i te tekau tau atu i 1850. Ka whawhai tōna iwi ki te taha o ngā iwi o Taranaki i te 1860-61. I konei ka tipu te whakaaro ki a ia, ko te hiahia o te kāwanatanga kia turakina te rangatiratanga o te Māori, e tareka ai te tango i ōna whenua. Nāna te rahi o Ngāti Maniapoto me Waikato i whakatikatika ki te tautoko i te hunga kei te whawhai ki te kāwanatanga, hāunga ngā māharahara o ētahi o ngā rangatira o te Kīngitanga.

Ko Rewi tētahi o ngā kaingārahu i ngā riri ki te riu o Waikato i ngā tau 1863, 1864. Ahakoa te tini hōia, ka hau te rongo mō te māia, te tohungatanga o Rewi ki te matawhāura. I te riri ki Ōrākau, ka tono ngā hōia kia tuku a Rewi mā i ā rātou pū ki raro. Ka whakautua e Rewi tēnei tono me te kōrero rongonui, “Ka whawhai tonu mātou. Ake! Ake! Ake!”

Ka hingahinga rā ngā taua o te Kīngitanga i ngā pakanga ki ngā hōia. Taro ake, ka rere te Kīngi Māori me tōna iwi ki te rohe o Ngāti Maniapoto whakamarumaru ai. Ka hia tau e noho ana rātou ki reira. Ko Rewi tētahi o ngā rangatira nā rātou i whakaū, i whakawhānui Te Rohe Pōtae. Ka toro tēnei rohe ki ngā tahatika o te moana o Taupō ki te uru, ki te hikuwai o te awa o Wanganui. Kāore he mana i tua atu i tō te Kīngi i tēnei rohe.

Kia tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, kua kite a Rewi e kore e taea e te riri te whakahoki mai i te mana o te iwi. Heoi, nō te tau 1878 kātahi anō ka mau te rongo me te kāwanatanga. Kāore i kaha raupatutia ngā whenua o Ngāti Maniapoto, heoi 1.2 miriona eka (tata ki te haurua miriona heketea) o ngā whenua o Waikato i raupatutia.

I te tau 1882 ka maunu a Rewi i te Kīngitanga. Ko te whakahau a te Kīngi kia kaua te iwi e whitiwhiti kōrero me te kāwanatanga kia ea rā anō te take o ngā whenua i raupatutia. Heoi, ka whakaae a Rewi ki ngā rūri whenua a te kāwanatanga ki roto i te Rohe Pōtae, ka whitiwhiti kōrero hoki ia mō te whakatakoto rerewē. Hei utu mō tēnei, ka tukua e te kawanatanga ētahi painga. Nā ngā mahi a Rewi ka tuwhera te Rohe Pōtae ki ngā hokonga whenua a te kāwanatanga, ahakoa tana ngana kia āta haere ngā hokonga, kia kaua e tino nui te whenua ka hokona. Whāia, ka memeha tōna awe. Ka mate ia i te tau 1894.

Hēnare Matua

Repudiation party, probably in Napier, February 1876. Henare Matua was the chief Maori spokesman for the Hawke’s Bay Repudiation Movement of the 1870s and worked closely with Henry Robert Russell, who is seated in the centre.
Ko te Hunga Whakakorekore, arā, te Repudiation Party, i Ahuriri, i te marama o Pēpuere, 1876. Ko Hēnare Matua te kaikōrero Māori matua mō te Hunga Whakakorekore o Te Matau-a-Māui, i te tekau tau 1870-1880.

Image: ATL 1/2-038687-F
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He rangatira a Hēnare Matua (?-1894) o te iwi o Ngāti Kahungunu. I te tekau tau atu i 1840 ka tūtaki tuatahi ia ki te Pākehā, i a ia ka whakarite i ētahi rīhi whenua mō ngā Pākehā noho whenua noa. I haina ia i te hokonga whenua mō Waipukurau i te tau 1851, heoi nō muri ka puta ana whakahē.

I te pueanga ake o te Kīngitanga, ka tautokona e Matua; ka whakahē hoki ia i ngā hokonga whenua. Ahakoa tērā, i te tau 1860 ka tū ia ki te taha o te kāwanatanga i ngā riri ki te Hauhau e ātete ana i te hoko o ngā whenua ki te Pākehā. Heoi anō, kāore ia i urutomo ki ngā whawhai.

Kia tae ki te tau 1871, kua puta te kōrero a Matua kia whakakāhoretia ngā hokonga whenua ki te kāwanatanga me ētahi atu i Te Matau a Māui, nā te mea he whānako aua hokonga. Taro ake, ka eke ia hei tangata nui i roto i te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, ko tōna pokapu kei Te Matau a Māui. I tipu ake te rōpū nei i te pōuri o te iwi Māori ki te maha o ngā hokonga whenua.

Ka titiro a Matua ki te Kōti Whenua Māori ānō kei te mahi te kōti mā ngā kaihoko whenua. I whakahau ia mā ngā rūnanga ā-iwi e whakahaere ngā whakaaetanga taitara me ngā hokonga whenua. Nā tēnei take me ētahi atu, ka whakatūria e te kāwanatanga he kōmihana uiui i te tau 1873. He maha ngā nawe i tāpaea e Matua ki mua i te kōmihana, hauwarea; kāore he whenua i whakahokia ki te iwi Māori.

Ka mahi haere a Matua kia tipu te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua. I āwhinatia te kaupapa e ētahi atu iwi me ētahi Pākehā whai mana. Ka rite tana whakaputa i te kōrero, ko te ara o te ture te ara tika ki te rapu paremata, kāpā te ara o Tū. Kāore he mana o ngā rūnanga i raro i te ture. Hāunga tērā, tatū ki te tau 1875, he maha ngā take kei te haria ki mua i ngā rūnanga o Te Matau a Māui hei whakatau mā rātou. I tua atu, ka whakatumatuma ngā rūnanga i te mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Tino kaha a Matua ki te mahi mō tōna iwi. Heoi, kia tae ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka ngoikore haere te kaupapa Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, tae atu ki ngā rūnanga, nā te iti o te pūtea me te ngākau kōhatu o te kāwanatanga. Ka mate a Matua ki Heretaunga i te tau 1894.

Tāmati Waka Nene

Pulman. Elizabeth fl 1861-1881 : Portrait of Tamati Waka Nene.
Tamati Waka Nene.

Image: ATL PA2-2721
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He tino rangatira a Nene (? 1780-1871) nō Ngā Puhi, ā, he tino hoa moata nō te iwi Pākehā, ko ia hoki tētahi o ngā rangatira tuatahi kia iriiria e ngā mihingare o te hāhi Wēteriana, ko tōna ingoa iriiri ko Tāmati Waaka. Ka tiakina e ia ngā kaikauwhau o te hāhi Mihingare me ō te hāhi Wēteriana, ā, i āwhina nui hoki i a Te Pūhipi, te Rēreneti o Ingarangi.

Ko Nene tētahi o ngā tino kaitautoko i roto i te taukumekume i Waitangi mō te Tiriti, ko ia hoki tētahi o ngā rangatira tuatahi ki te haina. I te rangirua te wairua o te hui i tōna taenga atu. Heoi anō ka whakatau whakaaro ia mō ngā painga o te tuku i a Peretānia kia whakauru mai, mō te rangimārie me te rongomau, inā hoki he nui ngā Pākehā ture kore kua tae kē mai. Kua kā kē te ahi, ki ōna whakaaro, e kore e puritia e ngā rangatira o te taha Māori. Ahakoa tana kī me noho mai te Kāwana hei matua, hei kaiwhakawā, hei kaihohou hoki i te rongo, ki tana kōrero, me noho katoa mai ngā tikanga Māori, kaua hoki e tukua ngā whenua o te iwi Māori kia ngaro atu. Ko tana kauwhau te tino kōrero o ngā whiriwhiringa katoa, i huri mai ai te wairua o te hui ki te tautoko i te kaupapa.

I te pakanga o te tau 1845 ki a Heke rāua ko Kawiti, ka piri a Nene ki te taha Ingarihi, ā, ka tautokona, ka āwhinatia hoki e ia ngā ope matua o Ingarangi. He hoa hoki ia ki a Kāwana Kerei i muri. Anei ngā kōrero i tana kōhatu: “te hoa o te Kāwanatanga me te matua o te Pākehā".

Hōne Heke Ngāpua

Hone Heke Ngapua, circa 1904. Photographer unidentified.
Hone Heke Ngapua

Image: ATL 1/2-018846-F
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I whānau mai a Hōne Heke Ngāpua i Kaikohe i te tau 1869. Ko Ngā Puhi tōna iwi. Tapaina ai ia ki tōna koroua a Hōne Heke Pōkai, i ātete rā ki te mana o te Karauna i te tekau tau atu i 1840, nāna hoki te pouhaki o Peretānia ki Kororāreka i topetope.

Ka kuraina a Ngāpua ki ngā kura Māori, ki te Kura o Tīpene i Parnell, Ākarana. Nō muri ka mahi ia hei karaka i tētahi tari rōia i Ākarana. I te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka kuhu a Ngāpua ki te Kotahitanga, he rōpū e whai ana kia whakahokia te mana motuhake o te Māori ki runga i ōna whenua, ki runga hoki i ētahi o ngā whakahaere, mā roto i tētahi Pāremata Māori.

I te tau 1893, i te wā e rua tekau mā aha noa iho ōna tau, ka kauhau a Hōne Heke ki te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga. Ka whakaatu ia i tōna mārama ki te ariā o te Kotahitanga, ki ngā take nui hoki kei mua i te iwi Māori.

Nā tōna tohungatanga ki te whiri kōrero, ka pōtitia a ia hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1893. I te tau 1894, nāna te Pire Tika Māori i tāpae ki mua i te Pāremata. E tono ana te pire mō tētahi kaupapa taketake mō te Māori, kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia tū hoki he Pāremata Māori. Ahakoa ngā tautoko mai a te maha o ngā iwi, kāore i ture te pire. Heoi, ka whai wāhi ētahi o ana whakaritenga ki ngā hanganga ture o muri, pērā i te Ture Kaunihera Māori o 1900.

I te tau 1898 nā Hōne Tōia i ārahi ngā Māori o te riu o Waimā i Te Hokianga kia kaua e utu i ngā tāke kurī me ētahi atu tāke nā te kāwanatanga me te kaunihera ā-rohe i uta ki runga i a rātou. Ka tonoa e te kāwanatanga āna hōia ki te tāmi i tēnei takahi i te ture. Ko te kuhunga atu tērā o Ngāpua ki te haukoti i te rerenga o te toto; ka tukua e Tōia mā ā rātou rākau ki raro. Ahakoa e ātetetia ana ngā reiti me ngā tāke i utaina, ko te pūtake kē o te riri, ko te whakatuma ki te mana o te Karauna. Koia anō tētahi o ngā wero whakamutunga i tēnei mana.

Ka pūmau a Ngāpua ki te Kotahitanga, tatū rawa ki tōna matenga tōmua i te tau 1909 i te mate kohi. E 40 tōna pakeke.

Wiremu Tako Ngātata

Batt & Richards fl 1870s :Portrait of Ngatata, Wiremu Tako.
Wiremu Tako Ngatata.

Image: ATL PA2-0262
© Image copyright conditions

 

Nō Te Ātiawa a Wiremu Tako Ngātata, ā, ko tōna ingoa kārangaranga ko Wi Tako. He rangatira ia i whānau mai i te tīmatanga o te rau tau tekau mā iwa i Taranaki, ā, ka heke whaka-te-tonga ia me tōna iwi ki Raukawa Moana i te tau 1832. Ka hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi e tōna matua i Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara i te marama o Āperira 1840. I whai wāhi anō a Wī Tako ki te whakanohonga iwi ki Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, tae noa ki ētahi o ngā hoko whenua mūrere a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. Engari, nā ana kōrero taunaki ki te Komihana a Peina, i wherawheratia ai ngā hoko whenua moata, ka whakahētia ana mahi e ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua Pākehā. He mōhio ia ki te tuhi Māori, ā, ka whakamahia e ia te pene ki te tuhituhi i ana reta whakatakoto take, mō ngā whāinga tika o tōna iwi me ōna hiahia, ki ngā āpiha me ngā niupepa maha. I whakatakariri ia ki ngā mahi whakaiti me ngā kupu kaikiri a ngā kaiwhakanoho tuatahi i Aotearoa ki a ia, ā, koia tētahi i uru ki ngā whiriwhiri i Ōtaki i te tau 1853, i whakaarahia ai te kaupapa kīngitanga. Engari i mutu noa tana tautoko i te kaupapa Kīngitanga i ngā mahi hūmārie noa. I muri i te whakaekenga o Waikato e te Kāwanatanga i te tau 1863, ka unuhia e ia tōna ingoa i te taha Kīngitanga. Nō te tau 1872, ka tohua ia ki te Kaunihera Hanga Ture, ko ia tētahi o ngā Māori tuatahi kia tohua hei mema. Ka whakahētia e ia i reira ngā ture tūkino i te mana pupuru whenua o te iwi Māori. Ka mate ia i te 8 o Nōema i te tau 1887, i tōna kāinga i te Awakairangi.

Niniwa-i-te-rangi

Group at wedding of Niniwa-i-te-rangi and Tamaihotua Aporo in the Wairarapa, ca 1900. Standing (left to right): Hare Hongi (H M Stowell), Mrs Tomiri te Awa, Alf Needham. Seated (left to right): Tamaihotua Aporo, Niniwa-i-te-rangi.
Niniwa-i-te-rangi

Image: ATL PAColl-3861-43-18
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He wahine whai mana a Niniwa-i-te-rangi nō te iwi o Ngāti Kahungunu. I whānau mai ia ki Te Wairarapa i te tau 1854. Nā runga i ana tohenga i te Kōti Whenua Māori, tōna reo tatakī, tōna matatau ki ngā whakapapa me ngā kōrero o tōna rohe, ka puea a ia hei kaiārahi mō ngā Māori o Te Wairarapa.

Ko ia tērā i āwhina kia tū te Pāremata o te Kotahitanga ki Pāpāwai i ngā tau o 1897 me 1898. Whāia, ka noho a ia hei ētita mō ngā nūpepa reo Māori, Te Puke ki Hikurangi me Te Tiupiri.

I te tekau tau atu i 1890 ka kake whakarunga tōna mana, ā, i te tau 1898 ko ia anake te wahine ka tāpae kōrero ki mua i te Komiti o te Pāremata mō ngā Take Māori, i rangahau rā i ngā ture whenua Māori. I te tau 1904 nā Niniwa i tautoko ā-pūtea te Maori Record, he nūpepa reo Pākehā e whakatairanga ana i te iwi Māori. Ka mate ia ki Hūpēnui i te tau 1929.

Nireaha Tāmaki

Portrait of Nireaha Tamaki, taken by Samuel Carnell circa 1880-1890.
Nireaha Tamaki

Image: ATL 1/4-022111-G
© Image copyright conditions

Nō nga iwi o Rangitāne me Ngāti Kahungunu a Nireaha Tāmaki. I whānau mai ia ki ngā tahatika o te awa o Manawatū i te pokapū o te tekau atu atu i 1830. Mōhiotia whānuitia ai ia mō tana okeoke kia pupuri i te poraka whenua o Mangatainoka, i ngana rā te kāwanatanga kia hoko mai hei whakatakoto rerewē.

