He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Kei tĒnei wĀhanga

Introduction

Alphabetical List of Key People.

Māori Leaders 1840 - 1900

Māori Leaders 1900 onwards

Governors

Politicians Judges & Officials

Missionaries & Settlers

English version of this page

TĀngata Ingoa Nui

NgĀ KaitŌrangapŪ, NgĀ TiĀti, me ngĀ Āpiha

John Ballance (Te Paranihi)

Seated portrait of John Ballance. Taken by Alfred Martin, probably in the Wanganui area between 1875 and 1889.
John Ballance

Image: ATL 1/2-070344-G
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Nō te tau 1866 ka tau a Te Paranihi (1839-1893) ki Aotearoa. Ka noho ia ki Wanganui, ka tū tana nūpepa te Evening Herald. I te wā o ngā pakanga i Taranaki, ka tū ia hei hōia, hei kaikawe pūrongo hoki. I te tau 1875 ka kuhu ia ki te Pāremata mō te rohe pōti o Rangitīkei. I te tau 1878 ka tohungia ia hei Kaitiaki Pūtea mō te Koroni, ā, i te tau 1884 ka tohungia ia hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori i te kāwanatanga o Taute rāua ko Vogel.

Hāngai katoa ngā kaupapa here a Te Paranihi ki te tiaki i ngā whenua Māori; ka kōrero ētahi mō te whānui me te hōhonu o tana titiro ki tēnei take; ko ētahi anō ka whakapae, he rite rawa ia ki te matua e tohutohu ana i tana tamaiti, arā, te iwi Māori. I tautoko ia i te whakaaro kia whakawātea ngā hōia i ētahi takiwā, kei whakaongaonga noa iho e rātou ngā iwi o aua takiwā. Nōna anō te whakaaro kia tukua e Ngāti Tūwharetoa ngā whenua kia tū ai ā tōna wā te Rohe Tāpui o Tongariro.

Hāunga tērā, nā Te Paranihi i whakaae kia kotia tonu ngā whakapaunga ki runga i ngā take Māori, he mahi i tīmataria e ngā mea i mua i a ia. I tua atu, kāore i pai ki te tini Māori te Whakahaere i ngā Whenua Māori o 1886, i te mea kāore tonu i hoki ki a rātou te mana whakahaere i ō rātou whenua. I te tau 1891 ka eke a Te Paranihi hei Pirimia, ka whakatūria e ia te kāwanatanga Rīpera tuatahi. I te tau 1893 ka āwhina ia i te tukunga o te mana pōti ki ngā wāhine.

F. D. Bell

Francis Henry Dillon Bell, circa 1924.  Photographer unidentified.
F. D. Bell

Image: ATL PAColl-5469-012
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Nō te tau 1843 i tau ai a Francis Dillon Bell (1822-1898) ki Aotearoa. Ka noho ia ki Whakatū, ki reira mahi ai mō te Kamupene o Niu Tireni. I ngā tau 1847 me 1848, i te hoko whenua ia i Te Wairarapa, i Taranaki, i Waitohi. Kāore i taea e ia he whenua i Te Wairarapa te hoko, engari anō a Taranaki me Te Waipounamu.

Ka kuhu a Bell ki ngā mahi tōrangapū, ā, nō te tau 1855 ka uru ia ki te Pāremata. I te tau i muri mai ka whakawātea ia mai i te Pāremata, ka eke hei Kōmihana mō ngā Whenua Taupatupatu. Ko tāna mahi he tātari i ngā tohanga whenua ki ngā tāngata whai i hoko whenua i mua i te hainatanga o te Tiriti, he whakarite whenua rāhui mō ngā Māori i hoko atu i ō rātou whenua. Taketake mai ai ana kaupapa here i tōna ngākau nui ki ngā tāngata whai. Ko te mutunga o tēnei, ka mau tonu te pōuri o te Māori i te hokonga o ōna whenua.

I 1860 ka hoki a Bell ki te Pāremata. Nā tōna matatau ki te reo Māori me ngā kaupapa e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori, ka noho ia hei tohutohu i a Kāwana Browne. Kaha tana tautoko i te hokonga o Waitara, koia te tīmatanga o ngā pakanga i Taranaki. I te tau 1862 ka eke ia hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori. Kīia ai ana whakahaere, “he hakurara, he ngoikore”. Hāunga, ka tautoko tonu ia i te whakahaere o mua atu o te Kōti Whenua Māori e tū ana i te tau 1862. Nā tēnei hanga te whakahau kia hokona te rahi o ngā whenua Māori e toe ana ki Te Ika a Māui. Ka tautoko a Bell i te huaki a Kerei i te Waikato i te tau 1863; i tae tana tono mō ētahi hōia ki Ahitereiria rā anō.

Ka noho a Bell ki ētahi tūranga tōrangapū. I te tau 1880 ka rangahau ia i ētahi tohenga whenua ki Taranaki. Ahakoa te wāhi nui ki a ia i te muranga o te riri ki Taranaki me te raupatutanga o ngā whenua Māori, i tūtohu ia me whakahoki ētahi whenua nui ki ngā ringaringa o te Māori. Ka whiwhi ia i tana tohu Tā i te tau 1881.

John Bryce (Te Paraihe)

Head and shoulders portrait of John Bryce. Photograph taken by William James Harding circa 1870s.
John Bryce

Image: ATL 1/1-000058-G
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I whānau mai a Te Paraihe (1833-1913) ki Koterana. Nō te tau 1840 i tau ai tōna whānau ki Aotearoa. Ehara tōna whānau i te whānau whai mana, ā, nāna tonu a ia i ako. I te tau 1859 ka uru ia ki ngā tōrangapū ā-rohe. I te tau 1866 ka pōtitia a Te Paraihe ki te rūnanga nui o te Pāremata hei māngai mō Wanganui. I whawhai a Te Paraihe ki a Tītokowaru i te tau 1868, ā, i whakapaetia ko ia tētahi i te wūru hēte o Handley i te wā ka patua, ka taotū ētahi taitama Māori e whakangau poaka ana.

