He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Kei tĒnei wĀhanga

Introduction

Alphabetical List of Key People.

Māori Leaders 1840 - 1900

Māori Leaders 1900 onwards

Governors

Politicians Judges & Officials

Missionaries & Settlers

English version of this page

TĀngata Ingoa Nui

NgĀ KaihautŪ MĀori 1900-1975

Hēnare Te Raumoa Huatahi Balneavis

A group of Māori leaders of Gisborne photographed about 1908 by an unknown photographer. Balneavis is seated on floor on the left.
Henare Te Raumoa Huatahi Balneavis

Image: ATL 1/2-044562-F
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I whānau mai a Hēnare Balneavis i te tau 1880 i Turanganui-a-Kiwa. Ko ōna iwi ko Ngāi Tāmanuhiri me Te Whakatōhea. I kuraina ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute, kātahi ka mahi hei karaka ture i Tūranga. I te tau 1903 ka tīmata tana mahi hei karaka, hei kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha mā te Kōti Whenua Māori. I te tau 1909 ka uru ia hei hēkeretari tūmataiti mā Āpirana Ngata. Ka kake a Ngata hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori, ka whai atu a Balneavis. Ka noho a ia hei hēkeretari tūmataiti mō te maha o ngā Minita mō ngā Take Māori pērā i a Te Hērihi (W. H. Herries), i a Te Kōti (Gordon Coates), i a Te Whōpi (George Forbes), i a Te Hāwiti (M. J. Savage), i a wai atu.

Nā te kitea māramatia o ōna pūmanawa ka hau te rongo mōna ki te motu. I taea e ia te whakamōhio atu ki ēnei Minita he aha ngā kaupapa nui me ngā āwangawanga o te iwi Māori. I tautoko ia i te whakaoranga o ngā tikanga me te ahurea Māori. Ko ia te hēkeretari tuatahi o te Poari Whakapapa me te Poari Tahua Take Māori. I tautoko tēnei poari i ngā rangahau, ngā mahi toi, te raranga, tae atu ki ngā mahi whakapaipai i ngā marae me ngā wharenui. Ka mate a Hēnare Balneavis i te tau 1940 i tōna tari i te Whare Pāremata.

Te Rangi Hīroa (Peter Henry Buck)

Peter Henry Buck in academic robes, circa 1904. Photographer unidentified.
Peter Henry Buck

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Ko Ngāti Mutunga o Taranaki te iwi o Te Rangi Hīroa (1877?–1951). I kuraina ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute, ka puta i te Kura Tākuta o Ōtākou.

I te tau 1905 e mahi ana a ia hei āpiha hauora mō te Māori i raro i tētahi atu ākonga o Te Aute, a Māui Pōmare. Ka mahi tahi a Te Rangi Hīroa rāua ko Pōmare kia paru kore ngā kāinga, kia piki te hauora ki te iwi Māori. He rahi tonu ngā rangatira o te ao Māori kāore i rata ki ā rāua mahi.

E noho ana a Te Rangi Hīroa ki Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1909. Tumeke katoa ia i tana pōtitanga hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō taua rohe. Ka uru a ia hei mema mō te Komiti mō ngā Take Māori, ā, mō tētahi wā poto ko ia tērā te kanohi mō te iwi Māori ki te rūnanga kāwanatanga. Ka tū a ia mō te rohe Pākehā o Pēwhairangi i te tau o 1914, hauwarea. Ko te mutunga tērā o tana whai i ngā tūranga ki te Pāremata.

I te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao ka whakapau kaha ia ki te whakahau i ngā Māori kia kuhu hei hōia. Ka haere a ia hei āpiha hauora ki Īhipa, ki Karipori, ki Wīwī. E rua ngā wā ka whakaingoatia a Te Rangi Hīroa i ngā tuhituhi ki ōna āpiha teitei mō tōna māia. Ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te tohu DSO. Tae rawa ki te mutunga o ngā riri kua kake a ia hei meiha.

I tana hokinga ki Aotearoa i te mutunga o ngā riri, ka tohungia a Te Rangi Hīroa hei kaiwhakahaere o te Wāhanga Hauora Māori o te Tari Hauora. E rima ki te whitu whakaraunga te tokomaha ake o ngā Māori i matemate i te urutā rewharewha o te tau 1918 tēnā i te tokomaha o ngā Pākehā. Whāia, ka mahi tahi ngā rangatira Māori me ngā āpiha hauora ki te tāmi i ngā urutā tērā ka pā; nā tēnei mahinga tahitanga, ka māmā ake ngā mahi a Te Rangi Hīroa.

I tōna pakeketanga ka noho ia ki tāwāhi i te nuinga o te wā ki te whai i te mātauranga tikanga tangata, ki te tuhi kōrero hoki mō ngā tikanga me te ahurea o te Māori. Ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te tohu tākuta hōnore e te Whare Wānanga o Aotearoa, e te Whare Wānanga o Yale, e wai atu, e wai atu. I te tau 1946 ka ūhia e taitara Tā ki runga i a ia. Nō te tau 1951 ka mate a Te Rangi Hīroa.

Hēni Materoa Carroll

Heni Mataroa Carroll, photographed by the firm of S P Andrew Ltd in 1909.
Heni Materoa Carroll

Image: ATL 1/1-013679-G
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I whānau a Hēni Materoa (1852/56?-1930) ki Makauri i te raki o Tūranga. Ko Te Huinga tētahi o ōna ingoa. Ko Mīkaera Tūrangi tōna matua, nō te iwi o Rongowhakaata. Ko tōna whāea ko Riperata Kahutia, he wahine whai mana o Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki.

Nō te tau 1881 ka mārena a Hēni i a Timi Kara. I te tau 1887 ka pōtitia a Timi Kara ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti, ā, ko ia te Minita mō ngā Take Māori mai i te 1899 ki te 1912. Kāore ngā pakeke o Hēni i whakaae ki tā rāua moe. Kia ahatia, ka rere te tokorua rā ki Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara mārena ai ki te tari rēhita. Ka noho rāua ki Tūranga.

I te matenga o tōna whāea i te tau 1887, ka tau te mana ārahi i tōna iwi ki runga ki a Hēni. Ka nui rawa atu tōna tūranga, kīia ai ia ko tētahi o ngā tino rangatira o Tūranganui. I te urunga o tana tāne hei Mema Pāremata, kāore a Hēni i whai i a ia ki Pōneke, ka noho kē ia ki Tūranga. Ahakoa tērā, he rite tonu tana manaaki i ngā mana tōrangapū – tae atu ki a Tā Hōri Kerei – i tō rāua kāinga i Tūranga.

I te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka whakahaerehia e Hēni ngā kaupapa mahi moni hei tautoko i ngā hōia Māori kei tāwāhi. Ko te nuinga o ēnei o ana mahi ka kawea e te Rōpū Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti Āwhina i ngā Take o te Whawhai (Eastern Māori Patriotic Association), he rōpū nā Āpirana Ngata i whakatū. Kāore i mutu tana hurihuri ki ngā kāinga Māori. Me kōrero tana pēnei i te urutā rewharewha o 1918. Ka mahi moni ia mō tētahi whare ruruhau mō te hunga taitamariki, ka tū ki runga i tētahi pito whenua nāna i tuku. Ka tapaina anō te whare nei ki tōna ingoa. Ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te Tohu o te Emepaea o Peretānia (OBE). Ka mate a Hēni Materoa-Carroll i te tau 1930.

Turi (Alfred Thomas) Carroll

Alfred Thomas (Turi) Carroll, founding president of the New Zealand Māori Council.
Turi Carroll

Image: ATL 1/2-040109
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I whānau mai a Turi Carroll (1890-1975) i Te Wairoa i te raki o Te Matau a Māui. Ko tētahi taha ōna nō Airana, ko tētahi nō Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko Timi Kara, te Mema Pāremata Māori tautini mō Te Tai Rāwhiti, tōna matua kēkē. Ko tōna ingoa a Turi, mō tōna tupuna a Turipārera. I kuraina ia ki te Kāreti o Te Aute. I huri ia ki te whakaaraara i te iwi Māori kia kuhu hei hōia mō te Taua Māori Tuatahi. Ahakoa te kāpō o tana whatu mauī, i te tau 1917 ka whakawhiti ia ki tāwāhi me te Ope Taua o Aotearoa. Ka kake a ia hei haihana, ka taotū.

I ngā tekau tau o 1920 me 1930, ko Turi te kaiwhakahaere o te teihana o Huramua, i roto hoki a ia i ngā rōpū ahuwhenua o te rohe o Te Wairoa. I pau hoki tana kaha ki te whakapiki i te ora me te ōhanga o ngā Māori i te rohe. I te tau 1945 ka uru a Turi hei mema o te Komiti Whakahaere ā-iwi o Ngāti Kahungunu (Ngāti Kahungunu Tribal Executive). I te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka huri ia ki te āwhina i ngā hōia Māori ka hoki mai. I te tau 1954 ka āwhina ia i te whakatūnga o te Kaunihera Kaitiaki o Te Tai Rāwhiti (East Coast Māori Trust Council) ki te whakahoki i te mana whakahaere o ngā whenua kei raro i a ia ki ngā Māori whai pānga.