Ka eke te tohenga nei ki tōna taumata i te tau 1894. I hokona e te Karauna ētahi wāhanga o te poraka o Mangatainoka mai i ētahi o te hunga whai pānga i tohungia e te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nā tētahi hapa i te wā ka rūria te whenua nei, ka kuhuna tētahi whenua e 5000 eka (2000 heketea) te rahi kāore anō kia kawea mā te Kōti. Ka taunaha a Nireaha i ēnei whenua hei whenua papatipu, i te mea kāore rā anō kia kawea ki mua i te Kōti Whenua Māori, ahakoa kua hokona e te kāwanatanga. Ka rongohia te take nei e te Kōti Pīra arā, Nireaha v Baker. Ka whai te kōti i te whakataunga o te take Wī Parata v Bishop of Wellington, ka whakapae te kōti mō te Māori he iwi “mohoao”, e kore e aro ngā Kōti ki āna tikanga. I tua atu, he take kāwanatanga ngā whitiwhitinga kōrero a te Karauna me te Māori mō te whenua, e kore e taea te arotake i raro i te ture.

I te tau 1900 ka pīra a Nireaha ki te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kuini. Ka takahurihia te whakatau a te Kōti Pīra o Aotearoa. Kāore i arongia e ngā Rōra Ture ngā kōrero e mea ana kāore he tikanga a te Māori, me tā rātou kī anō he tōmuri rawa kia pēnei te titiro a ngā kōti o Aotearoa, i te mea kei roto tonu i ētahi ture o Aotearoa, tae atu ki ngā Ture Whenua Māori o ngā 1800, ngā kōrero mō ngā tikanga Māori. I tua atu, ka kī anō rātou he wāhi tonu tō te Kōti Pīra o Aotearoa ki ngā whakawākanga mō ngā whenua ka tukua ki te Karauna. Kāore rā i rata te rāngai ture o Aotearoa ki ēnei whakatau.

Ko te urupare a te kāwanatanga, ko te tāmi i te āheinga o te Māori ki te rangahau i ngā hokonga whenua a te kāwanatanga mā roto i ngā kōti. Hāunga tērā, he mea nui tonu te whakatau a te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kuini, i te mea i whakaae ia i reira tonu ngā tikanga a te Māori mō te whenua – he pūnaha e tika ana kia arohia. Nā te whakawākanga nei i tiketike ai a Nireaha i te ao Māori, ahakoa te pau o ana moni. Nō te tau 1911 ka mate ia.

Hōne Ōmipi (John Ormsby)

Ōtorohanga Town Board, 1912. Ormsby is seated front centre.
John Ormsby

PICTURE REFERENCE: Otorohanga Historical Society
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I whānau mai a Hōne Ōmipi i te tau 1854. He Pākehā tōna matua, nō Ngāti Maniapoto tōna whaea.

I te tekau tau atu i 1880 kei te tuki te mana o Kīngi Tāwhiao ki ngā rangatira o Ngāti Maniapoto pērā i a Rewi Maniapoto. Kāore a Kīngi Tāwhiao i hiahia whitiwhiti kōrero me te kāwanatanga, kia ea rā anō ngā take e pā ana ki ngā whenua. Ko te hiahia o Rewi me Ngāti Maniapoto, kia kimihia tētahi huarahi ki waenganui. Ka whakaae te kāwanatanga ki ētahi o ngā hiahia o Ngāti Maniapoto, kia ea ai tōna hiahia kia takoto he rerewē ki ngā whenua o Ngāti Maniapoto.

Nā te Ture Komiti Māori o 1883 i tuwhera ai te wāhi ki a Ngāti Maniapoto kia whitiwhiti kōrero me te kāwanatanga. Nā te ture nei i whakamana ētahi komiti Māori hei āwhina i ngā whakataunga taitara whenua a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nā tō rātou kore mana, kāore i tautokona ēnei komiti e ētahi atu iwi. Engari anō a Ngāti Maniapoto, i ngana kia mahi tā rātou komiti.

Ko Ōmipi te heamana tuatahi o te komiti o Kāwhia. Me kī, koia tēnei te komiti whai hua rawa atu. Ahakoa tana tamariki, i tohungia a Ōmipi mō tana hinengaro koi me te pai o ana whitiwhitinga ki te Pākehā.

I te tau 1884 ko Ōmipi tērā i ngā whitiwhitinga kōrero mō te whakaaetanga o Kihikihi 1885. I te hiahia whenua te kāwanatanga mō te rerewē. Ki te whakaae a Ngāti Maniapoto ki tāna, ka tāpaea e te kāwanatanga ētahi painga ki mua i a Ōmipi me ngā rangatira. Ka nui ake te mana o te komiti o Kāwhia, ka whakatikatikahia ngā wāhi hē rawa atu o te Kōti Whenua Māori, ka puritia e te Māori te mana ki ngā rawa o raro i te whenua. Heoi, ko te mea nui, kāore e utaina te reiti ki runga i ngā whenua Māori kia ahuwhenuatia rawatia, kia rīhitia rawatia rānei.

Ka tōtara wāhi rua te Kīngitanga i tēnei. Ko te titiro i hua he painga i tēnei ritenga mō tētahi wā poto noa, ko te mate kē, kāore i tutuki te whakaaetanga kia whakatikatikangia te Kōti Whenua Māori. Tāria, ka rongo a Ngāti Maniapoto i ngā putanga rerekētanga o te kōti, pērā i ētahi atu iwi.

I te tau 1886, kua whakatūria a Ōmipi hei āteha o te Kōti o te Kaiwhakawā Takiwā rāua ko te Kōti Whenua Māori. Nō te tau 1920 ka hoki anō a ia ki te Kīngitanga, ka noho hei kaitohutohu mā Te Rata, te Kīngi Māori. Nō te tau 1927 ka mate ia.

Wiremu Te Kākākura Parata

Wiremu Te Kakakura Parata.
Wiremu Te Kakakura Parata

Image: ATL 1/1-020616-G
© Image copyright conditions

Nō ngā iwi o Ngāti Toa, o Te Āti Awa a Wiremu Te Kākākura Parata. I whānau mai ia ki Kapiti i te tekau tau atu i 1830. I tana taiohinga haruru ana te whenua i ngā panonitanga nui ka pā mai ki te noho me te ora o te tangata. I te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka kuhu ia ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū o te wā, ā, i te tau 1871 ka pōtitia ia hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Hau-ā-uru.

He māia a Parata ki ngā mahi tōrangapū; he reo tatakī, he tohunga ki te whiriwhiri kōrero. Ka rite ngā wā ka whakahau ia i te whare kikī ana i te Pākehā kia whakamana i ngā ture ka aro ki ngā hiahia me ngā tūmanako o te Māori. Hāunga tērā, kei reira anō ngā whakapae a ngā Māori e mea ana i tōna kakenga ki te Kaunihera Whāiti i te tau 1872, ka mutu tana hāpai i ngā take Māori.

I te wehenga o Parata i te Pāremata, ka whai wāhi ia ki ētahi kerēme whenua Māori i ngā kōti. Ka tū te kerēme nui i te tau 1877, ko Wi Parata v Bishop of Wellington, mō ētahi whenua nā Ngāti Toa i tuku ki te Pīhopa Mihinare hei whakatū kura Māori. Ka whiwhi te Hāhi i tētahi pito whenua mai i te Karauna i te tau 1850, heoi, kāore i whakatūria he kura.

Ka tono a Parata kia whakahokia ngā whenua o Ngāti Toa. Ka puta te whakatau rongonui a te Kaiwhakawā Matua a James Prendergast e mea ana he iwi mohoao te iwi Māori, kāore ōna ture hei aronga mā tētahi Kōti. I tua atu, ka kī ia, kāore he mana ā-ture o te Tiriti. Ka mate a Parata i te tau 1906.

Wiremu Pere

Portrait of Wiremu Pere taken by William Henshaw Clarke between 1884 and 1887.
Wiremu Pere

Image: ATL 35mm-00189-B-F
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Heke ai a Wiremu Pere i ngā kāwai o Te Aitanga a Māhaki, o Te Whānau a Kai, o Rongowhakaata, o te Pākehā. I whānau ia ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa i te tau 1837. I te tau 1865 ka mura ngā ahi o te riri ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka kuhu a Wī Pere ki te taha o te kāwanatanga. Heoi anō, ka tohe ia mō ngā Māori o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa ka whiua ki Wharekauri kāore he whakawākanga, me te kimi huarahi a te kāwanatanga ki te tango i ō rātou whenua.

I te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1868 ka rere a Te Kooti mā i Wharekauri. Ko Wī Pere tētahi i te taua o te kāwanatanga i tukua kia whai i a ia, ahakoa tana pukuaroha ki a Te Kooti. Ka ātete ia i ngā raupatunga whenua ka whai i tēnei riri.

I te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka tautoko a Wī Pere i te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, e aru ana ki te huripoki i ngā hokonga whenua hīanga. Kāore hoki ia i whakaae ki te Kōti Whenua Māori me tana tuku whenua ki te tangata takitahi; ko tāna i whakapono ai, me noho kē ngā whenua ki raro i ngā whakahaere o te whānau, o te hapū. Nā ēnei kaupapa nui āna, ka kake a ia hei rangatira whai mana i te rohe.

Whāia, ka ngana a Wī Pere ki te āwhina i ētahi atu Māori kia whakamatara i ngā ture whenua Māori whīwhiwhi, me ngā taumahatanga ka puta i te taitara whenua takitahi. I rapu huarahi ia e tareka ai he pūtea hei whakapai, hei whakamahi i ngā whenua. Mai i te tau 1880 ka huri rāua ko W. L. Rees, he rōia mō te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, ki te whakawherewhere i te rahi o ngā Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti kia tukua ētahi o ō rātou whenua ki tētahi kaitiaki whenua. Ka hokona, ka rīhitia rānei ētahi o ngā whenua, ko te moni ka puta hei utu i te whakawhanaketanga o ngā whenua ka toe. Heoi, ka hinga te kaupapa, nā te paheketanga o te ōhanga me te taraweti o te hunga tōrangapū.

Hāunga tērā, i pumau tonu a Wī Pere kia whakahaerehia, kia pāmutia e ngā Māori ō rātou ake whenua. Ka whānui ngā tautoko mōna; waihoki, ka kuhu ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti i te tau 1884. Ka kaha tana whakahē i ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori, me te korero ki ngā tāngata takitahi kāpā te hapū, whānau, iwi rānei. I tautoko ia i te whakaaro ki te tuku mā ngā hapori Māori e whakahaere ō rātou whenua mā roto i ētahi “komiti poraka” ka pōtitia.

I te tau 1887 ka hinga ia ki a Timi Kara. Ka hoki anō a Wī Pere hei Mema Pāremata i te tau 1894. Ka ātete anō ia i ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki ngā whenua o te Māori. Ka puta tana kōrero kia kaua e manaakitia te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia kati te hoko me te rīhi whenua. Ka whakahau tonu ia kia nui ake te mana whakahaere o te Māori i runga i ōna anō whenua. Ka kuhu ia ki te Kotahitanga e karanga ana kia tū he Pāremata Māori, kia whakakorehia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ka hinga a Pere i te pōti o te tau 1905 ki a Āpirana Ngata. I te tau 1907 ka tohungia ia ki te Kaunihera Ture, ā, tae rawa ki te tau 1912. Ka mate ia i te tau 1915.

Pōmare II

Bridge, Cyprian 1808-1883 :View of Pomare's new pah at the Karetu off the Kawa Kawa River, New Zealand, June 1846.
View of Pomare's new pā at the Karetu off the Kawa Kawa River, June 1846.

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Nō Ngā Puhi a Pōmare II, ko tōna ingoa i tōna taitamarikitanga ko Whiria. I whānau mai ia i te wāhanga whakamutunga o te rau tau tekau mā waru. Ka tupu a Pōmare hei rangatira ingoa nui i Pēwhairangi ki te tonga i te tekau tau mai i 1830. He tangata mōhio ki te whakahaere hokohoko ki ngā kaipuke Pākehā, he kaihoko waipiro, mīti poaka, taewa, papa rākau hoki. Ko tētahi o ana umanga ko te tuku i ngā wāhine mōkai hei kairau, ā, i āwhinatia hoki e ia te mahi petipeti.

E 3000 ōna toa hāpai rākau i te pakanga ki a Tītore i te tau 1837, engari i muri i te toru marama kāore tētahi taha i toa ki runga ake i tētahi. I kitea taua pakanga e Te Hopihona i runga i te manuao, i te Rattlesnake. I haere tana pūrongo, ngā reta a Te Pūhipi me tētahi pitihana nā ngā mihingare ki ngā mana i Ingarangi, ā, ka noho ēnei hei take mō te taenga mai o te mana o Ingarangi ki Aotearoa ā tōna wā.

Ka hainatia e Pōmare te Tiriti o Waitangi i te 17 o Pēpuere 1840, ā, ka kawea e ia ngā whakaaro o Tirarau rāua ko Kawiti kia haina i te marama o Mei. Engari tērā anō ngā āhuatanga o te mana o Ingarangi kāore i pai ki a ia. I whakamutua ngā tāke i ngā kaipuke kua riro mai i a ia mō ētahi tau maha. Tuarua i rite anō ōna māharahara ki ētahi atu rangatira mō te pānga o te whakahaere o te Karauna ki tō rātou mana Māori motuhake. Ka noho taha kore a Pōmare i te werohanga a Hone Heke rāua ko Kawiti ki te mana o Ingarangi i ngā tau 1844-46. Ko ngā reta atu i Pōmare ki a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero i kīia he mahi taupoki i te mana o te Kuini, ā, ka mauheretia ia i te marama o Āperira 1845, ka whakamararatia tōna iwi, ka tahuna hoki tōna pā. Ka haria ia ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, ā, i runga i te kupu tautoko a Tāmati Waka Nene i a ia, ka whakawhiwhia ki tētahi poti hei kapiheihana mō te tūkinotanga i a ia. Ahakoa i whakaritea e ia tētahi ope hei āwhina i te pakanga ki a Heke, ka kōunu ia ki waho i mua atu i te pakanga ki Ōhaeawai i te 1 o Hūrae 1845. Engari he takawaenga whai mana ia i ngā kōrero mō te maunga-ā-rongo.

Ka noho a Pōmare i ōna tau whakamutunga i roto i te rangimārie. I whakaae ki te takawaengatanga o te Kāwanatanga i tētahi tautohe nui mō te whenua, ā, i ngā tau whakamutunga ōna ka huri hei Karaitiana. I mate ia i te marama o Hūrae, o Akuhata rānei i te tau 1850.

Hōri Kerei Taiaroa

Hori Kerei Taiaroa.
Hori Kerei Taiaroa

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I whānau mai a Hōri Kerei Taiaroa (?-1905) i te kūrae o Ōtākou. Nā tētahi mihinare ia i ako ki te pānui me te tuhituhi. Ko Te Mātenga Taiaroa tōna matua, he rangatira whai mana o Ngāi Tahu. I te Pēpuere o te tau 1862 ka takoto te kōrero a Mātenga Taiaroa “ki taku iwi, ki taku hapū, ki taku tama”. I whakahau ia i te iwi ki te whaiwhai ake i ngā kī taurangi a ngā āpiha hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga i te hokonga o ngā whenua nui rawa o Ngāi Tahu i roto i ngā rua tekau tau ka taha. Ka pau te kaha o Taiaroa ki te whakatutuki i tēnei hiahia o tōna matua.

I te tau 1866 ka tīmata tana rapu paremata mō te whenua rāhui o Princes Street i Ōtepoti. I te tau 1871 ka pōtitia ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Tai Tonga. I a ia i te Pāremata, me te Kaunihera Ture i muri mai, ka whakaputa kōrero ia mō te maha o ngā kaupapa. Heoi, ka noho ko ‘Te Kerēme’ a Ngāi Tahu tana take nui.

I te tau 1879 ka whakatūria te Kōmihana a Smith rāua ko Nairn hei arotake i ngā nawe o Ngāi Tahu. Nā Taiaroa i whakarite, i whakatakoto ngā kōrero a Ngāi Tahu ki mua i te Kōmihana. Heoi, ka kotia ngā mahi a te Kōmihana i mua i te whakatakotoranga o tana pūrongo. E ai ki te tumu kōrero a Harry Evison, ahakoa te kotinga o ngā mahi a te Kōmihana, ka noho ngā kōrero i kohia e Taiaroa hei taonga kāmehameha mā Ngāi Tahu.