I te tau 1883 ka kuhu a Te Paraihe ki tētahi whakawākanga ki a G. W. Rusden, nāna te kōrero i roto i tana pukapuka hītori, i patua e Te Paraihe ki tana hoari ētahi wāhine, tamariki “me te mea nei he tākaro noa iho”. Ka rongohia te whakawākanga i te Kōti Teitei i Rānana. E ai ki a Te Paraihe, kāore ia i whai wāhi ki aua mahi kōhuru. Ka hinga rā te take a Rusden, ka tāmia tana pukapuka. Ka tono te Kōti kia utua a Te Paraihe ki te rima mano pāuna mō te mamae ka pā ki a ia; he moni tino nui tēnei mō aua wā. I runga i tōna whakaaro kua pai anō tōna ingoa, ka whakaae a Te Paraihe kia tukua tētahi tahua iti iho, hei whakaea i ana utu mō te whakawānga. Heoi, e ai ki te kōrero, mōhiotia tonutia a Te Paraihe e ngā Māori o Taranaki, ko Te Paraihe Kōhuru.

Ko Te Paraihe te heamana o te Komiti mō ngā take Māori i te tau 1876 ki te tau 1879, ā, ko ia te Minita mō ngā Take Māori atu i te tau 1879 ki te tau 1884. Nā runga i tana māharahara mō te kaha tipu o te kāinga mautohe mārire o Parihaka i raro i te mana o Te Whiti o Rongomai rāua ko Tohu, ka whakamanatia e Te Paraihe ētahi ture e tareka ai e ngā pirihimana te mauhere i te tangata Māori, hei aha te whakawākanga.

I te marama o Nōema 1881 ko ia te kaiārahi o ngā kaitūao me ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū nā rātou i whakaeke a Parihaka; nāna i whakahaere te wāwāhitanga o taua kāinga, nāna hoki i ā te iwi kia marara. Mō ngā marama 16 ka mauheretia a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu, kāore he whakawākanga. Ka noho a Te Paraihe hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori tae rawa ki te tau 1884. Nō muri ka puta tana whakapae, nā te hē o ngā tikanga me te āhua tonu o te Māori, ka hua te raruraru ki Parihaka.

Kua kī tētahi tumu kōrero mō Bryce, “he tangata i kaha tukituki ki ngā wawata o te Māori”. Ahakoa tana hīkaka kia tere ake te hoko i ngā whenua o te Māori kia wawe ai te whakanoho i te Pākehā, me tana whakaheke i ngā whakapaunga moni mō ngā take Māori, i ngana anō ia ki te haukoti i ngā mahi whakamoumou moni me ngā mahi whānako. Kei roto i tana Ture Hoko Whenua Māori o te tau 1880 te whakaaro kia tū ko te Karauna hei kaitiaki, ā, māna e hoko tūmatanui ngā whenua mō ngā iwi Māori. Kāore ētahi o ōna hoa i te Pāremata i tautoko i tēnei kaupapa, kei pōturi te haere o ngā hokonga whenua Māori. E tāmi ana tana Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1883 i ngā mahi whānako – hei tauira, kāore i whakaaetia te hoko whenua Māori kia whakatau taitara rā anō te Kōti Whenua Māori.

T. L. Buick

Thomas Lindsay Buick, photographed in 1926 by the firm of S P Andrew Ltd.
T. L. Buick

Image: ATL 1/1-018911-F
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I whānau mai a Thomas L. Buick (1865-1938) ki
Te Oha-a-Maru. I ngā tau 1890 ki 1896 ko ia te Mema Pāremata mō te rohe pōti o Te Wairau.

Ahakoa kāre i roa ia ki ngā whare o te mātauranga, he māia, me te koi o te hinengaro, mōhiotia whānuitia ai mō ana tuhinga hītori. I whakaputahia e ia ētahi pukapuka hītori me tētahi haurongo mō Te Rauparaha. Ko tana pukapuka rongonui rawa atu, ko The Treaty of Waitangi, i whakaputahia i te tau 1914. Nā tēnei pukapuka i whakaoho te iwi ki te wāhi nui o te Tiriti o Waitangi, te tuhinga nui rawa atu o Aotearoa. E ai ki a Buick, ko te Tiriti “te takenga mai o te tuakiri o tēnei whenua”. Ka mate ia i te tau 1938.

Major Thomas Bunbury

Thomas Bunbury.
Major Thomas Bunbury

Image: ATL PAColl-6075-15
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He hōia tautōhito a Bunbury (1791-1861), he tangata hoki i whawhai i te Riri o Naporiono, ā, i ngā tau 1830 ko ia te tumuaki o te Moutere o Norfolk. I te marama o Māehe 1840, i whakahautia ia e Kāwana Gipps kia haere mai ki Aotearoa me āna hōia 100 o te ope e kīia nei te 80th Regiment, hei taituarā mō Te Hopihona, ā, i te mea i te hē te hauora o Te Hopihona, kia kake atu ia ki tana tūranga Rūtene-Kāwana mehemea ka hē kē atu. Ka tere tana kaipuke mā te tai rāwhiti ki Pōneke, ā, ka whakawhiti atu ki Te Waipounamu ki te rapu hainatanga mō te Tiriti. Heoi anō, nō te 4 o Hune 1840, i te whanga o Sylvan Bay, ka pānuitia e ia te mana o Ingarangi i runga i a Rakiura, i runga i te tikanga “kite tuatahi”. I te 17 o Hune ki Karauripē, ka pānuitia e ia te mana whenua ki runga i Te Waipounamu katoa, i runga i te tikanga “tuku mana whenua”. Ka pōuri tonu ia mō tana korenga e piki ki te tūranga Kāwana i muri i te matenga o Te Hopihona. He tikanga tēnei, kia eke te tumuaki matua o ngā ope hōia ki ēnei tūranga i ngā koroni. Heoi anō ka noho tonu ia i Aotearoa hei kaiwhakawā, hei āpiha whai mana mō ngā ope hōia. Ko ia te kāwana o raro mō Fitzroy i te tau 1844, i mua i tōna hokinga ki tōna ope ake, me ngā mahi hōia i Īnia.