I te tau 1952 ka whakawhiwhia a Turi ki te Tohu o te Emepaea o Peretānia (OBE), ā, i te tau 1962 ka ūhia te taitara Tā ki runga ki a ia. Atu i tēnei wā, ka pau tōna kaha ki te tautoko i ngā rōpū Māori ā-motu. I roto ia i te Kaupapa Mātauranga mō te Iwi Māori (Māori Education Foundation), ā, ko ia te Perehitini o te Kaunihera Māori o Niu Tīreni (New Zealand Māori Council) mō ngā tau 1963 ki te 1967. Kāore ngā kaiārahi rangatahi o te ao Māori i rata ki a Turi mō tana titiro whakamuri, mō tana taka ki ngā hiahia o te Pākehā. Ka mate a Turi Carroll ki Huramua i te tau 1975.

Whina Cooper

Whina Cooper addresses a crowd during the 1975 Māori land march. Photographer: Christian Heinegg.
Dame Whina Cooper

Image: ATL PA7-15-18
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I whānau mai a Whina Cooper ki Hokianga i te tau 1995. Ko Te Rārawa tōna iwi. I whai wāhi ia ki ngā nekeneke me ngā kaupapa o tōna hapori. Tae ana ki te tekau tau atu i 1930, e ārahi ana a Whina i tōna iwi e noho mai rā i te raki o Hokianga. I te tau 1932 ka mahi a ia i te taha o Āpirana Ngata ki te whakatū kaupapa ahuwhenua ki ngā whenua Māori o tōna rohe. Tekau mā tahi ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua (e 98,000 eka, e 40,000 heketea rānei) ka tū ki te takiwā o Hokianga, ko Whina te kaiwhakahaere i ētahi. I te tīmatanga ka whai hua ngā mahi ahuwhenua; nāwai ā, ka hinga ētahi.

I te matenga o tana tāne a Bill Cooper i te tau 1949 ka hūnuku a Whina ki Tāmaki-makau-rau noho ai. I reira ka tū ia hei kaiārahi mō te ao Māori whānui. Ka tohungia ko ia hei perehitini tuatahi o te Rōpū Wāhine Toko i te Ora. He maha ngā peka o te rōpū nāna i tīmata. Kia tae ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1950 e 300 ngā peka o te rōpū, e 4000 ana mema. Ka nui te āwhina a te rōpū nei ki te whakapai ake i te noho o ngā whānau Māori kātahi anō ka hūnuku ki te tāone, i te mea ka rongo ēnei whānau i te whakatoihara iwi i a rātou ka rapu kāinga, ka rapu mahi mā rātou. I te tau 1953 ka whakawhiwhia a Whina ki te tohu MBE.

Mōhiotia whānuitia ai a Whina Cooper i te mea nāna i ārahi te hīkoi rongonui o te tau 1975 mō te whenua. Ka tīmata tēnei hīkoi i Te Hāpua, e ahu atu ana ki te Whare Pāremata i Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara. He mea whakarite e ngā rōpū mautohe Māori e ātete ana i te ngaronga o ngā maramara whenua e noho tonu ana ki ngā ringaringa o te Māori. He āhuatanga hou tēnei momo mautohe ki Aotearoa.

Ka hiki rā ngā manawa o ngā tāngata tokomaha o Aotearoa i tēnei rūruhi e 80 te pakeke kei te ārahi i te hīkoi. E 5000 pea ngā tāngata ka tae ki te Whare Pāremata i te rā 13 o Oketopa o te tau 1975. I reira ka tāpaea e Whina te pitihana nā te 60,000 i haina, ki mua i te Pirimia a Bill Rowling.

Ka noho tonu a Whina Cooper ki mua i te aroaro o te iwi whānui o Aotearoa. Nāna ngā Taumāhekeheke o te Commonwealth ka tū ki Tāmaki-makau-rau i whakatuwhera i te tau 1990. Ko tana kupu ki te tini o Aotearoa me te ao e mātakitaki ana, “i hainatia te Tiriti e tareka ai te noho tahi o ngā iwi i Aotearoa”.

Nō te tau 1994 ka mate a Whina Cooper ki Hokianga. E 98 tana pakeke. Neke atu i te kotahi miriona tāngata ka mātaki i tōna tangihanga i runga pouaka whakaata.

James Clendon Tau Hēnare

James Clendon Henare, photographed circa 1945, by Stanley Polkinghorne Andrew.
James Clendon Tau Henare

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I whānau mai a James Clendon Tau Hēnare (1911-1989) ki Mōtatau i Pēwhairangi. He uri whakaheke ia nō ngā toa whakawehi o te raki pērā i a Hōne Heke, i a Kawiti mā. Ko Taurekareka Hēnare tōna matua, nō ngā iwi o Ngā Puhi me Ngāti Whātua. I pōtitia ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau i te tau 1914. Ko tōna whāea ko Hera Paerata, nō ngā iwi o Te Rārawa, o Ngāti Kurī, o Te Aupōuri.

Mai anō i tōna tamarikitanga kua puta kē ngā tohu kaiārahi kei a ia; ka ākona ia ki ngā tikanga Māori me ngā whakapapa. I kuraina ia ki te Kāreti o te Manawa Tapu, he kura Pākehā i Tāmaki-makau-rau. Nō muri ka mahi a ia i runga i tētahi o ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua Māori a Ngāti Hine. Atu i te tōmuritanga o ngā 1930, he kaipānui reimana a ia i te Hāhi Mihinare. Ka hia tau a ia ka noho hei mema o te hīnota o Ākarana.

I te matenga o tōna matua i te tau 1940 ka matika a Hēnare hei kaiārahi; ka kuhu ia ki ngā rīriri i waenganui i ngā whenua o te ao, kātahi ka teitei atu tōna tūranga. Ka kuhu a ia ki Te Hokowhitu a Tū 28 hei hōia noa. Kāore noa iho i roa ka whai kōmihana. Ka kuhu ia ki ngā whawhai i Āwherika ki te Raki – i taotū ia i El Alamein – me Itāria. Ka kake a ia hei kāpene i te tau 1942, ā, nō te tau 1944 ka eke ia hei meiha. I te marama o Hune o te tau 1945 ka tohungia ia hei kaiwhakahaere o te ope taua Māori, ko te rūtene kānara tōna tūranga. He kaiārahi māia a Hēnare. Ka tū te ihiihi, ka tū te wanawana o ana hōia. Kuhuna ai ngā kōrero mō tōna toa ki ngā pānui. I te tau 1946 ka whakawhiwhia ia ki te tohu DSO mō tana ārahi i ana hōia i te pakanga o Monte Cassino.

I te mutunga o ngā riri ka huri a Hēnare ki ngā mahi kāwanatanga, ki te ārahi i tōna ake iwi. Ko tētahi o ngā mahi nui i āwhina ia, ko te whakatūnga o te kōhanga reo hei ako i te reo Māori ki ngā tamariki kōhungahunga. Ka hāpai ia i te take o tōna matua kia whai whakaaro nuitia te Tiriti o Waitangi. I whakapono ia he kawenga tapu tā ngā iwi Māori o Te Tai Tokerau ki te whakaputa kōrero mō te Tiriti. I runga ia i te Rūnanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, he komiti o ngā uri whakaheke o ngā rangatira nā rātou te Tiriti i haina i te tau 1840. Pērā ki tōna matua, i te tau 1940 ka tohungia a Hēnare ki te Poari Kaitiaki o Waitangi mō te Motu, ā, i taua tau tonu ko ia te hēkeretari whakahaere i te hui ka tū ki Waitangi hei whakanui i te rau tau o te hainatanga o te Tiriti. I whakawhiwhia ia ki te tohu CBE i te tau 1966; i te tau 1978 ka ūhia ia ki te tohu Tā. Ka mate a Hēnare i Kawakawa i te tau 1989.

Te Kirihaehae Te Puea Hērangi (Princess Te Puea)

Princess Te Kirihaehae Te Puea Herangi. Shows her wearing the New Years medal she received in 1938, the Commander of the British Empire (CBE).
Te Kirihaehae Te Puea Herangi (Princess Te Puea)

Image: ATL PAColl-5584-58
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Ka noho a Te Puea Hērangi (1883-1952) hei mokopuna nā Tāwhiao Te Wherowhero, te Kīngi Māori tuarua. Ka mate a Tāwhiao ka matika ko tana tama a Mahuta hei Kīngi Māori tuatoru. Ko ia te mea ka kite i ngā pūmanawa ake o Te Puea i a ia e tamariki tonu ana. Ka nui te wā ka noho a Mahuta ki te kōrero ki a ia, ki te tuku i ana mātauranga ki a Te Puea. Ā tōna wā ko ia tētahi ka whai wāhi nui ki te whakaora i te Kīngitanga i waenganui i ōna iwi o Waikato i te rautau rua tekau.