Nā ngā tohetohe a Taiaroa, i te tau 1886 ka tonoa a Alexander Mackay, kaiwhakawā o te Kōti Whenua Māori, ki te titiro mēnā kua noho whenua kore a Ngāi Tahu i te hokonga o ōna whenua e te kāwanatanga me te whakaritenga o ngā whenua rāhui pakupaku rawa. Ka puta tana pūrongo e mea ana, he iwi rawakore, he iwi whenua kore a Ngāi Tahu. Me whakarite he whenua 186,000 eka (e 75,000 heketea) mō rātou e tutuki ai ō rātou hiahia i taua wā tonu me ngā rā hoki kei te tū. I rāhuitia he whenua mō Ngāi Tahu; ko te raruraru kē, he whenua tawhiti, he whenua tītōhea. I tana Pūrongo mō Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1991, ka kōrero te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mō te kore take o ngā “whenua rāhui mō ngā Māori whenua kore”. Kīia ai e te pūrongo ngā ritenga a te kāwanatanga mō ēnei whenua, he “rūkahu kino”. Kāore i whakatinanatia e te kāwanatanga ngā tūtohunga a Mackay; ka whiua a Ngāi Tahu kia rongo tonu i te kino.

I te tau 1905 ka mate a Taiaroa. Kia hipa te 93 tau, kātahi anō ka tutuki te whakahau a tōna matua o te tau 1862, i te whakamanatanga o te Ture Whakatau i te Kerēme a Ngāi Tahu i te tau 1998.

Hirini Rāwiri Taiwhanga

Hirini Rawiri Taiwhanga circa 1887. Taken by an unidentified photographer.
Hirini Rawiri Taiwhanga

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Nō te iwi o Ngā Puhi a Hirini Taiwhanga. I whānau ia ki Pēwhairangi i te tau 1832, 1833 rānei. Ka kuraina ia ki te kura mīhana i Waimate me te Kāreti o Hato Hoani i Ākarana. Nō muri ka mahi ia hei kāmura, hei kairūri, hei kura māhita hoki.

Atu i te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka hau te rongo mōna i ngā hui ā-iwi, e whakahē ana i ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga, e whakahau ana kia whakarongohia ngā nawe o te iwi Māori i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka nui haere ngā tautoko a te iwi Māori mōna.

I te tau 1882 ka kawea e ia tētahi pitihana ki a Kuini Wikitōria, e karanga ana kia hurihia ngā ture ka takahi i te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia tū tētahi Pāremata Māori hei tāmi i te apu whenua a te kāwanatanga. Kāore i whakaaetia kia tūtaki a Taiwhanga mā ki te Kuini, tūtaki kē rātou ki a Eara Kimberley, te Hekeretari mō ngā Koroni. Ka whakahē ia i te kōrero e mea ana he kawenga ō te Karauna mō Niu Tīreni, ki tāna, kua tū kē a Niu Tīreni hei koroni motuhake.

Ahakoa ēnei pōraruraru, i te tau 1883 ka taka a Taiwhanga i tana pitihana tuarua. Kei tana pitihana tuarua e tono ana kia whakamutua te Kōti Whenua Māori, mā tētahi rūnanga rangatira tōna tūranga hei whakakapi. I tua atu ka tono kia hoki te mana ki te takutai me ngā tauranga hī ika ki te Māori. Ka whiua anōtia tēnei o ngā pitihana.

I te tau 1887 ka pōtitia a Taiwhanga hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō te Tai Tokerau. Ka pau tana kaha kia puritia e te Māori ōna whenua. Nō te tau 1890 ka mate ohorere ia.

He wāhi nui tō ngā mahi a Taiwhanga ki te whakaohooho i te iwi kia whakakotahi; whāia, ko te whakatū a ētahi atu i te rōpū te Kotahitanga i te tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1890.

Karaitiana Takamoana

Carte de visite portrait of Karaitiana Takamoana, taken between 1870 and 1879 by Samuel Carnell of Napier.
Karaitiana Takamoana

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E ai ki te kōrero, i whānau mai a Karaitiana Takamoana (?-1879) ki Te Wairarapa. Ko Ngāti Hawea te hapū, ko Ngāti Kahungunu te iwi. He toa ia i ngā Pakanga Mau Pū o te tekau tau atu i 1820. I ākona ia ki te pānui me te tuhi i te kura mīhana o William Colenso (Te Koroneho). Whāia, ka tū a Takamoana he rangatira whai mana.

I te tau 1851 ka whai wāhi ia ki te hokonga o ngā poraka whenua o Waipukurau me Ahuriri (hui katoa e 600,000 eka (e 242,000 heketea), tae rawa ki te wāhi e tū nei te tāone o Nēpia) ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean) te āpiha hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ko te wawata o Takamoana rātou ko ngā rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu i te hokonga, ka whakatūria he tāone, ka tuwhera ngā kaupapa tauhokohoko. I ngā tekau tau o 1850, o 1860, kei te kaha tonu tana hokohoko whenua. I te muranga o ngā ahi o te riri ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka tū a Takamoana ki te taha o te kāwanatanga, ka kuhu ki ngā pakanga ki ngā Hauhau, ki a Te Kooti hoki.

Taka rawa ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, kua kawa a Takamoana ki te hoko whenua. Ka āwangawanga ia mō ngā tikanga hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga me ētahi atu. Hei tauira, ka pōuri ia mō ngā taumahatanga ka utaina ki runga i ngā Māori pērā i a ia, kei te nui ā rātou nama ki ngā tāngata whakahaere toa o te rohe.

I te tau 1871 ka kuhu ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema mō te tūru Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Nō tana matenga rā anō i whakawāteatia ai tēnei tūranga. I taua wā anō kei te tipu te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua ki Te Matau a Māui. Ko tā rātou whāinga kia whakakāhoretia ngā hokonga whenua i whakapaetia he whānako. I te tīmatanga kāore a Takamoana i tautoko i te rōpū, i tana whakapono ko te Pāremata kē te taumata hei whakatika i ēnei raruraru.

I te tau 1972 ka whai wāhi a Takamoana ki te whakatūranga o tētahi kōmihana arotake i ngā whenua i hokona i Te Matau a Māui. I tana mōhio kāore e whakahokia mai ngā whenua, ka huri a ia ki te tautoko i te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua. Ka whakapau kaha, whakapau moni ia mō te kaupapa. Ka mate ia i te tau 1879.

Āperahama Taonui

The Waitangi marae at Te Tii in 1880, shortly after the completion of the meeting house.
Te Marae o Waitangi i Te Tī i te tau 1880, i muri iho i te otinga o te whare rūnanga.

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I whānau a Āperahama Taonui i te takiwā o te tau 1816. Ko tōna hapū ko Te Popoto, ko tōna iwi ko Ngā Puhi. Ko te whakaaro i haina ia i te Tiriti o Waitangi i raro i te ingoa Āperahama Tautoru. Ka whawhai ia i te taha o Wāka Nene me te kāwanatanga ki a Hōne Heke i ngā riri i te Tai Tokerau i te 1844-45. Ka taotū ia, ka kawea ki Tāmaki-makau-rau okioki ai. I reira ka tūtaki rāua ko Kāwana Kerei; whakamihi ana a Kerei mō te ahua o Taonui.

I te tau 1859 ka eke a ia hei āteha i raro i te Ture Whakawā ki ngā Takiwā Māori 1858. I te tau 1862 ko ia tērā i tētahi rūnanga ā-iwi nā te kāwanatanga i whakatū ki te rohe. Ka kuhu ia ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū; hei ētahi wā kua puta ōna whakaaro mā roto i ana kitenga. Ka pūmau a Taonui kia tau te rangimārie. Ki tāna i titiro ai, he ritenga tapu te Tiriti o Waitangi, ko ia te pūtake o te mahinga tahitanga a te iwi Māori me te Pākehā. Ka hipa te wā, ka hōhā a ia ki te kaha kore o te rūnanga me te whakanoho i te Māori ki waho o ngā whakataunga kaupapa.

Kia tae ki te tōmuritanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860 kua hau te rongo mō Taonui hei matakite, hei kaiwhakaora tangata. Kua kore kē ōna whenua. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka tukua e Te Uri-o-Hau tētahi pito whenua ki a ia i te tonga o Tākiwira; ki reira tīmataria ai tōna hapori whakapono.

I te tekau tau atu i 1890 ko ia tētahi nā rātou i whakatū te Kotahitanga, e whai ana kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakakāhoretia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia tareka e te Māori te whakahaere i a ia mā roto i tōna ake Pāremata. I te tau 1881, i te whakatuwheratanga o te whare rūnanga a Te Tiriti o Waitangi, ki Te Tii, i Waitangi, ko ia tētahi o ngā mōrehu ruarua nā rātou te Tiriti i haina. Ka mate ia i te tau 1882.

Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia

Portrait of Taraia Ngakuti te Tumuhia, 1860-1872. Photographer unknown.
Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia

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Nō Ngāti Tamaterā me Ngāti Maru a Tāraia Ngākuti Te Tumuhuia (?-1872). Ko Tūmatauenga te atua ārahi i a Taraia i ōna rā, mate rawa. He rangatira ia nō te “ao kōhatu”, hei aha māna te Pākehā me tōna ao. I te kawenga a Thomas Bunbury i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Hauraki, kāore a Taraia i haina. Mai i taua wā, ki te pā he raruraru ki a ia, māna tonu e whakatikatika i runga anō i ngā tikanga o tua whakarere.

I te tau 1842 ka whakaekengia e Tāraia a Ngāi Te Rangi, iwi o Tauranga. Kua roa e mauāhara ana ēnei iwi, a Ngāi Te Rangi me Ngāti Tamaterā, tētahi ki tētahi. Ka whakamatea, ka mauherea ētahi o Ngāi Te Rangi, kainga ana ētahi. I te weronga mai a ngā āpiha a te Karauna mō tēnei mahi, ko te whakautu a Tāraia pēnei; kāore ia i haina te Tiriti o Waitangi, nā reira ko wai te kāwana ki te aruaru he aha āna nekeneke, me te mea anō, kāore i whara he Pākehā i tēnei mahi. Heoi, nō muri mai ka whakaae ia ki te whakataunga a te Karauna i te raruraru. Ka tukua ngā mauhere, ka whakawhiwhia tētahi paremata ki ngā Māori o Tauranga.

Nā tēnei raruraru me ētahi atu i taua wā, ka wānanga ngā āpiha o te kāwanatanga mēnā ka āhei i raro i te ture te pakanga ki ngā Māori kāore i haina i te Tiriti. He whakaaro tō tēnā āpiha, he whakaaro tō tēnā āpiha. I te mutunga, ka whakatau te Tari mō ngā Koroni kei raro ngā Māori katoa i te maru o Peretānia, tae rawa atu ki te hunga kāore i haina i te Tiriti. Heoi, nā te tokoiti o ana pirihimana, ana hōia, me uaua ka whakapūmautia te ture Peretānia. Nā reira, ka pā ana te raruraru, ka huri kē te Karauna ki te kōrero mō te tika, mō te hē hei tāmi i ngā mahi kino; ki te tipu he tautohenga ā-iwi, kāore te Karauna mō te kuhu kau noa.

Tatū ki te tau 1850 ko Tāraia te rangatira nui o Ngāti Tamaterā, o Ngāti Maru. Ahakoa tana ngana ki te aukati i te keri koura ki te rohe o Hauraki, hauwarea. I te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka tautoko a Tāraia i te Kīngitanga, ahakoa te mea kua koroua rawa ia ki te whawhai. I roto tētahi taua o Ngāti Maru i ngā riri ki te riu ki Waikato, nā Tāraia hoki tētahi kāho paura i tuku ki a Kīngi Tāwhiao. Ka mate ia ki Pārāwai i te tau 1872. E ai ki te kōrero, neke atu i te 80 tana pakeke.

Hōne Mohi Tāwhai

Head and shoulders portrait of Hone Mohi Tawhai taken by William Brickell Gibbs, 1880-1881.
Hone Mohi Tawhai

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I whānau mai a Hōne Mohi Tāwhai i te tau 1827, 1828 rānei ki Te Hokianga. Tekau mā rua pea tōna pakeke ka hainatia e tōna matua te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kāore noa iho i roa ka tū a ia hei kaiārahi o te iwi.

I te tekau tau atu i 1860 kei roto ia i tētahi rūnanga he mea whakatū nā Kāwana Kerei. Whāia, ka whakaingoatia a Tāwhai hei āteha mā te Kōti Whenua Māori. Kia tae ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1870 kua kore a ia e whakapono ki te Kōti Whenua Māori, kua karanga kē ia kia hoki te mana o ngā whenua me te mana hoko ki te Māori.

I te tau 1879 ka kuhu a Tāwhai hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau. Kāore i ārikarika tana kuhu ki ngā tautohetohe e pā ana ki te noho a ngā iwi. I ngā tau o 1881 me 1882, nāna i kōkiri tētahi Pire Whakamana i ngā Komiti Māori e mea ana ki te here i te Kōti Whenua Māori, ki te tuku ki te Māori te whakataunga o ngā taitara whenua. Ka nui ngā whakarerekētanga, kātahi anō te kāwanatanga ka tautoko i te pire e mea ana me aro noa iho te Kōti Whenua Māori ki ngā tūtohu a ngā Komiti Māori. Otirā, kāore i tino aro atu te Kōti ki ngā tūtohu a ngā Komiti Māori nei e mate ana i te kore pūtea. He komiti ēnei kāore he niho.

I te tau 1884 ka wehe a Tāwhai i te Pāremata. Kia tae ki te paunga o taua tekau tau, kua kore ia e whakapono ka puritia tonutia te mana o te Tiriti o Waitangi me ngā tika a te Māori e te Pāremata kikī ana i te Pākehā. Whai anō ka huri a ia ki te tautoko i ngā kaupapa tōrangapū a te Māori. Nāna i āwhina te whakatūnga o te Kotahitanga, te Pāremata Māori e whai ana kia whakakāhoretia te Kōti Whenua Māori me ngā ture whenua Māori, kia whakamanatia hokitia te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka mate a Tāwhai i te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1894.

Tāwhiao, Tūkāroto Matutaera Pōtatau Te Wherowhero (Kīngi Tāwhiao)

Tukaroto Potatau Matutaera Te Wherowhero Tawhiao.
Tukaroto Potatau Matutaera Te Wherowhero Tawhiao (King Tawhiao)

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Nō Ngāti Mahuta, iwi o Tainui, a Tāwhiao. Ka whānau ia i te whakamutunga o ngā riri mau pū i waenganui i ngā iwi o Waikato me Ngā Puhi. Ahakoa he Karaitiana, i ākona ia ki ngā karakia, ki te kawa o ngā iwi o Tainui. He matakite ia. Ko tōna matua a Pōtatau te Kīngi Māori tuatahi. I tōna matenga i te tau 1860, ka kake a Tāwhiao hei kīngi, hei oranga wairuatanga mō tōna iwi. Mō ngā tau e 34 ka whai, ko ia te kīngi Māori. Ka noho ngā tau tōmua o tōna kīngitanga ko ngā tau tutetute nui i te hītori o te noho a te Māori me te Pākehā ki Aotearoa.

Nā te urutomo, te hingatanga i roto i ngā pakanga, te raupatu o ngā whenua 1.2 miriona eka o Waikato, ka rere a Tāwhiao me tōna iwi ki te Rohe Pōtae whakamarumaru ai. He maha ngā tau ka noho rātou ki reira.