James Busby (Te Pūhipi)

James Busby.
James Busby

Image: Private collection, courtesy of Alexander Turnbull Library HC-651
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I whānau a James Busby (Te Pūhipi) (1802-1871) i Edinburgh. Ko ia te Rēreneti o Ingarangi ki Aotearoa mai i 1833. Ko tana mahi he tiaki i ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua me ngā kaihokohoko o Ingarangi, he kaupare atu i ngā "mahi whakarihariha" a ētahi Pākehā nanakia ki te Māori. Kāhore āna hōia, āna pirihimana, kāore hoki ōna mana mauhere i te tangata hara, nō reira kāore i taea e ia ana kawenga te whakatutuki i runga i ngā tikanga o te āpiha whai mana. I te tau 1834, nā ana mahi, ka whakamanaia tētahi haki mō Aotearoa, i āhei ai ngā kaipuke i hangaia i Aotearoa te tere atu ki Poihākena. I raro i taua haki e kore aua kaipuke e murua e ngā mana o reira. I te tau 1835, i runga i te whai a Charles de Thierry ki te whakapuaki i tētahi mana whenua motuhake ki roto o Hokianga, ka whai a Te Pūhipi ki te whakawhere i ngā rangatira kia haina ratou i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni, hei whakapūmau i tō rātou mana ki runga o Aotearoa. Ahakoa i rangirua te tangata mō te pono o tēnei “whakaminenga”, ka whakaae te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi ki taua Whakaputanga. E rima tau noa iho i muri mai, ka āwhina a Te Pūhipi i a Te Hopihona ki te tuhituhi i te Tiriti o Waitangi, i tukua ai te “kāwanatanga” ki te Karauna o Ingarangi. I whakamāramatia te Tiriti, i tautohetia, ā, i hainatia i te hui nui i te kāinga o Te Pūhipi i Waitangi, ko tōna ingoa ināianei ko te "Whare o te Tiriti". Ka kitea te ariā o ana mahi i te Upoko 2 ("Pānuitia te Tiriti") o te Tiriti, i whakapūmautia ai ki ngā rangatira Māori te "tino rangatiratanga" (i te reo Māori), te “full, exclusive and undisturbed possession” (i te reo Pākehā) o ō rātou whenua me ērā atu rawa. He tangata a Te Pūhipi i ākona i Ūropi ki te whakatupu waina, ā, i haria mai e ia ētahi tupu karepe, koinei te tīmatanga o te mahi whakatupu waina o Ahitereiria. Koia te kaimahi waina tuatahi rawa o Aotearoa. Ahakoa kāore i tukua he mahi ki a ia e te kāwanatanga o te koroni hou, i noho ia ki te mahi pāmu, ki te ētita niupepa, ā, he mema hoki ia nō te Kaunihera Porowini o Tāmaki-makau-rau.

 Joseph Gordon Coates (Te Kōti)

Joseph Gordon Coates, circa 1938, photographed by Stanley Polkinghorne Andrew.
  Joseph Gordon Coates

Image: ATL 1/1-018353
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I whānau mai, i pakeke a Te Kōti (1878-1943) ki te takiwā o Kaipara. Nā tōna kaingākau ki te tōrangapū, ka kuhu ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema mō te rohe pōti o Kaipara i te tau 1911. I te tīmatanga ka tū a ia hei Rīpera motuhake, heoi, tatū ki te tau 1914 kua kuhu kē ia ki te rōpū Riwhōma. I te tau 1919 ka kake a ia hei minita i te kāwanatanga o Te Maahi. I te tau 1921 ko ia tērā ka tohungia hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori, ā, i tōna kakenga hei Pirimia i te tau 1925 ka puritia e ia tēnei tūranga.

I pukuaroha ia ki te iwi Māori i runga i ngā taumahatanga ka pā; nā tēnei, tāpae ki tana whakahoahoa me ngā rangatira Māori pērā i a Āpirana Ngata, ka kuhu ia ki te hāpai i ngā take Māori. I ngana ia ki te “whakakore i ngā nawe o mua, kia ahu whakamua ai te Māori”.

Ki te tirohia ngā mahi i oti i ngā minita i mua i a ia, ka nui ngā kaupapa i tutuki i a ia. Nāna ngā kerēme a Te Arawa rāua ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa i whakatau mō ō rātou roto, tae atu ki ngā kerēme a Ngāi Tūhoe mō ētahi o ō rātou whenua. Nāna i para tētahi huarahi hou i tana hanga i te Poari o Te Arawa hei tiaki i te pūtea mai i te whakataunga o ngā kerēme mō te whanaketanga o te ōhanga me te hapori o te iwi.

Nāna anō i whakatū te Kōmihana a Sim ki te rangahau i ngā raupatunga whenua, te pūtake o ngā riri. Ahakoa te whāiti o ngā ritenga hei tirotiro mā te kōmihana, ka tautokona e ia te nuinga o ngā nawe o te Māori.

I tautokona e Te Kōti te tūnga o te Tahua Take Māori hei tuku pūtea tautoko i ngā whāinga mātauranga, pāpori, me ngā tikanga-ā-iwi.  Nā tēnei pūtea hoki i āwhina te whakatūnga o te Ture Mahi Toi, Haratau Māori o te tau 1926. Nā taua ture, ko te kura whakairo tērā ka tū ki Rotorua.

I te kakenga o Āpirana Ngata ki tōna tūranga hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori i te kāwanatanga hou i te tau 1928, kua para kē a Te Kōti i te huarahi mō ngā whakarerekētanga tērā ka whai. Ka whai tonu a Te Kōti i ngā kaupapa tōrangapū tatū rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1943.

 E. J. Eyre

Governor Eyre. Painted by Charles Mercier. Engraved by Charles Tomkins. London, T.W. Green, 1868.
 E. J. Eyre

Image: ATL C-016-003
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I te tau 1832 ka tau a Edward Eyre (1815-1901) ki Ahitereiria. Ka araara tōna ingoa hei kaipāmu, hei tangata hōpara; nō muri ka tū ia hei kaiwhakawā. Ka āhua pukuaroha anō ia ki ngā tāngata whenua o Ahitereiria; ko tāna, kaua rātou e whakamatea, me whakanunumi kē rātou ki roto i te ao Pākehā. Nā te rite o ō rāua whakaaro mō te tiaki i te tangata whenua me te hōpara, ka aro atu a Hōri Kerei ki a ia.