Ka hau te rongo mō Te Puea i te wā o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. Nāna i ārahi ngā mautohe e ātete ana ki te kaupapa māperetanga a te kāwanatanga. I taua wā, kei te pōuri tonu ngā iwi o Waikato mō te whakaekenga me te raupatunga o ō rātou whenua. I te whakataunga a te kāwanatanga i te māperetanga ki runga i ngā Māori anake o Te Rohe Pōtae me Waikato, kātahi ka pōuri rawa atu te iwi.

I te mutunga o te pakanga, ka āwhina a Te Puea i ngā mahi kia tū he kāinga mō ngā iwi o Tainui ki Ngāruawāhia. Ka whakatūria he marae hou ki reira, ko Tūrangawaewae. He pokapū hou, he arotahinga hou tēnei mō te Kīngitanga. Ka nui atu te awe o Tūrangawaewae, ki ētahi, ko tōna ritenga, hei “marae mō te motu”. Ka pōwhiritia e ia ngā kaitōrangapū me ngā rangatira Pākehā ki reira. Ka kake haere te mana o te Kīngitanga.

Kātahi ka tahuri a Te Puea ki ngā kaupapa ōhanga hei whakapai ake i te noho a ngā iwi o Tainui. Nāna tōna iwi i kuhu ki ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua a Āpirana Ngata. Ko ia te kaiwhakahaere o ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua ki roto i tōna iwi, ka mutu, ka pau ngā tau e tutuki ai tōna whāinga, arā, kia ora anō te ōhanga me ngā hapori o te iwi Māori.

Nō te tau 1937 ka whakawhiwhia a Te Puea ki te tohu whakahōnore CBE, he tohu pea kua pai te titiro a te Kīngitanga me te kāwanatanga, tētahi ki tētahi. He aha hoki. I te pōuri tonu a Tainui i te kore whakaae o te kāwanatanga ki te mana o te Kīngi. I runga i tērā, kāore ngā iwi o Tainui i haere ki te hui whakanui i te rau tau o te Tiriti o Waitangi i Waitangi i te tau 1940.

I te tau 1926 ka rangahau te Kōmihana a Sims i ngā nawe i pupū ake i te raupatunga o ngā whenua Māori i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Ahakoa te whāiti o tana titiro, ka whakaae te Kōmihana ki te maha o ngā whakapae. Ka tāpaea e te kāwanatanga ētahi whakaritenga ki mua i te iwi. I te tau 1946 ko Te Puea tētahi ka tautoko i te tāpaetanga nā Te Pereiha (Peter Fraser) i whakatakoto ki mua i a Waikato. Mā tēnei whakaritenga ka whiwhi te iwi i te rima mano pāuna ia tau mō ake tonu atu, ka whakatūria he Poari Kaitiaki hei whakahaere. Ko te whakapae a ētahi o te iwi, he itiiti rawa te rima mano pāuna; hei tā Te Puea, koia nei te rahinga rawa atu ka tareka i raro i ngā āhuatanga o te wā.

Tae rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1952, ko Te Puea tērā i roto i ngā nekeneke katoa o ngā iwi o Tainui.

Rua Kēnana

Rua Kenana.
Rua Kenana

Image: ATL 1/2-007800-F
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Nō te tau 1868, 1869 rānei ka whānau mai a Rua Kēnana. Ko Ngāi Tūhoe tōna iwi. I te matenga o Te Kooti i te tau 1893 ka waiho tana kupu e mea ana ka haere ake he Tangata ki te whakatutuki i ana mahi kia hoki mai ngā whenua. Ki a Rua, ko ia tonu taua tangata.

I tēnei kōrero āna ka tōtara wāhi rua te Hāhi Ringatū nā Te Kooti i hanga. Nui te iwi o Ngāi Tūhoe ka whakapono ki a Rua me tana kī ka hoki mai ngā whenua ki raro i te mana o te iwi. I te tau 1907 ka hangaia e Rua tōna hapori ki te take o Maungapōhatu, te maunga tapu o te iwi.

I te tau 1910 ka hokona e Rua te 40,000 eka (16,000 heketea) o ngā whenua o Tūhoe mō te 31,000 pāuna, hei whakatipu i tōna pokapū i Maungapōhatu. Ko tana tūmanako, ka tae te rori me te rerewē ki reira. Hauwarea tērā tūmanako. Ka matemate ana pononga i te takurua, i te kore kai tika, i te kino o te āhua o ngā whare. Tatū ki te tau 1913 kua heke te rahi i Maungapōhatu mai i te 500-600 ki ngā whānau e 30 pea.

Kāore te kāwanatanga i pai ki a Rua. I te tau 1907 ka whakamanatia te Ture Whakamutu Tohunga, e hāngai tika ana ki a ia. I te tīmatanga o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, i whiua te whakapae he whana i te mana o te kāwanatanga tana mahi i tana kore i whakaae ki te tuku i ana tāngata ki te pakanga. Kāore i mutu te tutetute a te kāwanatanga i a ia. Ka whakapae te kāwanatanga kei te hoko waipiro a Rua i Maungapōhatu kāore nei ōna raihana hoko i taua kai. Kāore ia i tae ki te kōti i te wā i karangahia ai, ko te wā o te mahi kai hoki. Ka tonoa ētahi pirihimana ki te mau i a ia; engari kāore ia i haere.

I te Āperira o te tau 1916 ka whakaekea a Maungapōhatu e te ope nui o ngā pirihimana mau pū, i whakahaua kia haere ki te mauhere i a Rua. Ka pakū te pū o wai rā ka rere tēnā ki tāna pū, tēnā ki tāna pū. E rua ngā Māori i mate, ko tētahi ko te tama a Rua. E ai ki te tumu kōrero a Judith Binney, ka rāwekeweke ngā pirihimana i ngā taunakitanga, ka whakapae rātou nā ngā Māori te pakū tuatahi i tuku. Whakahē ana a Rua me ana pononga i tēnei. E ai ki a Binney, kei te tohu te rahi rawa atu o ngā taunakitanga ki te tika o te taha Māori. I tua atu, hei ko tāna, te āhua nei i āta whakamatea tētahi o ngā Māori. Nō muri ka nui ngā pātai mō te tika me te mana ā-ture o ngā whakaaetanga mō te whakaeke i a Maungapōhatu.

Ko te whakawākanga o Rua i te Kōti Matua tētahi o ngā whakawākanga roa rawa atu ki Aotearoa. Kāore i eke ngā whakapae mōna he whana i te mana o te kāwanatanga, heoi, ka whakaaetia te whakapae mō tana kore haere me ngā pirihimana i tō rātou haerenga atu ki te mau atu i a ia ki te whare herehere. Ka utaina te kotahi tau e mahi ana i ngā mahi taumaha, mutu ana tērā ko te 18 marama ki te whare herehere. E ai ki te kaiwhakawā o te kōti a Hapimana (Judge Chapman), me ako ngā Māori ki te horapa o te ture. Nō muri ka whakahēhia e te tokowaru o te hunga whakawā te whakataunga a Hapimana.

I te tau 1918 ka hoki a Rua ki Maungapōhatu. Tae ana ki te tau 1922 ka whakawhitia e Ngāi Tūhoe ōna whenua e 40,000 eka (16,00 heketea) i runga i te kī taurangi a te kāwanatanga ka whakatakotoria tētahi rori atu i Maungapōhatu ki ngā rohe o Te Moana a Toi me Rotorua. Kāore he rori, engari ka utua he paremata i te tekau tau atu i 1950. Ka heke haere, ka heke haere te ora o te kāinga o Rua i Maungapōhatu; tae ana ki te tau 1930 kua haere kē te nuinga o ngā tāngata. Nō te tau 1937 ka mate a Rua.

Korokī Te Rata Mahuta Tāwhiao Pōtatau Te Wherowhero

Peter Fraser greeting King Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero. [ca Mar 1919] Photographer unknown.
Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero (King Koroki)

Image: ATL PAColl-5469-031
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Ko Korokī Te Rata Mahuta Tāwhiao Pōtatau Te Wherowhero te tama pakeke rawa a Te Rata, te tuawhā o ngā Kīngi Māori. Nō te matenga o tōna matua i te tau 1933, kāore a Korokī i pīrangi kia eke hei Kīngi. Kāore ia i whakapono ka tareka e ia te waha i te Kīngitanga. I tua atu, i te tino kino te rawakore o tana iwi; e kore pea e taea e te iwi te noho hei taituarā mō te Kīngi. Heoi, i te tangihanga o Te Rata ka whakaae katoa ngā rangatira o ngā iwi kia haere tonu te Kīngitanga, ko Korokī hei Kīngi.

Puta i ngā rā katoa ko ia te Kīngi, i ngana ia kia arongia te mana o te Kīngitanga. Kāore i tautokona tana tū hei kīngi e ētahi atu rangatira pērā i a Āpirana Ngata. Whakahēngia e rātou ngā kaupapa kāore i raro i te mana o te Pāremata. Hei ētahi wā ka aro te kāwanatanga ki te tūranga o Kīngi Korokī, hei ētahi wā kāore ia e arongia.