Ahakoa ngā hui i tūtū ki ngā minita me ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga, kāore he hua i puta. Ko te kupu a Tāwhiao, i riro whenua atu me hoki whenua mai. Kāore i manaakitia tēnei hiahia ōna e te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1881 rā anō tukua ai ngā patu a Tāwhiao me tōna iwi, ka hoki rātou ki tō rātou kāinga i Waikato. Engari ka rapua tonutia he paremata mō ngā whenua i raupatutia, ā, ka nui atu ngā tautoko mō te Kīngitanga.

I te tau 1884 ka ārahina e Tāwhiao tētahi tira ki Ingarangi ki te kawe pitihana ki a Kuini Wikitōria. Ka tono ia kia tū he Pāremata Māori, tētahi kōmihana hoki hei rangahau i ngā whenua i raupatutia. I kaha ia ki te whakaputa i te kōrero, kāore te Kīngitanga i te hiahia kia noho wehe, ka arongia tonutia te mana o te Kuini. I ngana ia kia whakakotahi te iwi Māori, e pakari ake ai te tono i ngā manaakitanga a te Kuini. Ki tāna titiro, taea noatia ai te haere ngātahi o te Kīngi me te Kuini, ko te Atua ki runga. Ka whakahokia te pitihana a Tāwhiao ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa; kāore i arongia.

Ka mahi tonu a Tāwhiao kia rongohia ngā āwangawanga o te iwi Māori, ka pitihana tonu ia i te kāwanatanga. Nāna ka tū Te Kauhanganui, arā te Pāremata Māori. Ka mate ia i te tau 1894.

Te Hāpuku

Te Hapuku, 1870s. Photographer: Samuel Carnell.
Te Hapuku

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Nō te iwi o Ngāti Te Whatu-i-apiti o Ngāti Kahungunu a Te Hāpuku (?-1878). He rangatira nui ia ki Te Matau a Māui. I tōna ohinga i te wā o ngā pakanga ā-iwi, ka hopukina, ka mauria ia hei mauhere e ngā iwi o Waikato mō tētahi wā.

I te tau 1835 ka haina ia i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni. Koinā te take, i te heringa a Meiha Bunbury i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Te Matau a Māui i te tau 1840, ka tika tōna ara ki a Te Hāpuku ki te haina. I te tīmatanga, kāore ia i tautoko te Tiriti, i te mea hei tāna, nā tō rātou tautoko, kua noho a Ngā Puhi hei “taurekareka”; heoi, nō muri ka haina ia.

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1850, ka pūmau a Te Hāpuku ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te kōmihana hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Nā Te Hāpuku ia i āwhina ki te hoko i ētahi whenua nui ki Te Wairarapa, ki Te Matau a Māui. I hīkaka ia ki te hoko whenua, nā runga i te tūmanako ki te tau te noho a te Pākehā, ka whai hua te iwi, ka tipu ngā tauhokohoko. Ka titiro a Te Mākarini ki a Te Hāpuku ānō nei ko ia te rangatira nui o te rohe. Ka noho a Te Hāpuku hei āpiha hoko whenua mā te kāwanatanga. Nā tēnei, ka tipu te raruraru ki ētahi atu rangatira o Te Matau a Māui e whakakeke ana kia hoko whenua, me tā rātou kī, he rite, he nui ake rānei ō rātou mana i te mana o Te Hāpuku.

Ka whakatenetene tonu a Te Hāpuku ki te hoko whenua. Hei ētahi wā, kāore ngā tāngata kei te noho i runga i te whenua i te mōhio kei te hokona aua whenua e Te Hāpuku, ahakoa ō rātou pānga ki te whenua. Whai anō ka pakaru te riri i te 1857-58. Nā Te Mākarini te rongo i hohou i te marama o Hepetema o te tau 1858.

I ātete a Te Hāpuku ki te Kīngitanga, i whawhai ia ki ngā Hauhau, i whawhai ia ki a Te Kooti. Nō muri ka huri ia ki te tautoko i te kaupapa Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, i ngana ki te unu i ngā hokonga whenua i whakaarohia he whānako. Ka mate ia i te tau 1878.

Te Heuheu Tūkino III, Iwikau

Angas, George French 1822-1886 :Te Heuheu & Hiwikau, Tanpo [sic]. Te Kawaw & his nephew Orakai. George French Angas [delt]; J. W. Giles [lith]. Plate 56. 1847.
Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III.

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I whānau a Iwikau Te Heuheu Tukino III, ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa o Taupō mai i 1846 ki 1862, i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau tekau mā waru. He toa tūtū taua ia rite tonu ki tana tuakana ki a Mananui, ariki o mua atu i a ia.

I te marama o Hānuere 1840, ka haere ia ki Pēwhairangi i te taha o te kaikauwhau o Te Karuwhā, ki te hui nui mō te Tiriti o Waitangi. He pai katoa ki a ia ngā whakamārama a Te Karuwhā mō te Tiriti, ā, ka tahuri rāua ko tana hoa a Te Korohiko ki te haina, ahakoa kāore ō rāua mana haina mō te katoa o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I ētahi marama i muri mai, i te whakawhitinga kōrero mō tētahi kape o te Tiriti i Rotorua, ka turakina e te tuakana e Mananui te hainatanga a te teina. Engari kei te noho tonu te hainatanga o Iwikau ki te kape o te Tiriti i hainatia i Waitangi. I whakahoa atu a Iwikau ki a Kāwana Hori Kerei i ana hāereere ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, ā, i te tau 1850 ka haere tahi rāua i Tāmaki-makau-rau ki tōna kāinga i Pūkawa, i te moana o Taupō. Ka whakawhiwhia a Iwikau ki tētahi kara, he āhua rite tonu ki te kara i hoatu e Kīngi Wiremu IV o Ingarangi ki ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1834, hei tohu mō tōna piripono ki te Kuini.

I te tekau tau mai i 1850, ka anga a Iwikau ki te whakamāriri i te whakahē nui o te iwi Māori, otirā ki te tautoko i ngā whawhai a te Māori mō te ngaromanga o te whenua. Ka karangatia e ia tētahi hui nui ki Pūkawa i te tau 1856 ki te whakahē i ngā hoko whenua. He tino kaihāpai i te mana Māori motuhake, ā, ka tautokona hoki e ia te mahi whakatū kīngi. I tū ia ki te tautoko i te pōtaetanga o Pōtatau Te Wherowhero o Waikato hei Kīngi i Ngāruawāhia i te tau 1858. Nō te kānga o te ahi o te pakanga i Taranaki i te tau 1860, ka whakamātau ia ki te pupuru i a Ngāti Tūwharetoa kia kaua e whakauru ki te pakanga. Ko tōna wehi nui kei riro ngā whenua o tōna iwi.

Ka mate ia i te marama o Oketopa 1862.

Horonuku Te Heuheu Tūkino IV

Cabinet card portrait of Horonuku Te Heuheu IV, wearing a top hat and a sash, taken in the 1880s by Samuel Carnell of Napier.
Horonuku Te Heuheu Tukino IV

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I whānau mai a Horonuku Te Heuheu Tūkino i te tekau tau atu i 1820 ki ngā tahatika o te moana o Taupō. Ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa tōna iwi. I te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka pūmau tana tautoko i te Kīngitanga.

I te tau 1862 ka mate tōna matua kēkē, a Iwikau, ka ara ko Horonuku hei ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. I te tau 1863 ka whakahau a Kerei kia urutomokia te riu ki Waikato. Ko te aranga ake tērā o Te Heuheu ki te whakatutuki i te kupu taurangi a Iwikau ki te Kīngi Māori. Nāna i ārahi te ope taua o te iwi i haere ki te āwhina i ngā iwi o Waikato.

Ka hinga a Waikato, ko te hokinga tērā o Te Heuheu ki tōna kāinga. Nō muri ka rere ngā whakapae mōna he haumi nā Te Kooti, heoi, ko tāna, nā Te Kooti kē a ia i kahaki. Nā tana awe i te ao tōrangapū kāore te kāwanatanga i āta tirotiro i tēnei whakapae, ā, kāore hoki he whenua o Ngāti Tūwharetoa i raupatutia.

I te tau 1882 ka tukua e Ngāti Tūwharetoa ōna whenua ki te Rohe Pōtae, i runga i te tūmanako mā tēnei e ārahi atu ngā Pākehā e whakatata mai rā; i tua atu he tohu tēnei mō te tautoko a te iwi i te Kīngitanga. Heoi, i te tau 1885 ka tangohia e Te Heuheu a Tūwharetoa ki waho o tēnei whakaaetanga, ka tono kia kuhu te Kōti Whenua Māori me ana mahi ki roto i te rohe o Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

Tērā tētahi wā e noho ana te Kōti Whenua, ka tū ake a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui - rangatira o Muaūpoko/Ngāti Apa/Wanganui, hoariri o Te Kooti – ki te taunaha i te tonga o te moana o Taupō i runga i te take raupatu. I tana kī ake kei te mura tonu ana ahi kā ki te whenua, ka huri a Te Heuheu ka tohu ki te tihi o Tongariro (te maunga tapu o Ngāti Tūwharetoa) e tuku auahi mai rā me tana kī, “Arā taku ahi”. Whakawhiwhia ana ngā whenua katoa ki a Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

I te wā ka kōtitia te whenua, ka whakaaro a Te Heuheu – i runga i ngā akiaki a Te Paranihi, te Minita mō ngā Take Māori – ko te huarahi pai hei tiaki i ngā maunga tapu a Tongariro, a Ngāuruhoe, a Ruapehu, ko te tuku ki raro i te mana o te Karauna. Ka mana tēnei hiahia ōna, ka noho koinei ngā whenua tāpui tuatahi o te motu. Kāore ētahi o ngā rangatira i whakaae ki tēnei mahi āna. Ka mate a Te Heuheu i te tau 1888.

Āpihai Te Kawau

Te Kawaw & his nephew Orakai by George French Angas.1847.
Ko Apihai Te Kawau (e noho ana i te taha mauī) i te taha o tāna irāmutu, a Orakai.

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Nō te iwi o Ngāti Whātua a Āpihai Te Kawau (?-1869). Kāore e kore i roto ia i ngā pakanga ki a Ngā Puhi i tōna ohinga. Nō muri ka kuhu ia ki Te Āmiowhenua, te taua nui o Ngāti Whātua me Ngāti Maniapoto ka takahi i te ara o Tūmatauenga mā Rotorua, Te Matau a Māui, Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, Te Manawatū, Te Wairarapa, Wanganui, Taranaki, tatū ki Waikato. Whai muri i te patunga kino o Ngāti Whātua e Ngā Puhi i Te Ika-a-ranganui i te tau 1825, ka whakarērea a Tāmaki-makau-rau e Te Kawau me tōna iwi mō ētahi tau.

Ka haina a Te Kawau i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki ngā wai o Manukau i te marama o Maehe o te tau 1840. Ko tētahi take i haina ia, kia tiakina a Ngāti Whātua e Peretānia i ngā whakaekenga o Ngā Puhi. Whāia, ka hokona e Te Kawau te 3000 eka (1200 heketea) hei whakatū i te tāone matua o Ākarana ki ngā tahatika o Te Waitematā; e 50 pāuna me ētahi taonga hokohoko te utu mō aua whenua.

I te tīmatanga, taea noatia ai e Te Kawau ngā whakahaere i waenganui i tōna iwi me ngā mana o te koroni. I te tīmata ka ngana ia kia arongia ngā tikanga a te Maori. Kitea ai tenei āhuatanga i te Native Exemption Ordinance o te tau 1844, e mea ana ki te takahi te tangata Māori i te ture, ka whainahia ia, kāore ia e mauhereheretia, i te mea he takahi tenei i ngā tikanga a te Māori.

I te tau 1852 ka eke a Te Kawau hei āteha – he kaiwhakawā Māori ka mahi tahi me tētahi kaiwhakawā Pākehā ki te whakatau i ngā tautohetohe i waenganui i te Māori. Ka utua a ia ki te penihana mō tēnei mahi. Tāria te wā, ka whakahē a Te Kawau i te hoko whenua. Tatū rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1869, iti noa iho ngā whenua kua toe ki a Ngāti Whātua, ka mutu, kua kake ko te ture o Peretānia kei runga i ngā mea katoa.

Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki

[Artist Unknown] :Te Kooti at Rotorua 1887. [ie. December 1883?].
Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki

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Nō te hapū o Ngāti Maru, iwi o Rongowhakaata o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa a Te Kooti (? –1893). Ka huri a ia hei Karaitiana, ā, pērā tonu i te nuinga o ngā Māori o Tūranganui, ka kuhu ia ki ngā tauhokohoko ki tai. Ka hau te rongo mōna he mohoao, he wāwāhi tahā. Ka huri ētahi o ngā Pākehā me ētahi tonu o ōna uri tonu ki te whakamau ki a ia.

I te tau 1865, ko ia tētahi o te tokoiti o te hapū o Ngāti Maru i whakakeke ki te kuhu hei Pai Mārire, e ātete ana i te hokonga whenua ki te Pākehā. Ka kuhu kē ia ki te taha o te taua kāwanatanga ka whawhai ki ngā Hauhau i Waerenga-a-Hika i te marama o Nōema 1865. I te mutunga o te whawhai, ka whakapaetia ia he pūrahorua; ko te āhua nei, he mahi hīanga tēnei kia uru ai a Te Kooti ki te raruraru. Ka tono a ia ki a Te Mākarini kia whakawākia ngā whakapae kei runga i a ia; hauwarea. Ka panā ia ki Wharekauri i te taha o ngā mauhere Hauhau.

I te wā e mauhere ana ia i Wharekauri, ka uru he wairua ki roto i a ia. Koinei te auahatanga o te Hāhi Ringatū, i taketake mai i te Kawenata Tawhito me ngā tikanga a te Māori. I te rā 4 o Hūrae 1868 ka aratakina e Te Kooti ngā mauhere kia puta i Wharekauri – 163 ngā tāne, 135 ngā wāhine tae atu ki ngā tamariki – mā runga i te kaipuke Rifleman nā rātou i muru. Nō te 10 o Hūrae ka tau te Rifleman  ki te tonga o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Ka tukua e Te Kooti tana kōrero ki a Te Piiki (Reginald Biggs), te kaiwhakawā ā-rohe mō Tūranganui, e mea ana kāore a ia me te whakarau i te hiahia whawhai ki ngā Pākehā, ko te hiahia kē o Te Kooti kia haere ki te Rohe Pōtae, ki reira whakaū ai i tōna tūranga hei kaiarataki i te wairua o te iwi Māori. Ka whakahau a Te Piiki kia tukua e te whakarau ō rātou pū ki raro; tē arohia atu. Kātahi ka whāia, ka tomokia rātou e Te Piiki; koinei te tīmatanga o te riri.

I ngā marama ka whai, ka toa a Te Kooti i roto i ngā pakanga, ā, i te marama o Nōema 1868 kei raro te nuinga o Tūranganui i tōna mana. Hui katoa, e 200 ana toa, ngā whakarau mai i Wharekauri me ētahi atu Māori i whakapiri ki a ia – te nuinga nō te iwi o Ngāi Tūhoe o Te Urewera, nō ngā hapū o Ngāti Kahungunu o te taha whakaroto o Wairoa hoki. Nā te kōhuru o ētahi mauhere Pākehā, Māori (he wāhine, tamariki ētahi) i Matawhero i te Nōema 1868, ka mauāhara ētahi rangatira Māori ki a ia. Waihoki, nā te wehi me te mataku, ka tahuri ētahi ki te tautoko i a ia. I tua atu, ka mārō te kāwanatanga ki te hopu, ki te whakamate rānei i a Te Kooti. E rima mano pāuna ka utaina ki runga i tōna māhunga.

I te riri i Ngātapa i te marama o Hānuere i te tau 1869, ka hinga ngā toa a Te Kooti i ngā hōia Pākehā me ngā kūpapa mai i Ngāti Porou, Te Arawa, Ngāti Kahungunu. Ka puta a Te Kooti me ētahi atu i tēnei mate nui. Heoi, ka hopukina, ka whakamatea ētahi o ana toa; e mea ana te kōrero neke atu i te 120 tō rātou tokomaha. I te marama o Āperira o taua tau anō, ka huakina e Te Kooti a Mōhaka (Te Matau-a-Māui); taro ake ka rere whakaroto ia ki Te Urewera.