I te 1845 ka hoki a Eyre ki Ingarangi. I te tau i muri mai ka tohungia ia hei Rūtene-Kāwana mō te Porowini o New Munster i Aotearoa, arā, koia tērā ko te katoa o Te Waipounamu me ngā rohe whakatetonga o Te Ika a Māui. Ko Hōri Kerei te Kāwana Matua i tēnei wā.

Nō te tau 1847 ka tau a Eyre ki Aotearoa. Kāore noa iho i roa te wā, ka tohe rāua ko Kerei. Ko te take pea, nā te kōrero hāngai a Eyre ki te Tari mō ngā Koroni, kāore ia i whakamōhio i a Kerei i mua. Ka whakahē ia i tā Kerei Ture mō ngā Kaunihera o ngā Porowini i mua i te aroaro o te Kaunihera Ture. Whai muri, kore rawa i tukua e Kerei ētahi kawenga whai mana ki a ia; waihoki, rite tonu te whakaiti a Kerei i a ia i mua i te aroaro o te tangata, i muri rānei i ngā ārai. Ahakoa tērā, ka whai haere tonu a Eyre i ngā take Māori, otirā, nāna i āwhina te hokonga o ētahi whenua Māori rahi i tōna rohe.

Ka whakawātea a Eyre i tōna tūranga i te tau 1853, ka wehe i Aotearoa. I te tau 1865 ka tohungia ia hei Kāwana o Hameika. I te tau 1865 ka tāmia e ia tētahi aranga i taua moutere. Neke atu i te 350 tāngata i whakamatea, e 600 i wepua. He rahi ngā tāngata whai mana o Peretānia pēnei i a John Stuart Mill me Charles Darwin, i rapu huarahi ki te whakawā i a ia mō ēnei mahi. Whāia, ka meatia atu a Eyre kia hoki ki Ingarangi, heoi, i murua ngā whakapae e iri ana i runga i a ia e tētahi uiuinga.

 F. D. Fenton

Seated portrait of Judge Francis Dart Fenton, 1870s. Photographer Unknown.  
F. D. Fenton

Image: ATL PAColl-7489-01
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I whānau mai a Francis Dart Fenton i te rohe o Yorkshire i Ingarangi. Kua roa tōna whānau e mahi ana mō te ture. Ka mahi a ia hei rōia i Ingarangi, ā, nō te tau 1850 ka hūnuku ki Aotearoa.

I te tau 1851 ka kuhu a Fenton hei karaka mō te kāwanatanga. Mō ngā tau e 30 ka whai, ka eke a ia ki ētahi tūranga i te taha ture, i te taha whakahaere. Heoi, ka hau te rongo mōna i te mea ko ia te kaihanga matua o te Kōti Whenua Māori, ka noho hoki a ia hei kaiwhakawā mō tētahi wā tino roa.

Nō te tau 1865 kē i tīmata ai te Kōti Whenua Māori ki ana mahi. I whakatūria te kōti kia takahuri ngā tikanga pupuri whenua a te Māori, mai i te hapū me te iwi ki te tangata takitahi, e tareka ai te hoko wawe i ngā whenua. Nui te whenua Māori i hokona mā roto i te Kōti. Ko te kōrero i konei, nā ngā mahi a te Kōti, ka whati ngā ātete a te iwi Māori ki te hoko whenua. Ka whakapae ngā tūmū kōrero mō te wāhi o te Kōti i te hokonga o ngā whenua, me nga kino ka pā ki ngā hapori Māori i ngā tautohetohe i te kōti.

Whai muri i te tau 1867 ka whakamahia e Fenton ngā ture a te Pākehā mō ngā Māori ka mate, arā, ki te kore he wira a te tangata kua mate, ka wāhia ōna whenua hei tohatoha ki te maha o ngā tāngata. Nā tēnei, ka paku haere, ka paku haere ngā pānga whenua o te tangata, e kore e puta he oranga. Ka arotahi te nuinga o ngā ture whenua Māori o te rautau rua tekau ki te whakatika i tēnei raruraru.

 J. E. FitzGerald

Portrait of James Edward Fitzgerald as an elderly man. Taken by Herman John Schmidt circa 1890.
J. E. FitzGerald

Image: ATL 1/1-001316-F
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I te tau 1849, i a ia e noho tonu ana ki Ingarangi, ka tohungia a FitzGerald hei hēkeretari mō te Rōpū o Waitaha ki Aotearoa (New Zealand Canterbury Association). Ka uru ia ki roto i ngā whiriwhiringa mō tētahi koroni Hāhi Mihinare ki Aotearoa. Ka tau ia ki Waitaha i te 1850, ā, kāore noa iho i roa ka kake haere ia ki runga. Ka tohungia ia hei Āpiha Whakahaere o Runga mō te Porowini i te tau 1852. Ka kuhu ia ki te Pāremata mō te rohe pōti o Hakaroa (Lyttleton).

Ka hoki a FitzGerald ki Ingarangi i te tau 1857, ā, ka hoki anō ki Aotearoa i te tau 1860, kia ruku anō i ngā tōrangapū o te rohe me te motu whānui. I te tau 1862 ka whakaputaina e ia tētahi kōrero rekareka e tono ana kia whai tika ōrite te Māori i roto i te hapori me te ao tōrangapū. Ka mea ia kia whai wāhi ngā rangatira Māori ki ngā whakahaere katoa o te koroni – hei tauira, me pupuri e te Māori te hautoru o ngā nohoanga katoa kei te Pāremata. Ko tana kōrero mō te raupatunga o ngā whenua, he “hara nui rawa atu”; i tua atu, ki ōna whakaaro, kia tirohia te Kīngi Māori anō he “āpiha whakahaere o tōna anō porowini”. Kāore i manaakitia tēnei kōrero e te rahi o ngā Pākehā.

I te tau 1865 ka tū a FitzGerald hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori mō tētahi wā poto i te kāwanatanga o Weld. I te pānuitanga kua eke ia ki taua tūranga, kāore tahi tētahi o ōna hoa Pāremata i paku hamumu, i te mea, ki tā rātou titiro, he “manako Māori” ia. Heoi, kāore tonu i tareka e ia te whakamārire i ngā rīriri i waenganui i ngā iwi. I te wā ko ia te Minita, ka mana te Ture Whenua Māori 1865; kātahi ka nui rawa atu ngā whenua ka ngaro.