I te tau 1939, kāore i whakaaetia e te kāwanatanga kia tū a Kīngi Korokī rāua ko tōna hoa wahine ki waho o ngā waeture penihana. Koirā te take kāore i haere ngā iwi o Tainui ki te hui whakanui i te rau tau o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1940.

Ka whai a Korokī kia whakataungia ngā kerēme mō ngā whenua o Waikato i raupatutia. Heoti anō, i te tutukitanga o ngā kerēme, kāore i whakaturehia te mana o Kīngi Korokī. Atu i te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1950 ka heke haere te hauora o te Kīngi, ka whakawātea ia i ngā kaupapa tūmatanui. Nō te tau 1966 ka mate ia i Ngāruawāhia.

Mahuta Tāwhiao Pōtatau Te Wherowhero (Kīngi Tawhiao Te Tuatoru)

Group of North Island chiefs in Wellington, circa 1900. Mahuta is seated in the centre.
Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero (King Tawhiao III)

Image: 'Special Collections, Auckland City Libraries (NZ) A11708A
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Ko Whatiwhatihoe i Waikato te wāhi i whānau ai a Mahuta Tāwhiao i te tau 1854, 1855 rānei. Ko Ngāti Mahuta tōna iwi. Ko ia te mātāmua o ngā tamariki a Tāwhiao, te Kīngi Māori tuarua. Ka pakeke ia i ngā riri o te tekau tau atu i 1860 me te wā o muri mai i te wā o te noho tūhāhā o tōna iwi. Koiraka rā te take kāore ia i kuraina ki te mātauranga me te reo Pākehā. Ka ara a ia hei Kīngi i te matenga o tōna matua i te tau 1894. I taua wā kua tūpuhi te Kīngitanga, kua whāiti ki ngā iwi o Tainui tae atu ki a Ngāti Maniapoto.

Nā te tino mate o tana iwi, ka rapu paremata a Mahuta mō ngā whenua i raupatutia i te tekau tau atu i 1860. Hīkaka katoa te Pirimia a Te Hētana (R. J. Seddon) ki tēnei, nā tōna hiahia mā Mahuta a ia e āwhina ki te whakamutu i te noho wehe o ngā iwi o Tainui, ki te huaki i te Rohe Pōtae hei whakanoho i ngā tāngata whai. I kōrero a Te Hētana ki a Mahuta mō tētahi tūru kei te noho wātea mōna i te Kaunihera Ture. Ka kōrerohia te tuku atu i tētahi wāhanga kāwanatanga ki te Kīngitanga me tētahi paremata mō ngā whenua raupatu. Tāria te wā ka waimeha, ka whakatahangia ēnei kaupapa.

I te tau 1903 ka whakaae a Mahuta ki tā Te Hētana, arā kia kuhu a ia hei mema o te Kaunihera Ture, hāunga ngā whakahē a ētahi tonu o tōna iwi. Ka tukua e ia te mana Kīngi ki tana teina ki a Te Wherowhero Tāwhiao mō tētahi wā. Taro ake, ka hōhā a Mahuta ki te mana kore o tana tūranga i roto i te Kaunihera Ture, ki ngā kaupapa here whenua Māori a te rōpū Rīpera. Roa te wā e tatari ana kia whakataungia te kerēme mō ō rātou whenua i raupatutia. I muri i te tau 1907, kāore i rongohia te reo o Mahuta i ngā tautohetohe, ahakoa te mea ka tae ia ki ngā noho tae atu ki te ekenga o tōna wā ki reira i te tau 1910. I taua wā ka hoki anō a Mahuta ki te whakahaere i ngā kaupapa a te Kīngitanga.

Ka mate ia i te tau 1912. Poto noa te wā ka noho a Kīngi Mahuta ki te Kaunihera Ture. Me kī, kāore he painga i puta i tērā whakamātautau o te mahi tahi a te mana o te Kīngitanga me te mana o te Pākehā.

Rangiputangatahi Mawhete

Rangiputangatahi Mawhete (1880-1961). Photographer: Henry Edward Gaze.
Rangiputangatahi Mawhete

Image: ATL 1/2-174860-G
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I whānau mai a Rangi Mawhete (1880-1961) i Tiakitahuna (Jackeytown) i te tonga o Te Papa-i-oea. Ko tōna iwi nui ko Rangitāne, engari ka tātai ia ki Muaūpoko, Ngāti Apa, Ngāti Te Ūpokoiri, Ngāti Hāmua, tae atu ki ngā iwi o Wanganui.

I kuraina ia ki te kāreti o Te Aute, kātahi ka mahi hei kaiwhakamārama reo ā-waha, hei āpiha hoko whenua. Ka uru ia hei mema o te Rōpū Reipa, ā, i te tau 1925 ka whakatūria e rātou ko ētahi atu mema Māori tētahi Komiti Tohutohu i a Reipa mō ngā Take Māori. Nāwai ā, ka riro ko tā rātou pūrongo te kaupapa here a Reipa mō te Māori. Ka kōrerohia e tēnei pūrongo ngā raruraru e pā ana ki te utu reiti, te whakataunga o ngā kerēme whenua, te whakapai ake i ngā tikanga pōti Māori, me te whakatū i tētahi kaunihera Māori hei tohu i te kāwanatanga mō ngā take Māori. Ko Mawhete te tangata a Reipa i te tūru Māori o Te Tai Hau-ā-uru i te pōti o te tau 1925. Ka hinga a ia ki a Māui Pōmare.

Kāore a Mawhete i tū i te pōti o te tau 1928, engari e whakaarotia ana i whai wāhi ia ki ngā kaupapa here a te rōpū Rātana. He āhua rite ēnei kaupapa here ki ā Reipa. Whai muri i te tau 1928 ka whakapau kaha a Mawhete kia piri tahi a Reipa me te rōpū Rātana. I te mutunga iho, ka tutuki tana wawata. Kia tae ki te tau 1943 kua riro i a Reipa/Rātana ngā tūru Māori e whā.

I te tau 1936 ka tohungia a ia ki te Kaunihera Ture. Ka tautoko tonu a ia i ngā kaupapa toko i te ora a Reipa. Engari kāore ia i rata ki ētahi o ā rātou kaupapa here, hei ko tāna, ka taupatupatu ēnei ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kaha ia ki te whakaputa i ngā tika a te Māori i raro i te Tiriti i ngā tautohetohe mō te rironga o ngā papa kapuni, te mana ki runga i ngā roto me te takere o ngā wai, ngā whenua i Waikato i raupatutia, ngā take hoki e pā ana ki te awa o Wanganui. I te tau 1959 ka whakawhiwhia a Mawhete ki te tohu o te Emepaea o Peretānia (OBE). Nō te tau 1961 ka mate ia.

Henry Taiporutu Te Mapu-o-te-rangi Mitchell

Henry Taiporutu Te Mapu-o-te-rangi Mitchell (also known as Tai Mitchell) standing on left, 1919.
Henry Taiporutu Te Mapu-o-te-rangi Mitchell

Image: ATL MS-Papers-0407-31-239
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I whānau a Tai Mitchell i Ōhinemutu i Rotorua i te tau 1877. He Pākehā tōna matua, nō Ngāti Pikiao tōna whāea. Ko Henry Mitchell tōna matua, he kairūri, he āpiha hoko whenua mā te kāwanatanga. Pērā anō a Tai, ka akoako hei kairūri, ka haere ki te mahi mā te Tari Rūri Whenua. Ka nui haere te tūranga o Tai i roto i ngā hapori Māori me ngā hapori Pākehā. Heoti, kitea nuitia ai ia i ngā hui nui ka tū ki Rotorua i ngā tekau tau o 1920 me 1930.

Ka mahi a Tai me ētahi atu rangatira o te iwi Māori ki te rāhui whenua whakapaipai i Rotoiti me Rotoehu. I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1920, ko ia te heamana o te Kaunihera ā-Rohe o Te Arawa. I a ia i tēnei tūranga, ka noho a ia hei takawaenga mō te kāwanatanga me Te Arawa i ngā whitiwhitinga kōrero mō tētahi paremata ki te iwi mō te ngaronga o ngā tauranga ika me ētahi atu tika a Te Arawa e pā ana ki ngā roto o te rohe o Rotorua. He ono mano pāuna ia tau tētahi wāhanga o te whakataunga a te kāwanatanga, ka tukua ki te Poari Kaitiaki o Te Arawa, māna hei whakahaere mō te painga o te iwi.

Ka noho a Tai Mitchell hei heamana o te Poari tae rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1944. He nui ngā mahi a te Poari i taua wā. Ka hokona he whenua hei pāmu, ka huakina anōtia te pūaha o Kaituna, ka whakaorangia ētahi tumu pipi, ka whakawhiwhia he karahipi mātauranga, ka āwhinatia te manaaki i ngā marae. Pūmau a Tai Mitchell ki ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua a Āpirana Ngata, ā, nāna hoki a Te Arawa i whakawherewhere kia kuhu ki aua kaupapa. Ka tū te kaupapa ahuwhenua tuatahi ki Horohoro i Rotorua. Nō te tau 1944 ka mate a Tai Mitchell.