Kātahi ka tau te mutunga mai o te kino ki runga ki te tangata, ki runga ki te whenua. Ka pāhuatia a Te Urewera e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga, kia kore e taea te manaaki, te whakamarumaru i a Te Kooti me tana ope iti. He tohunga a Te Kooti ki te kokoti whakamoe. Tē mau i ngā hōia. Mō ngā tau e whā ka whai, i takahia a Kāingaroa, Te Urewera me ngā rohe tata e ngā ope taua; he muru, he tahu, he kōhuru ngā mahi.

Ko te whakamutunga o ngā riri kei roto i Te Urewera. Ka tuku tēnā me tēnā rangatira o Ngāi Tūhoe i a ia ki raro. I te kaha kore o te iwi, ka rere a Te Kooti ki te Rohe Pōtae, ki reira noho ai i raro i te mana o Kīngi Tāwhiao. I konei ka whakairia e ia tana patu me tana pū, kore rawa mō te whakaarahia. Ka noho a Te Kooti ki Te Kūiti i te Rohe Pōtae, kia unuhia ngā whakapae a te ture kei runga i a ia i te tau 1883. Ahakoa tērā, kāore i whakaaetia tana hoki ki tōna kāinga tūturu ki Tūranganui. I tēnei wā ka whakaritea e ia ngā tikanga o te Hāhi Ringatū. Ka tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1870, kua horapa te hāhi, kua hau hoki te rongo mō Te Kooti hei matakite, hei tohunga whakaora tangata. Ka mate ia i te tau 1893.

Te Pahi

Harris, George Prideaux, 1775-1840 :Tippahee a New Zealand chief / eng[rave]d by W Archibald from an original drawing by G P Harris. [London, 1827].
Te Pahi.

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Ko Te Pahi (? -1810), nō Ngā Puhi, tētahi rangatira o Pēwhairangi. Koia te rangatira whai mana tuatahi i kōrero auau tonu ki ngā āpiha Ingarihi o ngā koroni. I te tau 1805, ka noho a Te Pahi me ana tama tokowhā i te Whare o te Kāwana i Poihākena, arā, hei manuhiri mā Kāwana Philip King. I te hiahia ngā taha e rua ki te whakawhanaunga tētahi ki tētahi: I te hiahia a Kīngi kia tiakina ngā rōpū whaiwhai tohorā o Ingarangi, ko te hiahia o Te Pahi kia tae wawe mai ki a Ngā Puhi ngā mahi hokohoko me ngā taputapu hou. I tūtaki hoki ia ki a Te Mātenga ā, ka hoki mai ki te kāinga me ētahi koha, tae noa ki ētahi kōpura taewa, me tētahi whare pakupaku kua oti kē ōna wāhanga te tūhonohono.

E whā tau i muri mai ka huakina te Boyd, he kaipuke whaiwhai tohorā, i Whangaroa, ka patua ōna heremana. Ka whakapaetia a Te Pahi mō tēnei parekura, engari tērā anō ētahi i kī i te hē ngā whakapae mōna. I taotū ia i te pakanga takitaki mate o te taha Ingarihi, ā, ka hinga ia i tētahi pakanga i muri iho, i waenganui i tōna iwi me te iwi o Whangaroa. Ahakoa ngā tautohetohe mō tāna mahi i ēnei pakanga, nā tana mahi nui ki te whakawhanaunga ki ngā āpiha koroni i piki ake ai tō rātou whakaaro he mea pai te toro mai o te ringa whakawhanaunga ki te ao Māori, hei painga mō ngā taha e rua.

Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui

Portrait of Major Kemp. Photographer unidentified.
Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui

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He rangatira a Te Keepa – a Major Kemp rānei ki ngā Pākehā – o ngā iwi o Muaūpoko, o Ngāti Apa, o Wanganui. I whānau mai ia i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1820, i te wā o te riri, o te hiki a ngā iwi pēnei i a Ngāti Toa, a Ngāti Raukawa, a Te Ātiawa ki te tonga.

I te tau 1848 i whai wāhi ia ki te hokonga o te poraka ki Wanganui, nō muri ka uru ia ki ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū. Kia tae ki te tau 1862 ko Te Keepa tētahi o ngā rangatira tautoko i te kāwanatanga. I te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1860 i te pakanga a Te Keepa ki ngā Hauhau (ngā kaihāpai i te whakapono Pai Mārire). Ka tū ngā whawhai ki te awa o Wanganui, ki te Tonga hoki o Taranaki. Ka kake a ia ki te tūranga hei meiha, ka tirohia ana toa pēnei i te mea nei ko rātou ngā toa o ngā toa.

I te 1868-69 kei reira anō a Te Keepa me ana toa, kei ngā pakanga ki a Te Kooti me Tītokowaru. I ngā riri ki a Tītokowaru, ko Te Keepa rātou ko ana toa anake ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga i tū kaha i te matawhāura. I te tau 1869 ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki te hoari hōnore a te Kuini; whāia, i ngā tau 1874 me te 1876 ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki te Rīpeka o Niu Tireni me te Mētara o Niu Tireni mō Tūmatauenga. Ahakoa anō ēnei tohu rangatira a te Pākehā, nui te mana o Te Keepa ki roto i te ao Māori mō tōna tohungatanga ki te whawhai.

I te tau 1865 ka tohungia a Te Keepa hei āteha mō te Kōti Whenua Māori, ā, i te tau 1871 ka tohungia a ia hei āpiha hoko whenua. Kātahi ia ka huri ki te whai utu mō Muaūpoko i ngā pakanga me ngā hingatanga ki a Ngāti Raukawa me ētahi atu iwi i te tekau tau atu i 1820. Whāia, ka tū te pā o ana toa kua pūkengatia rā ki te whawhai, ki te taha o te moana o Horowhenua. Heoi, he riri motumotu noa iho te riri. Nō muri ka hoki anō te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te whakawhānui i ngā whenua i whakaritea mō Muaūpoko. E ai ki tētahi tumu kōrero, he “āwhina nui” ki te kaiwhakawā i roto i tana whakatau te kī taurangi a Te Keepa, ki te kore e eke ki tā Muaūpoko i hiahia ai, ka haere tonu ngā rīriri.

I te tekau tau atu i 1880 ka ātete a Te Keepa i te hokonga whenua. Ka whakahau a ia kia kaua e hokona ngā whenua e toe ana, me tū motuhake te Māori. I te tau 1880 ka ngana ia ki te whakatū i tētahi kaitiaki whenua ki Wanganui. Kāore e whakaaetia te hoko whenua; ka tōpūngia ngā whenua i raro i ngā whakahaere o tētahi Rūnanga. Hauwarea tēnei me ētahi atu kaupapa whakapai ake i ngā whenua i runga i te mahi tahi me te Pākehā, nā te mea kāore i arongia e ngā Ture Whenua Māori.

Nō muri ka kuhu a Te Keepa ki te Kotahitanga, i ngana kia whakamanaia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakakorea ngā Ture Whenua Māori, kia whai wāhi anō te Māori ki te whakahaere i a ia anō. Ka mate ia i te tau 1898.

Te Keepa Te Rangi-pūawhe

Wi Keepa Te Rangipuawhe.
Te Keepa Te Rangi-puawhe

Image: Rotorua Museum of Art & History, Te Whare Taonga o Te Arawa, Rotorua, NZ- ref GP760
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He rangatira a Te Keepa Te Rangi-pūawhe (?-1905) nō te iwi o Tūhourangi o Te Arawa, i noho mai ki Tarawera, pātata ki Rotorua. Ka whawhai ia mō te kāwanatanga i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Tae rawa ki te tau 1869 kua eke a Te Keepa hei meiha i Ngā Hōia ā-Iwi o Niu Tīreni; ko ia hoki te kaingārahu o tētahi ope taua o Te Arawa i kuhu ki Te Urewera ki te aru i a Te Kooti, te kaingārahu o ngā tāngata whakakeke ki te kāwanatanga.

I te tekau tau atu i 1870, ko Te Keepa tērā kei te arohae i ngā hokonga whenua a te kāwanatanga, tapiri atu ko ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ka tautoko ia i te whakatūnga o ngā runanga ā-iwi hei whakatau taitara mō ngā whenua, hei whakahaere hoki i te rironga o ngā whenua.

I te mutunga o ngā pakanga, ka hua a Tūhourangi i te manaaki tūruhi ka taetae mai ki tō rātou rohe. Ko te maha o ngā wāhi puia, ngā wāhi mīharo hoki pērā i “ngā tūāpapa māwhero, tea”, kei runga i ngā whenua o Tūhourangi i Tarawera. Kotia ohoreretia rā ngā tauhokohoko a te iwi i te hūnga o Tarawera i te 10 o Hune i te tau 1886. Neke atu i te 100 tāngata i mate, whakangarohia ngā tūāpapa. Ka rere mōrehu a Tūhourangi ki ō rātou whanaunga i Rotorua me ētahi atu rohe. Ka tautohe rawa a Te Keepa ki te kāwanatanga kia nui atu ngā āwhina ki ngā mōrehu o te hū o Tarawera. Kore rawa a Tūhourangi i eke ki taua tūranga teitei o mua i roto i ngā kaupapa manaaki tūruhi i te takiwā o Rotorua. Ki te tāpirihia tēnei mate ki te rironga tonutanga o ō rātou whenua, i te mutunga atu, ka paheke te ōhanga, te noho me te wairua o te iwi.

Taihoa, ka tautoko a Te Keepa i te rōpū Kotahitanga, e whai ana kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia hurihia ngā ture e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori, kia riro hoki ko te Māori tonu hei kāwanatanga mōna ki ētahi taumata, mā roto i tētahi Pāremata Māori, arā mā te Kotahitanga. I tōna matenga i te tau 1905, ka ūhia ngā hōnore hōia ki runga ki a ia.

Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke

Possibly a portrait of Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake, circa 1880. Taken by an unidentified photographer.
Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake

Image: ATL 1/2-022668-F
© Image copyright conditions

I whānau a Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke ki Waitara i Taranaki i te paunga o ngā 1700. Ko Te Āti Awa tōna iwi. I pakeke ia i te wā o ngā heke nui o ngā iwi (mai i Taranaki me Kāwhia) ki te tonga - ki Manawatū, Kapiti, Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara me te Tauihu o te Waka a Māui. Nō ngā tekau tau o 1820 me 1830 ēnei heke.

I te tau 1839 ka tāia e Te Rangitāke tana moko ki tētahi tīra a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, heoi, ko te whakapae, kāore ia i tino mārama ki te tikanga o tēnei tuhinga. I te tau 1840, ka tuhia e ia tana moko ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, he mea hari whakatetonga e Te Karuwhā (Henry Williams).

Ko te urupare a Te Rangitāke ki te kī a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni e mea ana kua hokona e te Kamupene ōna whenua ki Taranaki inā, “Kore rawa a Waitara e hokona”. Kātahi ka putaputa ngā whakahau a Kāwana Kerei ki a Te Āti Awa kia tukua ō rātou whenua i Waitara; ko te whakautu ki tērā, ko te hoki a te iwi atu i Waikanae ki Taranaki.

Mō ngā tau 11 ka whai, ka whakahoahoa ngā āpiha hoko whenua ki ērā o ngā rangatira ki tā rātou titiro tērā ka whakaaro mō te hoko. Nā tēnei, kāore i tau te noho a ngā hapū; waihoki, i te tau 1854 ka pakaru mai ngā riri ki waenganui i ētahi hapū, tētahi ki tētahi.

Kāore a Te Rangitāke mō te hoko i ngā whenua. Ka tipu te riri me ngā tāngata whai. He rite tana whakaputa i tōna hiahia kia noho pai me te Pākehā; heoti, kāore ia i whakaae ko te whenua hei utu mō taua noho pai.

I te tau 1859 ka tāpaea e Te Teira Mānuka tētahi pito whenua tata ki Waitara ki te kāwanatanga hei hoko. Ko te kōrero a Te Rangitāke, kaua taua whenua e hokona. Ka kī a ia ki te Kāwana, “E kore au e whakaae kia hokona a Waitara... kei roto a Waitara i te kapu o tōku ringa, kore mō te tuku. Kore, kore, kore rawa mō te tuku”. Hei tā te kāwanatanga, kāore he pānga ake o Te Rangitāke ki taua whenua. I tua atu, kei te hiahia te hunga nō rātou ake aua whenua ki te hoko, ā, ka tautokona rātou e te kāwanatanga me ana hōia. Heoti, i te whakaputa kē a Te Rangitāke i te mana o te rangatira nui, e tareka ai te whakakāhore i ngā ritenga hoko i ngā whenua o te iwi.

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka tukua e te kāwanatanga ana kairūri, ā, kāore i roa ka mura ngā ahi o te riri. Hinga atu, hinga mai; kāore tētahi taha i eke ki runga i tētahi taha. Nā ngā rangatira o te Kingitanga i ārahi ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō te whakamutu i ngā riri. I te rongotanga o Kāwana Kerei i ētahi “kōrero kātahi anō ka puta”, ka whakakāhoreta e ia te hokonga whenua i Waitara. I te tomokanga o ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga ki te poraka whenua o Tātaramaika i te tau 1863, ka mura anō ngā ahi o te riri. Ka hinga a Te Āti Awa. Ka raupatutia ōna whenua. Ki tā rātou, kātahi tētahi āhuatanga hē, kino nui rawa atu ko tēnei.

Ka kuhu a Te Rangitāke ki te whakaruru o Te Rohe Pōtae mō tētahi tekau tau neke atu. Nō muri ka tautoko ia i te kāinga mautohe kua tū ki Parihaka, i raro i ngā matakite a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu Kākahi. Ka mate a Te Rangitāke i te tau 1882.

Te Rauparaha

[Coates, Isaac] 1808-1878 :Rauparaha. Chief Capiti. &c. &c. Principal chief of all New Zealand. [1843?].
Te Rauparaha.

Image: ATL A-286-012
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Ko te ingoa o Te Rauparaha (? - 1849) he whakamahara ki te taunu a tētahi rangatira o Waikato, i a ia e tamariki ana, i puta ana kupu whakahāwea ka patua e ia, otirā ka tukua ia ki te hāngī, ko ngā rau parahā hei rautao. Ko te kāinga taketake o Te Rauparaha, ko Kāwhia. Nā Te Rauparaha a Ngāti Toa i ārahi i tōna pakanga roa ki ngā iwi o Waikato. Nā ngā parekura o Ngāti Toa i aua pakanga, ka wehe atu ōna iwi i te takiwā o Waikato ki wāhi kē. I ngā tau 1820, ka ārahina e ia a Ngāti Toa me ōna hoa i tō rātou heke nui ki Te Upoko o te Ika. Kua whiwhi pū a Ngāti Toa, nō reira ka raru i a rātou ngā iwi o ngā rohe o te tonga i ngā pakanga mō te whenua. Mai i Kāpiti Motu, ka whakahaeretia e Te Rauparaha te whakaekenga o ngā iwi o Te Tauihu o te Waka a Māui, ā, ka kōkiritia e ia ngā pā o Ngāi Tahu, tae rawa atu ki Kaiapoi. I te tau 1839 ka hokona e Te Rauparaha he whenua i Whakatū me Te Tai Tapu ki te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, ā, nō te tau 1840 ka hainatia e ia te Tiriti o Waitangi – e rua rawa ana hainatanga, ki ētahi kape e rua – i runga i te whakaaro mā reira pea e riro mai ai i a ia te tino mana o ngā whenua kua raupatutia e ia. I muri ka ātete tonu a Te Rauparaha ki ngā mahi a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ki te rūri i te whenua kīhai i hokona atu e ia. I te pakanga nui i te Wairau i te tau 1843, ka kauparea atu e rātou ko ana kaitautoko tētahi ope Pākehā kua tae mai ki te whakarau i a ia. E 22 ngā kaiwhakanoho Pākehā i mate, me ētahi o te taha Māori. I te wehi nui ngā kaiwhakanoho Pākehā i Pōneke me te Awakairangi kei tāorotia rātou e Ngāti Toa. I te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1846, ka kōkiritia te pā o Te Rauparaha e Kāwana Hori Kerei, ka mauheretia ia. I mauheretia ia, ahakoa kāore i tika i raro i te ture, taea noatia te marama o Hānuere 1848. Ko te mahi a Kerei i roto i aua marama, he tukituki i a Ngāti Toa.