I whakaae a FitzGerald nā te kukume whakamua i te Ture Whenua Māori, me te kore e kuhu i ētahi ritenga ki te ture hei whakamāmā i ōna pānga kino ki te Māori, kua “kore ia e whirinaki ki ētahi o ōna whakaaro o mua”. Whakapae ana ētahi tumu kōrero kāore i tarea e ia te karo i ngā akiaki a ngā kaihoko whenua.

Ka whakawātea a FitzGerald i a ia mai i ngā mahi tōrangapū i te 1867, ka noho ki Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara okioki ai. Ka mate ia i te tau 1896.

 William Fox (Te Pōkiha)

Sir William Fox as an elderly man. Photograph by Hemus & Hanna of Auckland, circa 1890.  
William Fox

Image: ATL 1/1-001322-G
© Image copyright conditions

Nō te tau 1842 ka eke a Te Pōkiha hei rōia i Ingarangi, ka hia wiki ki muri ka whakawhiti a ia ki Aotearoa. He tangata i kaha ki te tautoko i te tini manene ki Aotearoa, ki te tautoko hoki i ngā hiahia o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni.

I tōna taenga mai ki Aotearoa, kāore ia i whakaaetia kia mahi hei rōia. Ka ātete a ia ki te whakahua kupu oati e mea ana he tangata pai ia, koinei hoki te hiahia o te Kaiwhakawā Matua a William Martin (Wiremu Mātene). E mea ana a Te Pōkiha he takahi tēnei i tōna mana.

Ka huri a ia hei kaikawe pūrongo, ka tīmata ki te haehae i te Tiriti o Waitangi, “kāore ōna hōhonutanga, ōna kiko”. Ka tīmata tana hau i te kōrero e mea ana me whāiti ngā āheinga whenua o te Māori ki ngā whenua kei reira e tū ana ōna kāinga me ana māra. I te Hepetema o te tau 1843, i te matenga o Arthur Wakefield i Te Wairau, ka eke a ia hei āpiha mā te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ki Whakatū.

I te tau 1848, i te matenga o William Wakefield, ka tū a Te Pōkiha hei āpiha matua mā te Kamupene. Mārō tana whakahē i ngā kaupapa me ngā mahi a Hōri Kerei. Ki tā Te Pōkiha, nā Kerei i whakapōrearea te whai a ngā tāngata whai mā rātou tonu rātou e whakahaere, ka mutu, he pōturi rawa tana hoko i ngā whenua o te Māori. Ka kati te Kamupene, ka hoki a Te Pōkiha ki Ingarangi, ki reira tuhituhi ai i ana pānui arohae i ngā kaupapa here a Kerei e pā ana ki te Māori. E whakapono ana a Te Pōkiha he iwi pāhekeheke te iwi Māori ka “whakangaromia”, ka nunumi rānei ki roto i iwi kē i mua i tōna matenga.

Nō te tau 1854 ka hoki a Te Pōkiha ki Aotearoa. Kāore i roa ka eke a ia ki te Kaunihera Porowini o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ā, nō te tau i muri mai ka tohungia a ia hei Mema Pāremata mō Wanganui. Ka puta tana whakahē mō te hoko whenua i Waitara. Nā tēnei, kīia ai a Te Pōkiha me ana kaitautoko he “hoa nō te Māori”, “te rōpū whai kia tau te rangimārie ahakoa he aha te utu”. Ko te kōrero tika kē, kāore noa iho a Te Pōkiha i pukuaroha ki te Māori; ko tāna kē i whai, ko te huarahi e hua ai te pai ki a ia, tae atu ki te taha tōrangapū.

I te tau 1861 ka eke a ia hei Pirimia. I tēnei wā, ka noho te kāwanatanga ki te taha mātaki atu ai i ngā nekeneke e ahu atu ana ki te horapa o te riri. Ki te tirohia, he nui atu te matatau o Te Pōkiha ki te turaki kāwanatanga tērā i te whakatinana i āna ake kaupapa here. E ai ki tētahi tūmū kōrero, he “tangata mauāhara” tē matakite.

I te tau 1862 ka hinga te kāwanatanga a Te Pōkiha, i te mea i whakaarohia e whakaae ana ia mā tana kāwanatanga e kawe ngā utu mō te riri ki Waikato kei te haere mai; ko te whakaaro o te maha o ngā kaitōrangapū, mā te kāwanatanga o Peretānia kē e utu ngā whakapaunga o te riri. Whāia, ka eke a ia hei Hēkeretari mō ngā Koroni i raro i te Pirimia a Frederick Whitaker. I roto ia i te kāwanatanga nāna i muru te tata ki te toru miriona eka (1.2 miriona heketea) o te whenua Māori i te tau 1864. Parea atu ana e Te Pōkiha ngā whakapae, me tana mea atu, nā te Māori tonu ngā pakanga i huaki.

Ka wehe anō a Te Pōkiha i Aotearoa; heoi, nō te tau 1867 ka hoki mai anō. Nō te tau i muri mai ka hoki anō a ia hei Mema Pāremata. I te tau 1869 ka eke anō a ia hei Pirimia. I te wā ko ia te Pirimia, ka tonoa ētahi pūtea taurewa nui rawa atu, ka whakahaerehia ngā mahi tūmatanui, ka hokona te nui o te whenua Māori. Nā tētahi o ana minita ngangahau, nā Joseph Vogel, ēnei mahi nui i whakahaere. Nō te tau 1871 ka hinga te kāwanatanga a Te Pōkiha. Whai muri i tēnei, kāore ia i tino whai i ngā kaupapa tōrangapū.