Āpirana Turupa Ngata

Apirana Turupa Ngata.
Apirana Turupa Ngata

Image: ATL 35mm-00181-f-F
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I whānau mai a Āpirana Ngata (1874-1950) ki Te Araroa i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ko Ngāti Porou tōna iwi. Ka puta ia i te kāreti o Te Aute, ka whai i tana tohu paerua (MA) me tana tohu hei rōia. Ko ia te Māori tuatahi ka tutuki i a ia tētahi tohu paetahi ki tētahi whare wānanga o Aotearoa. Ko tana hokinga tērā ki Te Tai Rāwhiti ki te hiki ake i te noho me te ōhanga o te Māori.

I puritia e Ngāti Porou ōna whenua, kāore i rite ki ētahi atu iwi. Ka hoki atu a Ngata me ōna mātauranga ture ki te kāinga, me tana hiahia kia whakahoutia ngā mahi ahuwhenua, kia tirohia te āhua o te pupuri i ngā whenua. Ka akiaki ia kia whakatūria ngā pāmu hipi, kia kuhuna he moni ki ngā kaupapa whakapai ake i te whenua.

Tae rawa ki te tau 1916, e 180,000 ngā hipi a Ngāti Porou. Ko te hiahia o Ngata, kia tū hei kaporeihana hei whakahaere i ngā whenua mō te hunga whai pānga, hei pupuri i te mana whenua ki te iwi, hei whakamahi pai hoki i aua whenua mā te hunga whai pānga. I raro i te hanga o te kaporeihana ka taea te kohikohi i ngā taitara whenua marara ki roto i ētahi pāmu.

I tēnei wā anō, ko Ngata tētahi o ngā kaiārahi o te Rōpū Taitamariki Māori. He wāhi nui tō rātou i te huringa o te kei o te waka o te Kotahitanga atu i te Tiriti o Waitangi me te mana motuhake, ki te rapu hua mā roto i ngā kaupapa tōrangapū whānui.

I te tau 1905 ka pōtitia a Ngata hei Mema Pāremata Māori mō Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka noho ia ki tēnei tūru tae atu ki te tau 1943. Ka haere te kōrero mōna i te whare, he pū kōrero, he pukumahi.

Nā ana mahi mō te Kōmihana Whenua Māori o 1907, ka hau te rongo mōna ki te motu. I puta ake te Kōmihana i ngā āwangawanga mō te inati o ngā hoko whenua a te Pākehā i te tōmuatanga o ngā 1900. Ko Ngata rāua ko Rāpata Taute (Robert Stout) ngā ūpoko o te Kōmihana. Ko tana mahi tuatahi ko te rapu huarahi hei whakamahi i ngā whenua o te Māori hei painga mō te Māori rāua ko te Pākehā. I pukuaroha te Kōmihana ki te Māori; arā tana kī mō te Māori, he iwi “kore kai i te wā o te huhuatanga”. Ko te tūtohinga a te Kōmihana, kia pupuri te Māori ki te nuinga o ngā whenua kei roto tonu i ōna ringa; i tua atu, me tuku e te kāwanatanga ētahi āwhina ki te whakawhanake i ngā mahi ahuwhenua me te whakangungu i te iwi kāinga. Heoti anō, kāore ēnei tūtohinga i whāia. Hei ngā tau e rua tekau ka whai, nui atu ngā whenua ka hokona.

Ka āwhina anō a Ngata i te tohunga ture a John Salmond ki te tuhituhi i te takotoranga tuatahi o te Ture Whenua Māori 1909. Kātahi tētahi hanganga ture nui rawa atu, inā rā ko ia te whakakotahitanga o ngā ture whenua Māori katoa o mua.

I te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao, ka whai a Ngata i te tikanga a Ngāti Porou kia pūmau ki te Karauna, ko tana whakatenatena tērā i te iwi Māori kia uru hei hōia. Nā te māia o ngā toa Māori i te pakanga, whakaaetia noatia ai ngā tono a Ngata mō ētahi rangahau ki ngā nawe tautini e pā ana ki te whenua. Ko tētahi o ēnei rangahau ko te Kōmihana a Sim, i āta titiro ki ngā raupatunga whenua whai muri i ngā riri o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Whakaae ana te Kōmihana ki ētahi o ngā āwangawanga, ahakoa te whāiti o te tirohanga i whakaritea māna.

I te tau 1927 ka whakanuia a Ngata ki te taitara Tā, ā, nō te tau ka whai ko ia te Minita mō ngā Take Māori i te kāwanatanga Unaitiiti (United Party). Kua āhei tana tīmata ki te whakawhanake i ngā whenua Māori me ngā pūtea a te kāwanatanga hei tautoko. Ka whakatūria e ia ētahi kaupapa whakawhanake whenua puta noa i te motu. Ko tana whāinga nui kia pakari ngā hapori Māori, kia ora anō hoki te ahurea a te Māori.

Ka whai hua tana mahi tahi me ngā rangatira o tēnā iwi, o tēnā iwi. Mā roto i ngā kaupapa whakawhanake whenua ka āwhina anō a Ngata kia kaha mai anō ngā toi me ngā tikanga a te Māori. Nāna i āwhina te whakatūnga o te kura toi Māori ki Rotorua, Te Poari Whakapapa me Te Poari Pupuri Tahua mō ngā Take Māori.

Kāore i paku aro atu te nuinga o ngā Pākehā ki ngā kaupapa whakapaipai i ngā whenua Māori. Ko te wā hoki tēnei o te paheketanga o te ōhanga, i te tapahia ētahi atu o ngā āwhina a te kāwanatanga. Nā te rironga o ngā whenua papai, ko ngā whenua tītōhea i mahue mai hei whakapaipai. Ka hinga ētahi o ngā mahi ahuwhenua; ka pōuri ētahi Māori. Ka hōhā a Ngata ki te pōturi o ngā tari kāwanatanga; he kakama ia ki te whakatau take. He mahi nui tā ngā āpiha a te Tari Māori ki te whakaoti i ngā tuhinga e hāngai ana. I te tīmatanga o te tau 1932, kua nui ngā whakahē ka puta mō ngā mahi a Ngata. Ka huraina ētahi mahi kāore i te tika. Whāia, ka whakatūria he Kōmihana Uiui. I te tau 1934, ka puta tana pūrongo e arohae ana i ngā whakahaere a Ngata, ko te rihainatanga tērā o Ngata. Ka hinga ia ki te tangata o Reipa/Rātana i te pōti o te tau 1943. Hāunga, ka pūmau tonu a Reipa ki ngā kaupapa ahuwhenua a Ngata, ā, i te haere tonu ētahi tatū rawa ki ngā tekau tau o 1970 me 1980.

Nō te tau 1950 ka mate a Ngata. Nā wai ngā mahi nui atu i ā Ngata ki te whakaora i te iwi Māori – āna tikanga, tāna noho hoki.

Paraire Karaka Paikea

Group portrait at the 60th birthday celebrations for Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana. Paraire Paikea is standing at the back, on the left. Photographed by William Hall-Raine, ca 1933.
Ko Paraire Paikea (e tū ana) i te rā whakanui i te huritau 60 o Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana.

Image: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa C 1933
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I whānau a Paraire Paikea ki Ōtamatea i te takiwā o Kaipara i te tau 1894. Ko Te Uri-o-Hau tōna iwi. Ka whakangungua ia hei minita mō te hāhi Wēteriana, nō te tau 1920 a ia ka whakawahia. Nō muri ka whakawhirinaki ia ki ngā tohutohu a Tahupōtiki Rātana, te matakite nāna tōna ake hāhi i waihanga. Ko te tīmatanga tēnei o tana kuhu haere ki ngā whakahaere o te rōpū Rātana. I te tau 1924 ka āwhina ia ki te whakatakoto i tētahi pitihana e rapu paremata ana mō ngā takahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi. I kawea e Rātana ki Ingarangi hei whakatakoto ki mua i te aroaro o Kīngi Hōri V. I te tau 1925 ka whakawahia a Paikea hei minita i te hāhi Rātana.

I te tau 1928 ka kaha ake te whai wāhi a Paikea ki ngā mahi tōrangapū a te rōpū Rātana. I ngana ia ki te whakatau i ngā nawe o Ngāti Whātua mō te rironga tonutanga o ō rātou whenua kei Ōrākau i Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ko ia hoki te hēkeretari tūmataiti a Tahupōtiki. I te tau 1930 kua uru ia ki te Tokowhitu, ngā kaiwhakahaere o te rōpū Rātana.