Wiremu Tāmihana Te Waharoa Tarapīpipi (Te “Kaihanga Kīngi”)

Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi Te Waharoa, circa 1860s. Taken by an unidentified photographer.
Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi Te Waharoa (the "Kingmaker")

Image: ATL 1/2-053941-F
© Image copyright conditions

I whānau mai a Tāmihana i te takiwā o te tau 1805. Ko Ngāti Hauā te iwi, ko Tainui te waka. I tana ohinga ka kuhuna ia ki ngā ope taua o tōna iwi. He mihinare a A. N. Brown nā te Rōpū Hāhi Mihinare. Ka mahi ia ki Matamata. Nāna a Tāmihana i ako ki te pānui me te tuhi i roto i te reo.

I te matenga o tōna matua i te tau 1838 ka nui ake te tūranga o Tāmihana. Whāia, ka ātete ia i ngā whakahau kia kawea te riri ki ngā iwi noho tata. Ahakoa tana huri hei Karaitiana, i ū tonu ia ki tōna ao Māori.

I te tau 1838 ka tīmata tana hanga kāinga hou ki Te Tāpiri. Ka whai ngā ture o tōna kāinga i ngā Whakahau Tekau. Tatū rawa ki te tau 1839, e 300 tāngata e noho ana i reira. E ai ki ngā kōrero, ka taea e te whare karakia o Te Tāpiri te 1000 tāngata. I haina ētahi o ngā rangatira o Waikato i te Tiriti o Waitangi, engari anō a Tamihana me ētahi atu, ahakoa tō ratou ngākau mārie ki ngā tāngata whai.

I te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka whakatūria e Tāmihana tētahi atu kāinga Karaitiana ki Pēria. He poutāpeta, he whare kura, he mira wīti ki reira, ā, ko te rūnanga te kaiwhakahaere o te kāinga. Kāore i roa ka hua te pai ki Pēria. Ka mihi a Te Koohi, te Kaiwhakahaere Kāwanatanga ki Waikato, mō ngā whakahaere pāpori, tōrangapū o Ngāti Hauā; hei tā Te Koohi, nā Tāmihana tēnei mahi.

Pērā i te tini o te iwi Māori, ka āwangawanga a Tāmihana mō te horapa o te Pākehā me tōna ao, ngā hoko whenua, te kore tautoko a te kāwanatanga i te noho me ngā whakahaere a te Māori. Ka whakapono a Tāmihana mā te kotahitanga o ngā iwi e ārai atu i te noho a te Pākehā; mā konā anō hoki e tau ai te rangimārie ki waenganui i ngā iwi. Ko Tāmihana tētahi i whai wāhi nui ki te hangatanga o te Kīngitanga me te whakatūnga o Pōtatau Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi Māori tuatahi. Whai anō mōhiotia ai ia ko te “Kaihanga Kīngi”. I te whakawahiatanga o Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi i te marama o Mei o te tau 1859, ka meahia e Tāmihana tētahi Paipera ki runga i te ūpoko o Te Wherowhero. Tatū ki tēnei rā, kei te kawea tonuhia taua tikanga e ngā uri whakaheke o Tāmihana.

Ka pau te kaha o Tāmihana ki te Kīngitanga. Nāna i awhi kia whakatūria tētahi nūpepa reo Māori. I te tau 1860 ka pakaru te riri ki Taranaki, ka haere a Tāmihana hei takawaenga. Heoi, kāore te kāwanatanga i te tino whakapono ki tēnei, ka whakakeke kē ki te Kīngitanga. Ahakoa ngā whakahau a Tāmihana mā, ka kuhu ētahi o ngā toa o Waikato ki te awhi i te hunga “whakakeke” o Taranaki. Tere tonu te whakapae a Kāwana Browne kei te takahi a Waikato i te Tiriti o Waitangi; ko tana tono tērā kia tuku rātou ki raro. Ko te whakautu a Tāmihana ki tēnei, kāore he tukituki o te Kīngitanga ki te mana o te Kuini o Peretānia: taea rawatia te mahi tahi a te Kīngi me te Kuini i raro i te maru o Ihowa o ngā mano.

I te tau 1863, i runga i te whakahau a Kāwana Kerei, ka whakawhiti ngā hōia o Peretānia i te awa o Mangatāwhiri, ka kuhu i ngā whenua kei raro i te mana o te Kīngitanga. Ahakoa ōna pā maioro me te tohungatanga o te Māori ki te hanga parepare, taea ai e ngā hōia te whakaeke, te karapoti rānei i a rātou. Kia rere rā anō ngā iwi o Waikato ki te Rohe Pōtae, kātahi anō ka marewa te riri. Kātahi ka kawea te riri ki roto o Tauranga. I te mutunga, ka pau te kaha o Tāmihana ki te whai paremata mō ngā whenua i raupatutia. Ka mate ia i te tau 1866.

Kātahi tētahi tangata ko Tāmihana; ahakoa tana matawhānui, nā te riri i kawea e tētahi atu, kāore i tutuki ōna tūmanako mō tōna iwi.

Wiremu Te Mōrehu Maipapa Te Wheoro

Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa Te Wheoro.
Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa Te Wheoro.

Image: Special Collections, Auckland City Libraries (NZ) 2736
© Image copyright conditions

He rangatira a Wiremu Te Wheoro (?-1895) o Ngāti Naho, hapū o Waikato. He pānga tō Ngāti Naho ki a Ngāti Mahuta. I tētahi hui nui i te tau 1857 i karangahia hei tohu i a Te Wherowhero hei Kīngi Māori, ka tū a Te Wheoro ki te tautoko i te Kāwana. I te tau 1862 ka tohungia ia hei āteha, arā, he kaiwhakawā Māori ka noho me tētahi kaiwhakawā Pākehā ki te whakatau i ngā tautohetohe i waenganui i ētahi Māori. I te tau 1853 ka tīmata tana hanga i tētahi whare kōti mō Te Koohi (John Gorst), te kaiwhakawā ā-rohe; ka rīriri rātou ko ngā tāngata o te Kīngitanga. Ka pakaru ngā riri i te tau 1863. Tē taea e Te Wheoro te ārai i ana toa kia kuhu ki ngā ope taua a te Kīngi. Heoi, ka harihari kai tonu ia mā ngā hōia Pākehā i ngā pakanga ki Waikato. Nō muri i ngā pakanga, ka noho ia hei takawaenga i waenganui i te kāwanatanga me ngā rangatira o te Kīngitanga; heoi, nā te raupatunga o ngā whenua, hauwarea atu ngā mahi whakamārire a Te Wheoro. Ka tahuri ia ki te rapu paremata mō ngā whenua o tōna hapū i raupatutia; kāore i arongia ēnei tono āna.

I te tau 1865 ka tohungia a Te Wheoro hei āteha mā te Kōti Whenua Māori. Taihoa, ka whakawātea ia i tēnei tūranga, nā tana mōrikarika ki ngā mahi kino a te Kōti. Ko tana whakapae, kei te whakawhiwhia e te Kōti ngā taitara whenua ki ngā Māori kei te hiahia ki te hoko i te whenua. I te tau 1879 ka pōtitia a Te Wheoro ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Hau-ā-uru. Ka arohaehae tonu ia i te Kōti Whenua Māori me ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki te Māori. I tētahi tautohetohe i te Whare Pāremata i te tau 1882 mō te Pire Reiti Whenua Māori, ka whiua e ia tana whakapae mō te kāwanatanga, he arero rua, he apu whenua.

I te tau 1884, ka haere a Te Wheoro ki Ingarangi i te taha o Kīngi Tāwhiao, ka tono tika ki a Kuini Wikitōria kia ea ngā nawe o te Māori, tae atu ki ngā whenua o Waikato i raupatutia. Kāore rātou i tūtaki ki te Kuini, ka tūtaki kē rātou ki a Rōre Tāpiri (Lord Derby), te Hēkeretari mō ngā Koroni. Ka whakatakoto e Te Wheoro i ngā nawe ki mua i a Rōre Tāpiri mō ngā whenua raupatu kāore anō kia whakahokia, mō te paremata kāore anō kia utua. Ka whakaatu ia kua kore ia e whakapono ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, kāore hoki he mana tōrangapū o te Māori. Ka tukua e Peretānia ēnei nawe ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa hei whakaarotanga ake mā rātou; kāore i paku arongia.

I a ia i Rānana, ka riro tōna tūru i te Pāremata, i tua atu, kāore i arongia e te Kōti Whenua Māori ana kerēme mō Maungatautari. Ka whakahē tonu a Te Wheoro i ngā kaupapa here a te Kāwanatanga mō te iwi Māori tae rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1895.
Pōtatau Te Wherowhero

Angas, George French 1822-1886 :Te Werowero, or Potatau the principal chief of all Waikato. Te Waru, principal chief of the Nga Ti Apakura tribe. Te Pakaru, principal chief of the Nga Ti Maniapoto tribe. George French Angas delt & lith. Plate 44. 1847.
Potatau Te Wherowhero.

Image: ATL PUBL-0014-44
© Image copyright conditions

Ko te wehenga tuatahi o ngā rā o Te Wherowhero hei pakeke, ko ana pakanga i te wā o te pananga o Ngāti Toa me Te Rauparaha e Waikato, kia wehe atu i Kāwhia. Ka tū mārō hoki tōna iwi ki ngā kōkiri mai a Ngā Puhi, ā, ka hokia tonutia ngā ara pakanga e ōna ope taua ki runga o Taranaki.

Kāore rawa a Te Wherowhero i whakaae ki te haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi, engari i whiriwhiri tahi ia ki te Kāwanatanga o te Koroni. I hokona e ia ētahi whenua ki te Karauna, ā, i te tau 1849, ka hainatia tētahi kirimana kia riro māna ngā Pākehā o Tāmaki-makau-rau e tiaki ki ōna ope taua. He kaha tonu ia ki te tohutohu i ngā Kāwana nei, i a Hori Kerei rāua ko Koa Parāone, engari i whakahē ia ki ngā tikanga a te Tari o ngā Koroni kia whaowhia katoatia ngā whenua kāore i kōia hei māra ki roto i ngā ringaringa o te Karauna.

I te tekau tau mai i 1850, ka korikori te iwi ki te whakatū kīngi Māori, māna ngā iwi hei whakakotahi, hei tiaki kia kaua e ngaro ō rātou whenua te hoko, māna hoki e hanga ture tōtika mō te iwi Māori. Ka pōtaea a Te Wherowhero hei kīngi i te tau 1858. Ki te titiro a Te Wherowhero, ehara te kīngi Māori i te hoa tauwhāinga mō te Kuini, engari ia ngā mana o te Koroni me ētahi o ana kaitautoko, i rerekē ngā whakaaro. I mate a Te Wherowhero e rua tau i muri o tōna pōtaetanga, ā, ka piki tana tama, a Tāwhiao, hei kīngi.

Te Whiti o Rongomai

Carte-de-visite portrait of Erueti Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, a copy of an 1880 sketch by William Francis Robert Gordon.
Erueti Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III

Image: ATL PA1-o-423-10-4
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Ka whānau mai a Te Whiti (?-1907) i te wā o ngā pakanga mau pū i waenganui i ngā iwi. Ko tōna iwi ko Te Āti Awa o Taranaki. E ai ki ngā kōrero, e tamariki tonu ana a Te Whiti ka puta i a ia ngā tohu o te matakite, o te poropiti. I āta manaakitia ia e tōna iwi. I tua atu, he tangata matatau ia ki te whakapono Karaitiana; kātahi ka nui atu ngā rongo kōrero mōna i te ao Māori. E ai ki te kōrero, i roto a Te Whiti i ngā riri ki Taranaki i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Heoti, tae rawa ki te pokapū o taua tekau tau, kua huri kē ia ki te mautohe mārie ki te tomo mai o te Pākehā me te rironga o ngā whenua.

Tērā tētahi kōrero e mea ana i whakatūria te kāinga o Parihaka e Te Whiti mā i te tekau tau atu i 1840, hei wāhi haumaru i ngā whakararu ki takutai. Tērā tētahi atu kōrero e mea ana, nō muri rawa i ngā riri me te raupatunga whenua o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka tū tōna kāinga i Parihaka. Ahakoa he aha, ka tipu a Parihaka hei pokapū mō ngā mautohe mārie a te iwi Māori. Ko Te Whiti rāua ko tōna pāpā a Tohu Kakahi ngā kaiārahi. Rite a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti, he matakite. Ko te take nui ki te iwi Māori ko ngā whenua i raupatutia me te kore tutuki i te kāwanatanga tana kī taurangi mō ngā whenua ka rāhuitia mō te Māori.

I te tau 1879 ka tīmata te kāwanatanga ki te rūri i te whenua raupatu e 16,000 eka te rahi i ngā mānia o Waimate. Kāore i rāhuitia he wāhanga o tēnei whenua mō te Māori. Hei utu mō tēnei, ka tīmata a Te Whiti rātou ko Tohu, ko te iwi ki te parau i ngā whenua kei te nōhia e te Pākehā. Ka mauherea ētahi. Hāunga tērā, ka nui haere ngā mautohe, ka tū a Parihaka hei tohu whakakaha i te tini o te iwi Māori. Ka tukua mai e tēnā iwi, e tēnā iwi he kai, tae rawa ki Wharekauri.

I te rā 5 o Nōema o te tau 1881 ka whakaekea a Parihaka e ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū me ngā tūao e 1600 te rahi; ko tō rātou kaiārahi ko te Minita mō ngā Take Māori, a Te Paraihe (John Bryce). Kāore i ātetetia tō rātou kuhu e te iwi o Parihaka e 2000 pea te tokomaha. Ka horahia ngā kai mā Te Paraihe me tōna ope, ka waiatatia rātou. Kia ahatia. Whakamararatia ana te iwi, mauheretia ana a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. Wāwāhia ana te kāinga o Parihaka. Kei te mau tonu ngā kōrero tuku iho mō ngā mahi whakarihariha a ngā hōia, tā rātou tūkino i ngā wāhine.

Ka ūhia ngā whakapae ki runga i a Te Whiti mō te “whakatutū i te puehu i runga i te kino, i te ngākau waniwani”. Ka mauherea ia, hāunga te mea kāore anō kia tū he whakawākanga. Nō te tau 1883 ka tukua ia. I tana hokinga kua pākarukaru katoa a Parihaka. Ka ārahi tonu a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu i ngā mautohe mārire, whai anō i te tau 1886 ka whiua anōtia a Te Whiti ki te whare herehere mō te ono marama. Nā te Ture Whakatau Papa Rāhui o te Tai Hauāuru o te tau 1892, ka tareka e ngā tāngata whai te whakahou i ā rātou rīhi i runga i ngā whenua Māori e 200,000 eka. Hei ātete i te ture nei, ka haere tonu ngā mautohe mārire a ngā Māori. I te tau 1897, e 92 ngā tāngata Māori i mauherea mō te parau whenua; i mautohe nā te takaroa o te whakatau i ō rātou nawe mō ngā whakahaere a te Kaitiaki Māori i ngā rīhi nei.