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1880, ka tohungia rāua ko F.D. Bell ki te Kōmihana o Te Tai Hauāuru.  I roto a Te Pōkiha i te kāwanatanga nāna ngā whenua i raupatu i Taranaki, i tautoko a Bell i te hoko whenua i Waitara. Heoi, ko tā rāua mahi, he rangahau i ngā kī taurangi a ngā kāwanatanga ki ngā iwi Māori o Taranaki, he whakatau i ngā tohenga mō te whenua. Ahakoa ana mahi ki mua, ka pūmau a Te Pōkiha ki tēnei mahi. I te putanga o tā rāua pūrongo ko Bell, ka mea rāua kei reira, kei Taranaki ngā kī taurangi kua whati “e putu ana”. Ka whakaritea e rāua ētahi whenua rāhui ki te Māori, ahakoa tangata “whakakeke”, “kūpapa” rānei. Ahakoa ngā whakahē a te Māori, mā te aha anō i te ngana a te Kōmihana kia ea tētahi wāhanga o ngā raruraru e pā ana ki ngā whenua o Taranaki. Nō te tau 1893 i mate ai a Te Pōkiha.

 Peter Fraser (Pita Pereiha)

Undated portrait photograph of Peter Fraser. Photographed by S P Andrew & Sons.
Peter Fraser

Image: ATL 1/2-005062
© Image copyright conditions

Nō te tau 1918 a Pita Pereiha (1884-1950) i kuhu tuatahi ai ki te Pāremata hei Mema Reipa mō te pokapū o Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara. Nō te tau 1935 ka kake ake a Reipa hei kāwanatanga, ko Pereiha te minita mō te mātauranga me te hauora.

Nō te tau 1940 ka mate a Te Hāwiti (Savage), ko te ekenga tērā o Pereiha hei Pirimia; i ngā tau 1946 ki te 1949 ko ia hoki te Minita mō ngā Take Māori. Kāore i ārikarika a Pereiha ki ngā mahi. He mōhio ake ia i ōna hoa i te Pāremata ki ngā take e pā ana ki te iwi Māori, nā reira ia i whakahau ai kia nui ngā manaakitanga ki te Māori. Ko tana hiahia, kia “tū hei iwi motuhake, e manaaki ana i a ia anō, e mahi ana me te Pākehā i runga i te ōrite o ngā whiwhinga me ngā painga tērā ka whai”.

Ko te mahi nui rawa atu a Pereiha e pā ana ki ngā take Māori, ko te Ture Whakapakari i te Ora me te Ōhanga o te Iwi Māori 1945. Ko te whāinga o te ture kia iti ake te rawa kore o te iwi Māori, me ngā raruraru o te hūnuku atu i te hau kāinga ki ngā tāone. Ko tētahi āhuatanga hou, ka tukua te Māori kia whai wāhi ki ngā kaupapa tautoko i tōna oranga. Ka whakatūria ngā komiti Māori ki te whakahaere i te taha ki te oranga o te iwi. Tae rawa ki te tau 1949, e 381 ēnei komiti.

Hāunga tērā, kāore tonu te Ture i eke ki ngā tūmanako o ētahi o te iwi Māori, tae atu ki ētahi tonu o te uepū o Reipa; hei tā rātou i whakaaro ai, kāore i ea ngā tūmanako katoa o te iwi Māori mō tō rātou ake tino rangatiratanga.

Nā te nui mārika o te iwi Māori i haere ki te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao i āwhina te whakataunga o ētahi o ngā kerēme. Heoi, nā te iti o te rawa i te wā o te pakanga tae atu ki ngā tau ka whai, e kore e nui te paremata. I te tau 1944 ka whakatauria ngā kerēme wā roa a ngā iwi o Taranaki me Ngāi Tahu, ā, i te tau 1946 ko Pereiha tērā i roto i ngā whitiwhitinga i te whakataunga o te kerēme a ngā iwi o Waikato mō ō rātou whenua i raupatutia. Ka hinga te kāwanatanga o Reipa i te tau 1949, ā, nō te tau ki muri ka mate a Pereiha.

Lord Glenelg

Thompson, Thomas Clement, ca1778-1857: The Right Honble. Charles Grant.  Engraved by C. Turner; painted by T C Thompson. London 1820 (Charles Grant, Lord Glenelg).
Charles Grant, Baron Glenelg

Image: ATL C-021-011
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Ko Lord Glenelg (Baron Glenelg, Charles Grant, 1778-1863) tētahi kaikauwhau i te rongopai o te hāhi Mihingare, he rōpū tiaki i ngā whāinga tika o te tangata, ā, he ingoa nui i te ao tōrangapū o Ingarangi i ngā tau 1820-1840. Ko Glenelg te Hēkeretari o te Whenua o Ingarangi mō te Pakanga me ngā Koroni mai i te takiwā o te tau 1835, tae noa mai ki Pēpuere 1839.

Kua kitea noatia atu e Glenelg, i te tau 1835, te kaha kore o Te Pūhipi. He pērā anō ngā whakaaro o Kāwana Bourke, o te tangata hoki whai muri i a ia, a Kāwana Gipps, me ngā āpiha i te Tari o ngā Koroni. Kore rawa i whakarerekētia, kia whakaatu rā anō a Glenelg ki a Gipps i te marama o Tīhema 1838 tērā e whakamutua te tū a Te Pūhipi, ka whakatūria kētia tētahi kanohi Kāwanatanga, arā, ka whakakorea atu te tūranga Rēreneti. I āhua tautoko ia i ngā mahi a te Pūtahi o Niu Tīreni, arā, te New Zealand Association, ki te whakarite tikanga whakanohonoho iwi ki Aotearoa, engari i tū kaha ia ki te whakakāhore i ngā mahere hīkaka o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ki te whakatū i tāna ake koroni.

Ka whakawāteatia e Glenelg te tūranga kanohi kāwanatanga mā Te Hopihona, mā te kanohi i mōhiotia e ngāi Māori, engari ka taruna tonu a Te Hopihona ki te 14 o Pēpuere 1839, i te mea, i te tatari kē ia ki tētahi whakakakenga māna i te Roera Nawi.

I mua i tana wehenga atu i tana tūranga, ka whakamanaia e Glenelg ngā tuhinga hukihuki o ngā tohutohu ki a Te Hopihona. Ka tino whakarerekētia i muri, arā, ka noho hei whakawhitinga kōrero noa mō ngā tikanga tango me te whakahaere i te koroni hou, ā, ko te tukunga iho ka riro aua tohutohu hei kōrero ā-ngutu mō te tiaki i ngā whāinga tika o te tangata.