He wāhi nui tōna i te hononga o Rātana me Reipa i te tau 1936. I te tau 1938 ka pōtitia a Paikea ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Tai Tokerau. I te tau 1941 ka kuhu ia ki te rūnanga kāwanatanga hei kanohi mō te iwi Māori. I te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka pau tana kaha ki te whakatū i te kaupapa o ngā Mahi a te Māori mō te Whawhai. Neke atu i te 300 ngā komiti Māori i whakatūria ki te rapu tāngata hei hōia, hei kaimahi i ngā ahumahi ka āwhina i te pakanga. Ka haere te pakanga ā, ka nui atu ngā kawenga i runga i ngā komiti nei. E ai ki te tumu kōrero a Claudia Orange, ka hiahia tonu ngā Māori tokomaha ki te whakaatu i tō rātou kaha ki ngā mahi ahakoa te taumaha.

Ko te hiahia o Paikea ina mutu te pakanga, kia haere tonu te kaupapa ngā Mahi mō te Whawhai, hei āwhina i te iwi Māori ki te whakahaere i āna ake kaupapa. He aha hoki. Ka puta te Ture Whakapakari i te Ora me te Ōhanga o te iwi Māori 1945, he waimehatanga kau o tāna i tūmanako ai. Ohorere te matenga o Paikea i te tau 1943.

Maui Wiremu Piti Naera Pōmare

Sir Maui Pomare, 1923, Photographer: Stanley Polkinghorne Andrew.
Maui Wiremu Piti Naera Pomare

Image: ATL 1/1-019098-F
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Ka whānau mai a Māui Pōmare i te tau 1875, 1876 rānei. Ko ōna iwi ko Ngāti Mutunga me Ngāti Toa. Hei tamāhine tōna whāea a Mere Hautonga Nicoll nā Kahe Te Rau-o-te-rangi, tētahi o ngā wāhine tokoiti ka haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi. He pononga ōna mātua nā Te Whiti o Rongomai me Tohu Kākahi, ngā matakite mautohe mārire. I ētahi wā ka noho ōna mātua ki tō rātou kāinga kei Parihaka. I reira a Pōmare i te tau 1881 i te wā ka whakaekengia a Parihaka e ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū.

I kuraina a Pōmare ki te kāreti o Te Aute. I reira ka ākona ia ki ngā ariā hou mō te noho i runga i te mā, e whakahauhia rā e Te Pōpi (James Pope), te Kaititiro o ngā Kura Māori. Ka toko te whakaaro ki roto i a Pōmare kei te taupatupatu ngā tikanga a te Māori ki te hauora me te horoi. Kāore ētahi o ngā tohunga Māori i rata ki ana kōrero.

I te tau 1893 ka wehe a Pōmare ki te whai i te mātauranga ki Amerika. Ka kuhu a ia ki te Kāreti o Amerika mō ngā Tākuta Mihinare (American Medical Missionary College) i Chicago, ā, nō te tau 1899 ka puta ia i ana whakamātautau MD; nō te tau o muri ka hoki ia ki Aotearoa.

I te tau 1900 i te noho mataku a Aotearoa kei whakaekea e te mate piwa urutā. Ka tahuri te kāwanatanga ki te whakatika i te paru o te noho a te iwi Māori, tae noa ki te kino o te āhua o ngā whare i ngā tāone nui me ngā kāinga Māori. Ka eke a Pōmare hei Āpiha mō te Hauora Māori i te tau 1901. Ka whakatūria ngā kaunihera ā-rohe hei whakatakoto ritenga mō te noho paru kore. Ka takahi a Pōmare i te roa, i te whānui o te whenua ki te arotake i ngā wai mō ngā hapori, i ngā whakaritenga paru kore, ki te āwhina hoki i ngā Kaunihera ā-rohe. Ka tau ia ki te kōrero ki ngā huinga Māori; he āwhina nui tēnei mōna, mai kore ka ngāwari ngā kaumātua ki a ia me ana kaupapa. Ka whakapau kaha a ia kia tāmia te awe o ngā tohunga. Ka tautoko ia i te Ture Whakamutu Tohunga o te tau 1907. I tino whakapono a Pōmare, ka ora te iwi Māori mā te whai i ngā tikanga a tauiwi.

Whai muri i te tau 1907, ka mutu te aro nui a te kāwanatanga ki ngā āhuatanga hauora, ā, ka tapahia ngā tahua ki ngā Kaunihera Māori ā-rohe. Nāwai ā, ka mutu te nuinga o ngā mahi a ngā Kaunihera, ka tonoa a Pōmare ki te Tari mō ngā Take Māori mahi ai.

I te tau 1911 ka uru a Pōmare ki te Pāremata hei Mema Māori mō Te Tai Hau-ā-uru. Nō te tau 1912 ka kuhu ko te rōpū Riwhōma hei kāwanatanga, ka whakatūria a Pōmare ki te Rōpū Whiriwhiri hei kanohi mō te iwi Māori. Kāore i tutuki ana tūmanako kia whakarerekēngia te pūnaha hauora. Hāunga, i whakapau kaha ia ki te whakatau i ngā kerēme whenua i Taranaki.

I te tau 1923 ka tohungia ko ia hei Minita mō te Hauora. I tēnei wā, ka whakatūria ngā whare hōhipera whakawhānau pēpi, ka whakaurua mai ngā tikanga hou ki te whānuitanga o ngā kaupapa hauora. Kātahi ka iti ake te matemate o ngā kōhungahunga me ngā whaea, Māori mai, Pākehā mai.

Ka mahi tahi rāua ko Āpirana Ngata kia tū te Kōmihana a Sim i te tau 1927 ki te rangahau i ngā raupatunga whenua. Ahakoa te whāiti o tana titiro, ka whakaae te Kōmihana ki te rahi o ngā kerēme ka pupū i ngā mahi raupatu i te whenua. Ka mate a Pōmare i te tau 1930.

Matiu Rata

Matiu Rata, circa 1970s, location unknown. Taken by an unidentified photographer for the Evening Post.
Matiu Rata

Image: ATL 1/4-021374-F
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Nō te tau 1934 ka whānau mai a Matiu Rata ki Te Hāpua i Te Hiku o te Ika a Māui. Ko Te Aupōuri tōna iwi. I ngā rā o tana ohinga he kaiārahi a ia mō te wāhanga rangatahi o te hāhi Rātana. Nō muri ka kuhu a Rata hei heremana, hei āpiha ūniana hoki. I te tau 1963 ka uru ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema mō te tūru o Te Tai Tokerau.

I te tekau tau atu i 1960 kāore i ārikarika te haehae a Rata i ngā kaupapa here a Nāhinara e pā ana ki te Māori. Ka matika te kāwanatanga Reipa tuatoru (1972-1975) ka tohungia a Rata hei Minita mō ngā Whenua, hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori. He wāhi nui tōna i te tuhinga o te Ture Whakatikatika mō ngā Take Māori o te tau 1974. Nā tēnei ture me ōna kaupapa here whenua Māori hou i unu te Ture Whakatikatika i ngā Take Māori o te tau 1967 i kawa rā te iwi Māori. Ka hāngai te titiro a Rata ki te pupuri a te Māori ki ōna whenua hei painga mō rātou. He wāhi nui anō hoki tō Rata i te whakatūnga o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1975.

Ka tae ki te tau 1979 kua kore a Matiu Rata e pai ki ngā kaupapa here a Reipa. Tāpiri atu, kāore i tautokona tana noho hei heamana o te komiti a Reipa mō ngā take Māori. Ka rihaina ia, ka whakatū i tōna ake rōpū tōrangapū, ko Mana Motuhake. Whakataetae ai a Rata mō te tūru Māori o Te Tai Tokerau, nāna hoki ngā kerēme a Muriwhenua i whakatakoto ki mua i Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1980 me te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1990. Nā tēnei i wawae te huarahi e whakataungia ai ngā kerēme a te Māori mō ngā rawa hao ika i te tau 1992. Ka aituā, ka mate a Matiu Rata i tētahi tukinga waka i te tau 1997.

Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana

Group portrait at the 60th birthday celebrations for Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana. Ratana is seated in the centre.
He whakaahua o tētahi rōpū (e tū ana) i te rā whakanui i te huritau 60 o Tahupotiki Wiremu Rātana. E noho ana a Rātana i waenganui.

Image: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa
Ref: C 1933
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Ka whānau mai a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana i Te Kawau, e pātata  ana ki Te Ara-taumaihi (Bulls) i te tau 1873. Ko ōna iwi ko Ngāti Apa, ko Ngā Rauru.

I te marama o Nōema o te tau 1918 ka whakaaturia mai te Wairua Tapu ki a ia, hei tāna, he pēnei i te kapua āwhiowhio te āhua. Nō muri ka mōhiotia whānuitia ia ko te Māngai o te Wairua Tapu. Ka taea e ia te whakaora tangata mā roto i te karakia. Kāore noa i roa ka hau whānui te rongo mōna, ka tipu tētahi hapori i tōna kāinga, mōhiotia ai ā tōna wā ko Rātana pā (tata ki te tāone o Marton). I ngā tau o 1921 me 1922 ka takahia e ia te mata o te whenua. Ka muia ana hui e te tini me te mano, taka tonu te rahi ki raro i ana tohutohu.