Nō te tau 1907 i mate ai a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. Ko te raukura toroa te tohu a ngā pononga o Te Whiti e whakaū ana i te mana o Parihaka, e mau tonu nei i roto o Te Āti Awa i ēnei rā.

Hēnare Mātene Te Whiwhi

Henare Matene Te Whiwhi.
Henare Matene Te Whiwhi

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Ko Ngāti Toa rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa ngā iwi o Hēnare Mātene Te Whiwhi (?-1881). I ngā rā o tana ohinga ko ia tērā ka heke me te iwi ki ngā rohe i ngā tahatika o Te Moana o Raukawa. Nā ana kitenga pea i tērā wā ka toko ake te take nui mā Te Whiwhi, ā, mate rawa, arā, te hohou i te rongo.

I te tau 1839 ka haere ia ki Pēwhairangi ki te rapu i tētahi mihinare Karaitiana mō tōna iwi. Ka whakaae a Te Harawira (Octavius Hadfield) ko ia ka haere ki te hāpai i ngā mahi mīhana. Whāia, ka tū te kāinga o Te Harawira ki Waikanae. I te tau 1840 ka haina a Te Whiwhi i te Tiriti o Waitangi, i kawea ki te tonga e tētahi atu mihinare, e Te Karuwhā (Henry Williams).

I te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1840, i te mahi mīhana a Te Whiwhi ki roto i a Ngāi Tahu i Te Waipounamu. I te tau 1847 ko ia tērā ka whai wāhi ki te hokonga o ngā whenua o Ngāti Toa i Te Wairau ki te kāwanatanga. I tenei wā, kua mauherea a Te Rauparaha kāore he whakapae, kāore he whakawākanga. Ko te kōrero a ētahi tumu kōrero, ehara taua hokonga i te hokonga pono, he whakaritenga kē e tukua ai a Te Rauparaha.

I te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka tīmata tana hāpai i te whakatū o tētahi Kīngi mō te iwi Māori, hei pupuri i ngā whenua e toe tonu ana ki te Māori. Hāunga tērā, ka pūmau ia ki te ara hūmārie. I te pakarutanga mai o ngā riri i te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka ngana a Te Whiwhi ki te ārai atu i te riri, kei eke ki ngā whenua o Ngāti Toa. E ai ki a A. H. Oliver, nā tana ngana kia mau te rongo a Te Whiwhi i whakawhirinaki atu ai ki te kāwanatanga. Nō te tau 1881 a ia i mate ai.

Matiaha Tiramōrehu

Matiaha Tiramorehu, circa 1870s. Photographer Unknown.
Matiaha Tiramorehu

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I whānau a Matiaha Tiramōrehu (?-1881) i te pā o Kaiapoi. Ko Ngāi Tūahuriri te hapū, ko Ngāi Tahu te iwi. I te whakaekenga o Kaiapoi e Te Rauparaha i te tau 1831, ka kuhu ia ki te taua o tōna matua a Karaki. Kawea ai e rātou te riri ki a Ngāti Toa; e ai ki te kōrero i taotū a Tiramōrehu. Whai muri iho ka noho ia ki tētahi teihana patu tohorā i Moeraki i te tonga. I te tau 1843 ka kuhu ia ki te Hāhi Wēteriana.

I te tau 1848 koia tērā ko Tiramōrehu i whai wāhi ki te hokonga o ngā whenua o Waitaha – e 20 miriona eka (e 8 miriona heketea) te rahi. Nō muri ka ārahina e ia ngā whakahē ki taua hokonga. Ko H.T. Kemp te āpiha hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ka takahia e ia ētahi kī taurangi i puta i te wā o te hokonga, ka mutu, iti noa iho ngā pito whenua i rāhuitia (nā Mantell ēnei i whakarite i muri mai) ki te Māori – 10 eka (e 4 heketea) ki tēnā, ki tēnā tangata.

I te tau 1879, nā ngā tohetohe a Tiramōrehu me ētahi atu rangatira o Ngāi Tahu, ka whakatūria te Kōmihana a Smith rāua ko Nairn hei arotake i ngā nawe o Ngāi Tahu. Ka tuku kōrero a Tiramōrehu ki mua i te aroaro o te Kōmihana i ngā tau 1879, 1880. Heoi, ka kotia ngā mahi a te Kōmihana e te kāwanatanga i mua i te tāpaetanga o tana pūrongo. Ka mate a Tiramōrehu ki Moeraki i te tau 1881.

Riwha Tītokowaru

Leslie, Walter Jefferson, 1855-1915: [The trial of Te Whiti. Wellington] The Evening Press 1886.
Riwha Titokowaru

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I whānau mai a Tītokowaru i te takiwā o te tau 1823. Ko Ngā Ruahine o Taranaki tōna iwi. I pakeke ia i te ata o ngā pakanga mau pū. E ai ki te kōrero, i akongia a ia hei tohunga. Nō muri ka ako ia ki te tuhi ki te reo Māori. Ka iriiria ia hei Karaitiana i te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1840. Heoi, i te wā 1850 ki 1854, nā tana whakahē ki te hokonga o ngā whenua, ka tautoko a Tītokowaru i te Kīngitanga. Nō ngā riri o 1860-61 ka whakaaturia e ia ngā tohu o te kaingārahu. Ka kuhu hoki ia ki ngā riri i Waikato; i reira ka pura tōna kanohi katau.

I te tau 1867 ka tīmata te whakahau a Tītokowaru i te rangimārie, ka tū ana “hui nui mō te rangimārie”. Ka wetekina e ia ōna hono ki te Kīngitanga, ka karanga ia kia mautohe mārire te iwi. Ka whakaae ia ki te raupatunga o ētahi o ngā whenua, engari kaua ko te katoa. E ai ki te kōrero a te tumu kōrero a James Belich, he rite te mīharo mō te rangimārie o Tītokowaru, ki te mīharo mō te riri o Tītokowaru ka whai iho. Heoi, nā te “āta raupatu” a te kāwanatanga i te whenua, ka pau tana hau ki te kimi huarahi mārire. Tatū ki te tau 1868, e rua ngā whiringa kei mua i a Ngā Ruahine: ko te ara o te riri rānei, ko te mate i te kore kai rānei.

I te tīmatanga, ka murua e Tītokowaru te mahi a te taonga, heoi kāore i maringi te toto. Ka whakautua ēnei mahi e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga, ka murua ngā taonga i whānakohia, ka kawea ētahi o te iwi hei mauhere. I te kore whakaaetanga atu a Tītokowaru kia tukua e ia tētahi mauhere, kātahi ka mumura ngā ahi o te riri.

Ahakoa te nui o te hoariri, ka puta rā te ihu o Tītokowaru i ngā pakanga. Kātahi tētahi tohunga hanga maioro, tohunga rautaki pakanga, ko Tītokowaru. Kia tae ki te tōmuatanga o te tau 1869 kua riro mai anō i a Tītokowaru tētahi whenua e 80 maero te roa (e 129 kiromita) i te tonga o Taranaki, atu i te awa o Waingongoro ki te awa o Wanganui. Ka nui haere ana toa mai i te 150 ki te 1000; ka tautokona mai ia e te Kīngitanga. Tata tonu ka hinga te koroni i a ia, ka whakaaro te kāwanatanga kia whakahokia ētahi whenua i raupatutia. Heoi, i te wā e kaha rawa ana a ia, nā te aha rā, ka waimeha tana taua. Tērā pea nā tana mahi pūremu me te wahine a tētahi o ana toa. Hei tā Belich, nā tōna ringa tonu a Tītokowaru i hinga ai, kāpā nā te ringa o te kāwanatanga.

Ka waihotia a Tītokowaru e te kāwanatanga, ka kaha haere tana tautoko i ngā poropiti mautohe mārire o Parihaka, a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. I te tīmatanga anō o ngā raupatunga whenua i te tau 1878, ka āwhina ia i ngā mautohe mārire.

I te tau 1881 ka whakaekea a Parihaka e ngā pirihimana mau pū me ngā tūao 1600 te rahi hui katoa, i raro i ngā whakahaere a Te Paraihe (John Bryce), te Minita mō ngā Take Māori. Ka pāhuatia, ka wāwāhia a Parihaka, ka mauherea a Tītokowaru mō te waru marama. Ka tukua ia, ka mau tonu ia ki te kaupapa mautohe mārire mō ngā whenua raupatu. Ahakoa tōna kaumātua me tōna tino pāngia e te mate, i te tau 1886 ka whiua anōtia ia ki te herehere. Ka mate ia i te marama o Ākuhata o te tau 1888. Ko te kōrero a Belich mōna, tērā pea ko ia tētahi o ngā tino kaingārahu i te hītori o Aotearoa.

Tohu Kākahi

Carte-de-visite portrait of Tohu Kakahi, taken in the 1870s or 1880s by an unknown photographer.
Tohu Kakahi

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Nō te iwi o Te Āti Awa o Taranaki a Tohu Kākahi (?-1907). I whānau ia i te wā o ngā pakanga mau pū a ngā iwi. Pērā i tōna huānga a Te Whiti, i puta i a Tohu ngā tohu o te matakite. Ka mau hoki i a ia te hōhonutanga, te whānuitanga o te whakapono Karaitiana. Ko te whakapae, nā Tohu a Tāwhiao, te tama a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, i whakawahi hei Kīngi tuarua, ā, ka noho a ia hei kaitohutohu i a Tāwhiao mō te taha wairua. E mea ana hoki te kōrero i kuhu a Tohu ki ngā riri i Taranaki i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Heoi, pērā i tana huānga a Te Whiti, ka whai a Tohu i te ara o te mautohe mārire ki te kuhu a te Pākehā me te rironga o ngā whenua.

Ko te kōrero a te nuinga, nō muri i ngā riri o Taranaki ka neke a Tohu ki Parihaka. Ko rāua ko Te Whiti ngā kaiārahi o te iwi ki reira. Whāia, ka hau te rongo i te iwi Māori mō Parihaka hei pokapū mō ngā mautohe mārire, hei wāhi whakakotahi i te Māori. Ka nui ngā āwangawanga o te iwi Māori mō ngā whenua i raupatutia, mō te takahi a te kāwanatanga i ana kī taurangi e mea ana ka rāhuitia he whenua mō te Māori.

I te tau 1879 ka tīmata te kāwanatanga ki te rūri i ngā whenua e 16,000 eka te rahi i raupatutia i Waimate, kāore i rāhuitia he whenua mō te Māori. Hei utu mō tēnei, ka ārahina e Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu ā rātou tāngata ki te parau i ngā whenua kei te nōhia e ngā tāngata whai, ki te whakatū taiepa haukoti i te huarahi o te Pākehā. Ka whiua ētahi o rātou ki te whare herehere. Ahakoa tērā, ka nui haere ngā mautohe. Ka tukua mai he kai, taputapu, aha noa ki Parihaka e ngā iwi puta noa i Aotearoa. Ka nui te hunga i takahi i te huarahi mai i ō rātou kāinga kia tae ki Parihaka. He mea rerekē ki ngā Pākehā tēnei te haerenga atu o te tini Māori, hōhā pai ana ngā āpiha a te kāwanatanga.

I te rā 5 o Nōema o te tau 1881 ka urutomokia a Parihaka e ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū me ngā tūao 1600 te rahi hui katoa, i raro i ngā whakahaere a te Minita mō ngā Take Māori, a Te Paraihe, i runga i tōna tāriana mā. Kāore i ātetetia tā rātou kuhu atu e ngā Māori e 2000 pea te rahi. Kua hora te parāoa mā rātou, e waiata ana te iwi. Tē arohia atu. Ka wāwāhia ngā kāinga, ka tutea te iwi kia marara. Ka mauherea a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. Kei reira ngā kōrero tuku iho mō ngā tūkinotanga a ngā hōia, tae atu ki te pāwhara i ngā wāhine.

Ka whakapaetia a Tohu rāua ko Te Whiti mō te “whakatutū puehu i runga i te kino me te ngākau waniwani”. Ka mau rāua ki te whare herehere, kāore he whakawākanga. Nō te tau 1883 kātahi anō rāua ka tukua. Taro ake, ka hoki rāua ki te whakatū anō i a Parihaka. Ka arataki tonu rāua i ngā mautohe mārire. Kāore a Tohu i whai i ētahi ka hiahia kia whakaurua ngā taputapu papai a te Pākehā ki Parihaka. Ko tana tohutohu ki ana pononga, kaua e nui te nama, kaua hoki e pā atu ki ngā taonga kino a te Pākehā pērā i te waipiro. Kāore ia i whakaae ki te tikanga tāke, i runga i tana whakapae kei te utaina te tāke nui rawa atu ki runga i te iwi o Parihaka.

Nō te marama o Pepuere o te tau 1907 a Tohu i mate ai. Kāore i pau te tau ka mate a Te Whiti.

Hēnare Tomoana

Seated portrait of Henare Tomoana. Taken 29 April 1873 by Samuel Carnell.
Henare Tomoana

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I whānau mai a Hēnare Tomoana i te tekau tau atu i 1820, i te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1830 rānei, ki Te Matau a Māui. Ko Ngāti Kahungunu rāua ko Ngāti Te Whatu-i-āpiti ōna iwi. Kāore i te mōhiotia ngā nekeneke o Tomoana i tana tamarikitanga, i tua atu i te mea i pakeke ia i te wā o ngā “pakanga mau pū” i waenganui i ngā iwi.

I te tau 1851 ko ia tērā kei te hoko poraka whenua nui ki a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), te kōmihana hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ka hīkaka a Tomoana ki te hoko whenua, tae rawa ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1860, nā te nui pea o ana nama.

Ka tautoko a Tomoana i te kāwanatanga i ngā riri o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ā, i te tau 1868 ko ia tērā kei roto i ngā pakanga ki a Te Kooti. Ka puta ngā kōrero mō tō rātou māia ko ana toa. Ka kake a Tomoana ki te tūranga o meiha i te rōpū hōia ā-iwi, ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki te hoari whakahōnore mai i a Kuini Wikitōria. Ko te mate kē, kāore ia i utua mō ana mahi hōia, i tua atu, nāna tonu i hoko ngā taputapu mō ana toa. Ka piki haere ana nama, ka mate ia ki te hoko whenua anō.

Nā tana kawa ki ngā hokonga whenua tōmua, ka huri a Tomoana ki te tautoko i te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua i te tekau tau atu in1870. Ka whai tēnei rōpū kia whakakāhoretia ngā hokonga whenua maha i Te Matau a Māui, i whakapae ai rātou he hokonga whānako. Ka whakatūria tētahi kōmihana hei rangahau i te take i te tau 1873, engari kāore he putanga. Ko te tohu kē a te kōmihana, e pai ana te āta tāmi i ngā Māori he nui ā rātou nama, e taea noatia ai te tango i ō rātou whenua.

Ka paheke te wairua o Tomoana, ko tana ruku hōhonu tērā ki ngā kaupapa a te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua. Ko tana mahinga nui rawa pea mō te rōpū, ko tana hāpai i te nūpepa Te Wānanga, he nūpepa reo rua.

I te tau 1879 ka pōtitia a Tomoana hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti. I ngā tau 1881, 1882, mahi tahi ai rāua ko Hōne Mohi Tāwhai (Mema Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau) ki te hāpai i te Pire Whakamana i ngā Komiti Māori, e aru nei kia kotia te mana o te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia whakahokia ki te Māori te mana whiriwhiri taitara mō ō rātou whenua. Heoti, ka whakawaimehatia e te kāwanatanga te Pire, ā, i tōna whakamanatanga i te tau 1883 kāhore ōna kiko.