 Henry George (Earl) Grey

Head and shoulders portrait of Earl Grey.. (National Portrait Gallery, x38717, RN51907).
Henry George (Earl) Grey

National Portrait Gallery, St Martin's Place, London

Ko Earl Grey te Hekeretari mō ngā Koroni mai i te 1846 ki te 1852. I te tau 1844 (ko Lord Howick tōna ingoa i taua wā) ka kīia e ia te Tiriti o Waitangi ‘he wāhanga o ētahi whakahaere kāore i mahia i runga i te mātau’. Kāore a ia i whakaae ki te ritenga o te Tiriti e oati ana i te katoa o te whenua ki te Māori. Ko tāna, ka hāngai ngā āheinga whenua o te Māori ki ōna nohoanga me ana māra. Ki tōna whakaaro anō, ko te toenga – ko te tino nuinga tērā o ngā whenua o Aotearoa – he ‘whenua hāhā’, kāore ōna rangatira.

I te tau 1846 ka tonoa e ia a Kāwana Kerei kia rēhitatia hei whenua Māori ngā whenua anake ‘kei te āta nōhia’ kei te tiria rānei e te Māori. Whai muri i tēnei, ko ngā whenua katoa i tua atu i ēnei me ngā whenua karāti o te Karauna, tae rawa ki ngā wāhi mahi kai me ngā mahinga ika a te Māori, ka taka ki raro i te mana o te Karauna.

I te mōhio tonu a Kāwana Kerei e kore te iwi Māori e whakaae ki ēnei whakatau, nā reira kāore i whāia e ia. Ko tāna kē, he whakamahi i te tūranga o te Karauna hei kaihoko (ko ia anake e āhei ana), ki te hoko whenua Māori mō te iti o te utu mō ngā tāngata whai tērā ka tau mai; i tua atu, kāore ia i whakaae kia rīhitia e te Māori ōna whenua. Ko tana whāinga, kia hokona mai te rahi o ngā whenua o te Māori i mua i te mōhio o te Māori ki te nui o te uara o ōna whenua. Ko te tūmanako o Kerei, mā te hoko i ngā whenua mō te iti o te utu, e whakaae ana te Karauna nō te Māori aua whenua, engari kāore e whakapōreareatia te taunga mai o ngā tāngata whai. Ka whāia tēnei kaupapa ki Aotearoa, tatū rawa ki te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1850. I taua wā, i te māharahara te iwi Māori mō te horapa a tauiwi ki te whenua. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka tipu te Kīngitanga, ka whakahēngia te hokonga whenua, ko te otinga atu, ka pakaru te riri.

 John Gorst (Te Koohi)

John Eldon Gorst, 1861. Special Collections, Auckland City Libraries (NZ).
  John Gorst

Special Collections, Auckland City Libraries (NZ): A6587
© Image copyright conditions

Nō te tau 1860 i tau ai a Te Koohi ki Aotearoa. Ka whakaako a ia ki tētahi kura mīhana ki Hopuhopu i Waikato. I te tau 1862 ka tohungia ia hei Kaiwhakawā ā-Takiwā mō Waikato e Kāwana Browne. Ka ngana a ia ki te whakahoahoa ki ētahi o te Kīngitanga. I pukuaroha a Te Koohi ki te Kīngitanga me ōna whāinga tōrangapū; ki tā Te Koohi titiro, ka tū te Kīngitanga, he hiahia nō te Māori kia tū āna ake whakahaere, i te korenga ake o ngā ture tōtika me ērā atu tikanga hei whai wāhitanga atu mā rātou. Ka whakapono a Te Koohi, ina takoto te ture Peretānia, ka memeha te mana o te Kīngitanga.

I te tau 1863 ka eke a Te Koohi hei Kōmihana mō te rohe o Waikato. I tēnei wā, kua mārō te whāia o te ara o Tūmatauenga. Hauware atu tana ngana kia tau te rangimārie; ka panā ia ki waho o te rohe e ngā kaitautoko i te Kīngitanga. Ko te hokinga atu tērā o Te Koohi ki Ingarangi, ki reira tuhi mai ai i ana kōrero mō tōna wā ki te riu ki Waikato. Mōhiotia whānuitia ai tana pukapuka The Māori King.

I te tau 1884 ka whakawhiti a Kīngi Tāwhiao ki Rānana, ko te tūmanako ki te whakatakoto pitihana ki mua i a Kuini Wikitōria mō ngā whenua raupatu o Waikato. Kua eke a Te Koohi hei MP Tory i tērā wā; ka ngana a ia kia tū he hui i waenganui i a Tāwhiao me te Kuini. Kāore i tutuki, ka tūtaki kē te Kīngi ki a Roera Derby, Hēkeretari mō ngā Koroni. Ka tonoa tā rātou pitihana kia tirohia e te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, tē arohia. Nō te tau 1916 ka mate a Te Koohi ki Rānana.

 Josiah Ralph Hanan

Josiah Ralph Hanan. [ca 1946] Photographer.  
Josiah Ralph Hanan

Image: ATL PAColl-6303-27
© Image copyright conditions

I whānau a Ralph Hanan (1909-1969) ki Waihopai. Ka tīmata tana mahi i te rāngai o te ture. I te tau 1946 ka pōtitia a ia hei Mema Pāremata Nāhinara mō Waihopai. Nō te tau 1960 i kake ai ia hei Rōia Matua, hei Minita mō te Ture, hei Minita hoki mō ngā Take Māori.

Ko te Ture Whakarerekē i ngā Take Māori o te tau 1967 te wāhi nui ki a Hanan i te noho a ngā iwi ki Aotearoa. Ka hangā te ture nei i runga i te aro nui ki te pūrongo a Hunn (1960) me te pūrongo a Prichard rāua ko Waetford (1965) e mea ana kei te tāmia te ōhanga o te iwi Māori e te tokomaha rawa atu o te hunga whai pānga ki tēnā, ki tēnā rohenga whenua. Ko te whakapae a ngā pūrongo e rua nei, kotahi anake te oranga mō te iwi Māori, ko te whakauru pū ki te hapori o te Pākehā, me te unu i ngā ture tauwehe.

Heoi, tino kore nei ngā pūrongo i aro ki te wāhi nui o te whenua ki te Māori – ahakoa iti, ahakoa hua kore – hei tokonga wairua, hei tūrangawaewae mōna.