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1920 ka whakatikatika te Hāhi Rātana i a ia, ka ruku ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū. Ka whakatūria he tari ki te pā o Rātana, ka whakaputahia he nūpepa, ko Te Whetū Mārama o Te Kotahitanga. I te tau 1924 ka heria e Rātana tētahi pitihana ki Rānana, e 30,000 te hunga haina. Ko te whāinga o tēnei pitihana kia whakahokia ngā whenua o te Māori i raupatutia, kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi. Kāore i whakaaetia kia tūtaki ia ki a Kingi Hōri V. Nā tētahi o tōna rōpū i heri te pitihana ki Geneva, me kore e taea te tāpae ki te aroaro o te Rīki o ngā Iwi o te Ao; hauwarea. Heoi, nā te pitihana i whakakorikori te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa kia whakatū kōmihana (te Kōmihana o Sim) hei rangahau i ngā mahi raupatu whenua. Ka whakaae te kōmihana nei ki ētahi o ngā nawe i whakaarahia e pā ana ki te whenua Māori.

Nō te tau 1925 ka tū te Hāhi Rātana hei hāhi whai tikanga i raro i te ture. I te tau 1928 ka kuhu a Rātana ki te ao tōrangapū. Ka whakaritea e ia ngā tūru Pāremata e whā o te iwi Māori ki ngā wāhanga e whā o tōna tinana. Ka whai a Rātana kia riro aua tūru e whā, mā te tohutohu ki ana pononga me pēhea tā rātou tuku i ā rātou pōti. Tae atu ki te tau 1934 e 40,000 te rahi o ana pononga. Ka hiahia piri a Rātana ki te rōpū Reipa, he haere pea nō Reipa ki te kōrero ki a Rātana i te whakahiatotanga o ā rātou kaupapa here ka pā ki te iwi Māori.

I te tau 1932 ka pōtitia a Eruera Tirikātene-Sullivan ki te Pāremata mō te tūru Māori o Te Waipounamu; ko ia te mema Rātana tuatahi; ko ngā tohutohu atu ki a ia kia tautoko i a Reipa. Ka riro i a Rātana te tūru Māori o Te Tai Hau-ā-uru i te tau 1935. I te tau 1936 ka pānuitia e Rātana tā rātou kuhu ko tana whānau hei mema o te Rōpū Reipa. I tētahi hui whakahirahira i te tau 1936, ka tukua e Rātana ētahi taonga ki te kaiārahi o te rōpū Reipa ki a Te Hāwiti (Savage), he tohu i te mahinga tahitanga a Rātana rāua ko Reipa. Tatū ki te tau 1943 kua taka ngā tūru Māori katoa ki raro i te hononga Rātana/Reipa. Kei te mau tonu rāua ki taua ritenga i ēnei rā. Nō te tau 1939 ka mate a Rātana.

Eva Rickard

Eva Rickard on the old Raglan Golf Course, 1981. Photographer: Yanse Martin, NZ Herald.
Eva Rickard

Photo: Yanse Martin
Copyright: New Zealand Herald
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I whānau mai a Tuaiwa Eva Rickard i Te Kōpua i Whāingaroa i te tau 1925. Kei te mōhio te iwi whānui ki a Tuaiwa i te mea nāna i ārahi ngā mautohe mō te papa hahaupōro o Whāingaroa. I te wā o te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, ka wāwāhia ngā kāinga i Te Kōpua, ka panaia ngā whānau, kia pai ai te whakatakoto taunga rererangi. I te mutunga o te pakanga kāore i whakahokia taua whenua ki ngā Māori whai pānga, ka hurihia kētia hei papa hahaupōro. Mō te wā roa ka whawhai a Tuaiwa kia hoki mai te whenua. I te tau 1978 i mauherea ia mō te mautohe nohonoho; ka hopukina tana mauherenga e te pouaka whakaata. Mai i tēnei wā, ka arongia nuitia tana take.

I te mutunga ka puta tana kaupapa ki te whaiao ki te ao mārama. Ka hoki mai ngā whenua, ka hurihia te papa hahaupōro hei pāmu me tōna marae, tōna pokapū whakangungu. Nā ngā mautohe o Whāingaroa, o Takaparawhā, ka tirohia anōtia ngā ture kei runga i ngā whenua Māori. Ki te tangohia he whenua Māori mō ngā mahi tūmatanui, ki te mutu te hiahia o te kāwanatanga ki taua pito whenua, me hoki aua whenua ki te hunga whai pānga.

Ka noho a Tuaiwa Rickard ki roto i ngā kaupapa a te iwi me ngā kaupapa tiaki taiao. I te tau 1984 nāna tētahi hīkoi i ārahi ki Waitangi, ko tā rātou i whai kia whakamutua ngā kaupapa whakanui i te Tiriti, kia ea rā anō ngā kerēme katoa. Ka tū ia mō te Pāremata i raro i te rōpū o Mana Motuhake, engari kāore ia i toa. I te tau 1993 ka tū tōna ake rōpū tōrangapū, ko Mana Māori; engari kāore i tino kaha. Ka mate a Tuaiwa Eva Rickard i te tau 1997.

Hoani Te Heuheu Tūkino VI

View of Waihi village, the birthplace of Hoani Te Heuheu. Photographed by the Burton Bros in 1880s.
He whakaahua mō te kāinga o Waihi village, te wāhi whānau o Hoani Te Heuheu. He mea whakaahua nā ngā tuākana tēina Burton i te tekau tau 1880-1890.

Image: ATL 1/4-008627
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I whānau mai a Hoani Te Heuheu Tūkino i te tau 1897 ki Waihī i ngā tahatika o te moana o Taupō. Ko Tūreiti Te Heuheu Tūkino V tōna matua, ko ia te ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ka hau te rongo mō tōna arikitanga ki te motu. I te matenga o Tūreiti i te tau 1921 ka matika a Hoani ki te whakakapi i tōna tūranga.

Ka taka mai ki runga i a ia ētahi raruraru kua roa e huri haere ana. Kei te whiwhi ētahi hapū o Ngāti Tūwharetoa i ētahi moni mā te hoko āheinga ki te hī ika me te nama i ngā Pākehā ka hiahia haere mā ō rātou whenua. Ka amuamu ngā kaihī Pākehā, ko te kuhunga atu tērā o te kāwanatanga. Ko tā te kāwanatanga i tāpae ki mua i a Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ki te tukua e te iwi ngā tika mō te moana me ōna tahatika hei whenua tūmatanui i raro i te Karauna, ka utua te iwi ki te toru mano pāuna ia tau. Ka haere tēnei moni ki tētahi Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ā, māna e whakangao te moni hei painga mō te iwi. I tua atu, ka whakawhiwhia te iwi ki ētahi raihana hī ika kore utu ia tau. Kāore ngā hapū i te mahi moni i ngā whakaritenga o mua atu i rata ki tēnei ritenga. Ka heke ā rātou moni whiwhi, i te mea he wāhanga noa o te pūtea mā te katoa ka hoki mai ki a rātou. Ahakoa tērā, ka hainatia te whakaaetanga e Hoani i te Hūrae o te tau 1926. Ka tātāhia ia e ētahi o āna ake, ko ētahi ka tono tonu i tētahi paremata. Heoi, ka eke a ia hei heamana o te Poari Kaitiaki o Tūwharetoa, mate rawa.

Ka piki haere ngā nama a Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ka nui atu te arotahi ki te moni ka whiwhi te iwi ia tau. Kāore i eke ngā hua ka puta ki te iwi i te rīhi o ngā whenua ki ngā kamupene tope rākau ki tērā i manakotia. I tua atu, kua herea ngā whenua kei raro i ngā rīhi, kāore e tareka e te iwi aua rīhi te unu.

I te tau 1937 ka heria e tētahi kamupene tope rākau te Poari Takiwā Whenua Māori o Aotea ki te kōti. Ko te Poari nei te māngai mō te hunga whai pānga. Ka whakawhiwhia te kamupene ki te 23,000 pauna. He moni nui whakaharahara tēnei i taua wā. Ka mate te hunga whai pānga ki te utu i tēnei. Kātahi ka heria e Te Heuheu te take nei ki te Kōti Matua mō te hakurara o te Poari; ka hinga anō ia.

Kātahi ka aro ia ki te Tiriti o Waitangi hei waka kawe i ngā kaupapa mō te iwi. Ko tana whakapae, kāore i te hāngai ngā ritenga o te ture whakamana i te Poari Takiwā ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, nā reira kāore ōna kiko. I te tau 1941 ka whakarongo te Kaunihera Motuhake a te Kīngi ki te take nei arā, Te Heuheu v Poari Takiwā Whenua Māori o Aotea. E ai ki ngā Rōra Ture, mēnā kāore te Tiriti i roto i ngā hanganga ture o Aotearoa, kāti, kāore ōna mana ā-ture. Kei te pēnei tonu te āhua i tēnei rā. Ka mate a Hoani Te Heuheu i te kohi i te tau 1944.