Nō te pōti o 1884 ka hinga a Tomoana ki a Wī Pere. Ko tana hokinga tērā ki Te Matau a Māui. Ka rite tana whakahē i ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki te Māori. I te tau 1891 ka takoto tana kōrero ki mua i te aroaro o te Kōmihana Ture Whenua Māori (te Kōmihana a Rees-Carroll), mō ngā hē i puta ki te Māori i ngā mahi a te kāwanatanga kī ana i te Pākehā. Ko tāna, me tuku mā te Māori anō e hanga ture māna, mā te Māori anō hoki ōna ake whenua e whakahaere. Nō muri ka kuhu ia ki te Kotahitanga e aru ana kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia whakakāhoretia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia riro mā te Māori anō āna whakahaere i raro i tētahi Pāremata Māori. Ka mate a Hēnare Tomoana i te tau 1904.

Rangi Kuini Wikitoria Topeora

Te Rangi Topeora, circa 1840. Photographer unidentified.
Rangi Kuini Wikitoria Topeora

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I whānau mai a Rangi Topeora ki Kāwhia i te tōmuatanga o te rautau rua tekau. Ko ōna hapū ko Ngāti Kimihia, ko Ngāti Te Maunu; ko Ngāti Toa, ko Te Āti Awa ōna iwi. Hei irāmutu a ia mā Te Rauparaha, rangatira o Ngāti Toa, hei tuahine hoki mā te toa rā a Te Rangihaeata. He wahine rongonui a Rangi Topeora mō te tito waiata, ā, kei te waiatatia tonutia ētahi i ēnei rā. I te tekau tau atu i 1820, i runga i ngā riri ki ērā o ngā iwi o Waikato, ka heke a Rangi Topeora rātou ko tōna iwi ki te rohe o Kapiti noho ai. Ka puta tōna rangatiratanga, tōna kaha i te wā o te heke, i te taunga hoki ki Kapiti.

I te tau 1840 ka mauria e Te Karuwhā te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Kapiti. Ko Rangi Topeora tētahi o ngā wāhine e 5-13 ka haina i te Tiriti. I te tau 1846 ka pakanga a Te Rangihaeata ki ngā hōia o Peretānia, ka tautokona ia e tana tuahine. He wahine whai mana a Rangi Topeora, he pū kōrero. Kia hipa te wā, ka rata a ia ki te noho mai a te Pākehā.

Nā te pīhopa nā Te Herewini (Bishop Selwyn) a ia i iriiri ki Ōtaki. Ka tangohia e Rangi Topeora te ingoa o Kuini Wikitōria hei ingoa tāpiri mōna, ka huri te ingoa o tana tāne ki Arapeta, te tāne a te Kuini. Whāia, ka utaina ki runga ki a ia te ingoa te ‘Kuini o te Tonga’.

Nō te takiwā o ngā tau 1865 ki 1873 i mate ai a Rangi Topeora ki Ōtaki. Hei tōna wā ka whai wāhi nui tana tama a Mātene Te Whiwhi ki te whakatūnga o te Kīngitanga i te tekau tau atu i 1850.

Pāora Tūhaere

Paora Tuhaere, circa 1875. Photographer Unknown.
Paora Tuhaere

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I whānau mai a Pāora Tūhaere i te takiwā o te tau 1825. Nō te iwi o Ngāti Whātua o Tāmaki-makau-rau, o Kaipara. E tamariki tonu ana a Tūhaere ka iriiria. Ka puta te rongo mōna hei rangatira whakatau i te riri, kāpā hei toa i roto i te pakanga. I te tau 1841 ko ia tētahi i pōwhiri i a Kāwana Hopihona kia neke i tōna tāone matua mai i te Pēwhairangi ki ngā tahatika o Te Waitematā; ko ia hoki tētahi ka hoko whenua kia tipu ai te tāone o Ākarana. Ahakoa te mea kāore a Ngāti Whātua i whirinaki atu ki te Kīngitanga, ka kaha haere tō rātou ātete i te hokonga whenua i te tekau tau atu i 1850.

I te tau 1860, nā runga i tana māharahara kei whai kaha ngā iwi o Taranaki me te Kīngitanga, ka karangahia e Kāwana Browne tētahi hui nui mō ngā kūpapa Māori ki Kohimarama, tata ki Ākarana. Ka whakanuia e te Kāwana te Tiriti o Waitangi mō aua Māori ka pūmau ki te Tiriti. Ahakoa tō rātou āwangawanga mō ngā mahi a te Karauna ki Taranaki, kīhai te nuinga o ngā rangatira i ātete ki te mana o te Kuini. Ka puta te kōrero a Browne, ka tū te hui o Kohimarama ia tau kia whai wāhi ai ngā rangatira Māori ki ngā whakahaere o te koroni. He tūranga nui tō Tūhaere ki roto i te hui; ko tāna i titiro ai, he whakapūmautanga tēnei hui o te Tiriti mō te hunga kāore i haina, mō te hunga kāore hoki i te mārama ki ngā kōrero o te Tiriti i te tau 1840. Kīia ai tēnei āhuatanga e ētahi tumu kōrero, ko te “kawenata” o Kohimarama.

I te matenga o tōna matua kēkē a Āpihai Te Kawau i te tau 1868 ka matika a Tūhaere hei rangatira mō Ngāti Whātua. Ka tohungia ia ki ētahi tūranga a te kāwanatanga. Ka tīmata tana tauhokohoko ki ngā moutere o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i tana hoko i tētahi kaipuke, ko Victoria te ingoa.

Ka tipu tōna pōuri i te kore whakarite a te kāwanatanga kia whai wāhi nui te Māori ki ngā whakahaere o te koroni, tāpae atu ki ngā mahi hao whenua a te Kōti Whenua Māori. Ki tāna titiro, he takahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi rāua ko te “kawenata” o Kohimarama ngā pēhitanga tōrangapū, ohaoha i te Māori. I te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1870, ka whakatūria e Tūhaere tētahi Pāremata Māori ki Ōrākei, e tata ana ki te tāone o Ākarana, hei urupare ki te whakakorenga ake a te kāwanatanga i ngā hui nui ki Kohimarama.

Kāore i arongia e ngā kaitōrangapū Pākehā ngā whakatau a te Pāremata Māori. Ka whakahau a Tūhaere, mā ngā rūnanga o ngā iwi kē e whakahaere ngā hokonga whenua, kaua mā te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Whāia, ka tū a Tūhaere hei kaiārahi o te Kotahitanga, e whai ana kia whakakāhoretia ngā ture whenua Māori, kia mana te Tiriti o Waitangi, kia noho ki te Māori te mana whakahaere i a ia, ki ētahi taumata. Ka mate ia ki Ōrākei i te tau 1892.

Wahanui Huatare

Portrait of Wahanui seated on the verandah of his house, Alexandra. Taken by the Burton Brothers in 1885.
Wahanui Huatare

Image: ATL 1/2-091903-F
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I whānau mai a Wahanui Huatare i te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1820. Ko Ngāti Maniapoto tōna iwi. He Karaitiana ia, he tohunga rongonui, he rangatira whai mana. I te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka whakatūria e ia tētahi kawenga mēra atu i Te Awamutu ki Ahuriri. Ka whakatūria hoki e ia ētahi tikanga, ētahi ture hei whai mā te iwi. Ka whakamihi te kaiwhakawā ā-rohe i Waikato a Te Koohi (John Gorst) mō tēnei kaupapa. Kia tae ki te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1850 ka tīmata a Wahanui ki te ātete i te noho a te Pākehā. Whai anō he tūranga taketake tōna i te Kīngitanga, i te kaha nei tōna tipu. Ka whawhai, ka taotū ia i ngā riri i Waikato i te wā 1863-64.

I te mutunga o ngā riri, ka manakotia a Wahanui e te iwi mō tana tohungatanga ki te whakahaere me te whakatau take. I te kapinga o ngā riri i te tau 1881, ko Wahanui ka tū, ka whakatakoto kōrero mō te Kīngi. Ka mau tonu tana whakahē ki te hokonga whenua, heoi, kua mārama kē ia, e kore e tareka te aukati i te kuhu a te Pākehā ki te Rohe Pōtae. Ka ngana ia ki te āta whakahaere i te hokonga o ngā whenua.

I te wā 1883-84 ka whakaae a Wahanui kia tukua he whenua mō te rerewē matua. Ko te kī taurangi a te Pirimia a Rāpata Taute (Robert Stout), kāore e whakaaetia te waipiro ki te Rohe Pōtae, kāore hoki e whakaaetia te Kōti Whenua Māori me ana mahi kia kuhu ki te Rohe Pōtae. Kīia ai tēnei āhuatanga e ngā Māori he “whakaaetanga”. Nō muri ka hoki kōmuri te kāwanatanga, kāore ia i aro atu ki tana kī taurangi e mea ana e kore te Kōti Whenua Māori e kuhu ki te Rohe Pōtae mahi ai i ana mahi. I tua atu, i whakapae rātou kāore i whakaputahia e Taute ēnei kōrero. I te mutunga, hauwarea ngā mahi a Wahanui ki te pupuri i te mana me ngā whenua o tōna iwi. Ka mate ia i te tau 1897.

Rāpata Wahawaha

Seated carte de visite portrait of Rapata Wahawaha 1871. Photographer: Samuel Carnell of Napier.
Rapata Wahawaha

Image: ATL 1/4-022027-F
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He rangatira a Rāpata Wahawaha (?-1897) o Te Aowera, hapū o Ngāti Porou. Kāore i te tino mōhiotia ana nekeneke i te wā o tōna tamarikitanga, i tua atu i te mea, i te wā o ngā riri ā-iwi, i mauherea ia e te iwi o Rongowhakaata; nō muri ka tukua kia hoki ki tōna iwi.

I te tau 1860 ka kuhuna Te Tai Rāwhiti e tētahi tira Pai Mārire (Hauhau rānei); i tana rongotanga, kei te noho tōtara wāhi rua a Ngāti Porou. Ka whakahē a Wahawaha me te rahi o tōna hapū i te whakapono Pai Mārire, ka whakawhirinaki kē ki te kāwanatanga. He kaingārahu, i hau te rongo mōna i tana patunga i tētahi rangatira Hauhau i Tikitiki. Ka whai utu hoki ia i te iwi o Rongowhakaata, kua huri hoki rātou hei Hauhau. Ka hinga ngā Hauhau, ka kūpapa a Ngāti Porou ki te kāwanatanga. Taro iho, ko Wahawaha te kaingārahu o Ngāti Porou ka rīriri me te Hauhau ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, ki Wairoa.

Kia tae ki te pokapū o te tau 1866, kua āhua mau te rongo ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Heoi, ka pakaru anō te riri i te tau 1868, i te hokinga mai o Te Kooti mā i Wharekauri. Ka kino te whawhai i waenganui i a Wahawaha me ana toa, ki a Te Kooti me ana haumi o Tūhoe. I tētahi pakanga i te tau 1868 ka whakawhiwhia a Wahawaha ki te Rīpeka o Niu Tīreni mō te māia, ka kake hoki ia ki te tūranga o meiha. I te marama o Hānuere o te tau 1869, ko Wahawaha tētahi o ngā kaingārahu i te taua o te kāwanatanga nā rātou a Ngātapa – te pā o Te Kooti – i whakaeke. Nāna i whakarite kia patua ētahi mauhere kia mate, tērā pea 120 te rahi. Te āhua nei, i tautokona ana mahi e ngā āpiha Pākehā i reira i taua wā.

I te mutunga o ngā riri i Te Urewera i te tau 1873, ka hoki a Wahawaha ki Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka pūmau tonu ia ki te kāwanatanga. I whakahē ia i te kaupapa Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, e rapu ana kia huripokina ngā hokonga whenua i kīia rā he whānako.

I te tau 1878 ka whakawhiwhia ia ki tētahi penihana ā-tau me te Hoari Whakahirahira mai i a Kuini Wikitōria mō ana mahi i te wā o ngā pakanga. Ka tohungia ia hei āpiha hoko whenua a te kāwanatanga. Ka whakatenatena ia i te iwi kia heria ō rātou whenua ki mua i te Kōti Whenua Māori, kia taea ai te hoko, te rīhi rānei. I te tau 1887 ka tohungia ia ki te Kaunihera Ture. Kāore he mutunga o tana whakahau i tōna iwi o Ngāti Porou kia tautoko i te kāwanatanga. Ka mate ia ki Turanganui-a-Kiwa i te tau 1897.

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NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

Ngā Kaihautū Māori 1840-1900

Carroll, James
Heke Pokai, Hone Wiremu (Hone Heke)
Kahutia, Riperata
Kaihau, Henare
Kawiti, Te Ruki
Mangakahia, Hamiora
Mangakahia, Meri Te Tai
Maniapoto, Rewi Manga
Matua, Henare
Nene, Tamati Waka
Ngapua, Hone Heke
Ngatata, Wiremu Tako
Niniwa-i-te-rangi
Nireaha Tamaki
Ormsby, John
Parata, Wiremu Te Kakakura
Pere, Wiremu
Pomare II
Taiaroa, Hori Kerei
Taiwhanga, Hirini Rawiri
Takamoana, Karaitiana
Taonui, Aperahama
Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia
Tawhai, Hone Mohi
Tawhiao, Tukaroto Matutaera Potatau
Te Hapuku
Te Heuheu Tukino III , Iwikau
Te Heuheu Tukino IV, Horonuku
Te Kawau, Apihai
Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki
Te Pahi
Te Rangihiwinui, Te Keepa
Te Rangi-puawhe, Te Keepa
Te Rangitake, Wiremu Kingi
Te Rauparaha
Te Waharoa, Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi
Te Wheoro, Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa
Te Wherowhero, Potatau
Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti
Te Whiwhi, Henare Matene
Tiramorehu, Matiaha
Titokowaru, Riwha
Tohu Kakahi
Tomoana, Henare
Topeora, Rangi Kuini Wikitoria
Tuhaere, Paora
Wahanui Huatare
Wahawaha, Rapata

Ngā Kaihautū Māori 1900-1975

Balneavis, Henare Te Raumoa Huatahi
Buck, Peter Henry
Carroll, Heni Materoa
Carroll, Turi
Cooper, Dame Whina
Henare, James Clendon Tau
Herangi, Te Kirihaehae Te Puea
Kenana, Rua
Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero
Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero
Mawhete, Rangiputangatahi
Mitchell, Henry Taiporutu Te Mapu-o-te-rangi
Ngata, Apirana Turupa
Paikea, Paraire Karaka
Pomare, Maui Wiremu Piti Naera
Rata, Matiu
Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu
Rickard, Eva
Te Heuheu Tukino VI, Hoani
Tirikatene, Eruera Tihema Te Aika

Ngā Kāwana

Browne, Thomas
FitzRoy, Robert
Gipps, George
Grey, George
Hobson, William

Ngā Kaitōrangapū, Ngā Tiāti, me ngā Āpiha

Ballance, John
Bell, F. D.
Bryce, John
Buick, T. L.
Bunbury, Thomas
Busby, James
Coates, Joseph Gordon
Eyre, E. J.
Fenton, F. D.
FitzGerald, J. E.
Fox, William
Fraser, Peter
Glenelg, Charles Grant
Grey, Henry George (Earl)
Gorst, John
Hanan, Josiah Ralph
Herries, William Herbert
Hunn, Jack Kent
Kirk, Norman Eric
Lewis, T. W.
Mair, Gilbert
Maning, F. E.
Mantell, Walter
Martin, William
McLean, Donald
Nash, Walter
Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps
Prendergast, James
Rees, W. L.
Richmond, J. C.
Rusden, G. W.
Russell, H. R.
Savage, Michael Joseph
Seddon, Richard
Sewell, Henry
Sheehan, John
Spain, William
Stephen, James
Stout, Robert
Vogel,Julius
Weld, Frederick
Whitaker, Frederick

Ngā Kaiwhakanoho me ngā Mihingare

Clarke, George
Colenso, William
Cowan, James
Grace, T. S.
Hadfield, Octavius
Marsden, Samuel
Pompallier, J. B. F.
Selwyn, G. A.
Taylor, Richard
Wakefield, Edward
Williams, Henry