Eruera Tīhema Te Āika Tirikātene

Eruera Tihema Te Aika Titkatene.
Eruera Tihema Te Aika Tirikatene

Image: ATL PAColl-6388-26
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I whānau a Eruera Tirikātene ki te takiwā o Kaiapoi i te tau 1895. Nō Ngāi Tahu ia. I te tau 1914 ka kuhu a ia hei hōia i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao; hau ana te rongo mō tana toa i ngā pakanga ki Wīwī.

Ka mutu te pakanga, ka whakatū ia i ētahi pakihi whai hua, ko ētahi he pāmu miraka kau, he mira kani rākau, he waka hī ika. I tētahi haerenga ki te pā o Rātana i te tau 1921 ka kawea ia e ngā tohutohu a Tahupōtiki Rātana, te kaiārahi whakapono, he matakite. Ko te hūnuku tērā a Tirikātene ki reira noho ai. Ka whakamihi a Tirikātene mō te whakamahi a Rātana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei huarahi whakaū i ngā tika, whakatau i ngā kerēme whenua a te Māori. Ka tino rata ia ki te hiahia o Rātana kia whakataungia ngā kerēme mō ngā whenua Māori, i te mea i te rapu a Ngāi Tahu i tētahi paremata mō ā rātou kerēme mai anō i te tekau tau atu i 1840.

Ka riro ko Tirikātene tētahi o ngā kaitohutohu matua a Rātana. Nāna ngā whakahaere o te rōpū i taki. Ka puta te whakatau a Rātana kia riro mai ngā tūru Māori e whā i te Pāremata. Kāore he mea i tua atu i a Tirikātene mō te tūru o Te Tai Tonga. Tata tonu ka toa ia i ngā pōti o 1928 me 1931. Ka mate te Mema Māori mō Te Tai Tonga, a Tuiti Makitānara i te tau 1932, ka toa a Tirikātene i te pōti whāiti mō te tūru wātea. Ko ia te Mema Pāremata tuatahi a te rōpū Rātana.

Ko tētahi o ngā mahi tuatahi a Tirikātene, he tāpae i tētahi pitihana ki mua i te Pāremata kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi i raro i te ture. Kāore i mimiti ana kōrero ki te Whare mō te Tiriti, tae atu ki ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu.

Ko ngā take nui ki a ia ko te rawakore o tōna iwi, te hunga Māori kāore he mahi, me ngā utu iti ki te kaimahi Māori mō ngā mahi whakahirihiri.

Ka whakapono a Tirikātene, mā te mahi tahi me Reipa ka tutuki ōna whāinga. Ka āwhina ia kia tū he kotahitanga a Reipa rāua ko Rātana. Kia taka ki te tau 1943 kua riro i a Reipa/Rātana ngā tūru Māori e whā o te Pāremata. I te tau 1936 ka eke a Tirikātene hei heamana o tētahi komiti a te kāwanatanga Reipa hou mō ngā take Māori. E ai ki te tumu kōrero a Angela Ballara, whai muri i te tau 1936 ka rongo tonu koe i roto i ana kauhau te harikoa me te whakamihi mō te taurite o ngā kaupapa toko i te ora a Reipa ki te Pākehā me te Māori.

I te matenga o Rātana i te tau 1939, ko Tirikātene ka ārahi i ngā take tōrangapū. I te tau 1943 ka kuhu a ia hei mema o te Kaunihera Whiriwhiri hei kanohi mō te iwi Māori. Ko ia te heamana o tētahi komiti o te Pāremata ka whakahaere i ngā mahi a te iwi Māori mō te whawhai. Ko te hiahia o Tirikātene kia noho te rōpū Māori mō te Whawhai mō ngā rā o te āio, kia whai mana ai te iwi Māori ki runga i āna ake whakahaere. Heoi, kāore i eke pū ki runga i tāna i hiahia, tāpae ki te putanga o te Ture Whakapakari i te Ora me te Ōhanga o te iwi Māori o te tau 1945. Ka pōuri ia kāore ia i tohungia hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori.

Hāunga tērā, ka hua ngā mahi a Tirikātene ki te whakatau i ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tahu. I te tau 1944 ka takoto te whakaritenga mō te tahua e 300,000 pāuna, e 20,000 pāuna ka tukua ki te iwi ia tau. Ka tohungia a ia hei heamana o te Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāi Tahu, i whakatūria ki te tiaki i te tahua hei painga mō te iwi. I te tau 1946 i roto anō ia i te whakataunga o ngā kerēme raupatu a ngā iwi o Waikato.

Mai te tau 1949 ki te tau 1957 ko Tirikātene i te Pae Ātete i te wā ko Nāhinara te kāwanatanga. Ka hoki anō a Reipa hei kāwanatanga mō te wā 1957-1960. Kāore tonu a ia i arongia hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori, kāore hoki i eke tana kaupapa kia tū te rā o Waitangi hei rā hararei ā-motu. Paku noa te neke a Waata Naahi (Walter Nash), te Pirimia me te Minita mō ngā Take Māori, i tāna i kī ka tū te rā 6 o Pēpuere hei “rā whakamoemiti puta i te motu”. Kia tae rā anō ki te tekau tau atu i 1970 ka whakataungia te rā o Waitangi hei rā hararei mō te motu katoa. Ka whakawhiwhia a Tirikātene ki te tohu Tā i te tau 1960. Nō te tau 1967 ka mate ia.

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NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

Ngā Kaihautū Māori 1900-1975

Balneavis, Henare Te Raumoa Huatahi
Buck, Peter Henry
Carroll, Heni Materoa
Carroll, Turi
Cooper, Dame Whina
Henare, James Clendon Tau
Herangi, Te Kirihaehae Te Puea
Kenana, Rua
Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero
Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero
Mawhete, Rangiputangatahi
Mitchell, Henry Taiporutu Te Mapu-o-te-rangi
Ngata, Apirana Turupa
Paikea, Paraire Karaka
Pomare, Maui Wiremu Piti Naera
Rata, Matiu
Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu
Rickard, Eva
Te Heuheu Tukino VI, Hoani
Tirikatene, Eruera Tihema Te Aika

Ngā Kaihautū Māori 1840-1900

Carroll, James
Heke Pokai, Hone Wiremu (Hone Heke)
Kahutia, Riperata
Kaihau, Henare
Kawiti, Te Ruki
Mangakahia, Hamiora
Mangakahia, Meri Te Tai
Maniapoto, Rewi Manga
Matua, Henare
Nene, Tamati Waka
Ngapua, Hone Heke
Ngatata, Wiremu Tako
Niniwa-i-te-rangi
Nireaha Tamaki
Ormsby, John
Parata, Wiremu Te Kakakura
Pere, Wiremu
Pomare II
Taiaroa, Hori Kerei
Taiwhanga, Hirini Rawiri
Takamoana, Karaitiana
Taonui, Aperahama
Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia
Tawhai, Hone Mohi
Tawhiao, Tukaroto Matutaera Potatau
Te Hapuku
Te Heuheu Tukino III , Iwikau
Te Heuheu Tukino IV, Horonuku
Te Kawau, Apihai
Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki
Te Pahi
Te Rangihiwinui, Te Keepa
Te Rangi-puawhe, Te Keepa
Te Rangitake, Wiremu Kingi
Te Rauparaha
Te Waharoa, Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi
Te Wheoro, Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa
Te Wherowhero, Potatau
Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti
Te Whiwhi, Henare Matene
Tiramorehu, Matiaha
Titokowaru, Riwha
Tohu Kakahi
Tomoana, Henare
Topeora, Rangi Kuini Wikitoria
Tuhaere, Paora
Wahanui Huatare
Wahawaha, Rapata

Ngā Kāwana

Browne, Thomas
FitzRoy, Robert
Gipps, George
Grey, George
Hobson, William

Ngā Kaitōrangapū, Ngā Tiāti, me ngā Āpiha

Ballance, John
Bell, F. D.
Bryce, John
Buick, T. L.
Bunbury, Thomas
Busby, James
Coates, Joseph Gordon
Eyre, E. J.
Fenton, F. D.
FitzGerald, J. E.
Fox, William
Fraser, Peter
Glenelg, Charles Grant
Grey, Henry George (Earl)
Gorst, John
Hanan, Josiah Ralph
Herries, William Herbert
Hunn, Jack Kent
Kirk, Norman Eric
Lewis, T. W.
Mair, Gilbert
Maning, F. E.
Mantell, Walter
Martin, William
McLean, Donald
Nash, Walter
Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps
Prendergast, James
Rees, W. L.
Richmond, J. C.
Rusden, G. W.
Russell, H. R.
Savage, Michael Joseph
Seddon, Richard
Sewell, Henry
Sheehan, John
Spain, William
Stephen, James
Stout, Robert
Vogel,Julius
Weld, Frederick
Whitaker, Frederick

Ngā Kaiwhakanoho me ngā Mihingare

Clarke, George
Colenso, William
Cowan, James
Grace, T. S.
Hadfield, Octavius
Marsden, Samuel
Pompallier, J. B. F.
Selwyn, G. A.
Taylor, Richard
Wakefield, Edward
Williams, Henry