Nā te tokomaha rawa o ngā Māori ka whai pānga ki te pito whenua kotahi, tāpae ki te kore whai hua o te rahi o ngā whenua Māori, ka whai te ture nei kia hurihia ngā taitara o ngā whenua Māori hei taitara Pākehā. I tua atu, ka unuhia ngā here “tawhito” kei runga i ngā tikanga mō te hoko whenua Māori. Ko te ritenga o te ture ka pōuri rawa atu ngā Māori, ko tērā e whakamana ana i te hokonga o ngā whenua iti rawa, ngā whenua “kore whai hua”.

Tino pōuri te Māori ki tēnei ture. Ko tā rātou i āwangawanga ai, kei riro ō rātou toenga whenua i tēnei ture. E ai ki a Hanan, ko tā te ture nei, he unu i ngā hanganga ture tawhito e hāngai ana ki te Māori anake, mā konei e mana taurite ai ngā iwi e rua. Ko te whiu a Mrs Tirikātene-Sullivan, te Mema Pāremata o Reipa mō Te Tai Tonga, kotahi anake te otinga o tēnei ture, arā, ko te “whakareka i te pire kawa o te tere rironga atu o ngā toenga whenua kei roto tonu i ngā ringaringa o te Māori”. Ko te kōrero a ētahi, tērā ka whai hua tonu ngā whenua Māori he rahi ōna rangatira, ko te Kaporeihana o Mangatū i Te Tai Rāwhiti ka noho hei tauira mō tērā. Ka whakatikangia te Ture o te tau 1967 e te kāwanatanga Reipa i te tau 1974.

 William Herbert Herries

Head and shoulders portrait of Sir William Herbert Herries. Taken by an unknown photographer between 1890 and 1908.
William Herbert Herries

Image: ATL 35mm-00185-A-F
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I whānau mai a William Herries (1859-1923) i Ingarangi; nō te tau 1881 ka tau ia ki Aotearoa. Atu i te tekau tau o 1890, ka whaiwhai ia i ngā take tōrangapū. I te tau 1896 ka pōtitia ia hei Mema Pāremata mō te Waiariki (Te Moana a Toi). I te tau 1912 ko ia tērā ka tohungia hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori i te kāwanatanga o Te Maahi, he tūranga i puritia e ia tae rawa ki te tau 1921.

He rite ōna whakaaro ki ngā whakaaro o ngā tāngata whai nā rātou a ia i pōti ki te Pāremata. Ki tāna i titiro ai, me tuku ngā whenua o te Māori kāore i te whakamahia e ia ki ngā ringaringa o te Pākehā – mā te ture tonu e āki; inā rā tana kupu, “whakamahia, ki te kore ka tangohia”. I te wā ko ia te Minita mō ngā Take Māori, nui ake i te 2 miriona eka (800,000 heketea) ngā whenua o te Māori i riro hei whakanoho i te Pākehā; ko te haurua o aua whenua nā te kāwanatanga i hoko.

 Jack Kent Hunn

First meeting of the Māori Education Foundation 1961.  
Jack Kent Hunn.

Image: ATL 1/2-060086-F
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Ko te Tari Tiaki Tūmatanui (Public Trust Office) me te Pūkenga Here Tikanga Mahi (Public Service Association) ngā tari i tīmata ai te mahi a Jack Hunn. I te tau 1946 ka tohungia a ia hei Kaitirotiro mā te Kōmihana Kaimahi Kāwanatanga (nō muri ko te Kōmihana mō ngā Tari Kāwanatanga). I te tau 1960 ka eke a ia hei tumuaki kairīwhi mō te Tari mō ngā Take Māori. Nā Waata Naahi (Walter Nash), te Pirimia me te Minita mō ngā Take Māori a Hunn i tono kia arotake i ngā rawa a te iwi Māori. Ko te whakarite tērā a Hunn i ētahi rangahau ka titiro ki te whānui o ngā take ka hāngai ki te Māori - te taupori, te noho whare, te mātauranga, te whiwhi mahi, te hauora, te takahi i te ture me ngā taitara whenua. Ka whakakotahingia ēnei rangahau e Hunn ki tētahi pūrongo whānui mō te āhua o te noho a te iwi Māori. Kāore i pai ngā whakatau a te pūrongo mō ngā āhuatanga pāpori, ohaoha o te Māori.

Hei tā Hunn, mā te whakauru ki roto i te hapori Pākehā te iwi Māori e ora ai; hei aha atu ngā tikanga me te tū motuhake a te Māori. Ka whakamihi ia mō te neke a te tini mano Māori ki ngā tāone; hei tāna, koinei te huarahi e hanumi wawe ai ngā iwi e rua o Aotearoa, te huarahi e āraia atu ai ngā raruraru whakatoihara iwi tērā ka pā.

Ka tohu ētahi he kūare a Hunn ki te kaha hiahia o te iwi Māori ki tōna tuakiri ake hei Māori. Ko te whakautu a Hunn, he tuhinga noa iho tana pūrongo, ehara i te mea koinei te hanganga kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga. Kāore i whakaputangia te tuhinga e te kāwanatanga Reipa a Naahi. Ahakoa tērā, he awe nui tō te tuhinga a Hunn ki ngā kaupapa here Māori a te kāwanatanga Nāhinara i te tekau tau atu i 1960.

 Norman Eric Kirk

Norman Kirk.,1971. Photographer: Morrie Hill.
Norman Eric Kirk

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Ko Norman Kirk (1923-1974) te Pirimia i te kakenga o Reipa hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1972. Mai rā anō, ko ia tērā ka ātete i te whakatoihara iwi. I te tau 1973 kāore i whakaaetia e te kāwanatanga kia kuhu mai te rōpū hutupōro o Āwherika ki te Tonga, i te mea, ko ngā kiritea anake i tohungia hei kaitākaro. Tērā tētahi whakaahua rongonui o Norman Kirk i Waitangi i te rā 6 o Pēpuere o te tau 1973, e pupuri ana i te ringa o tētahi tamaiti Māori; ki te tirohanga a te iwi, he tohu tēnei kei te huri ngā whakaaro o te taupori mō te āhua o te noho tahi a ngā iwi.

Ka whakarerekētia e te kāwanatanga, tae atu ki a Matiu Rata, te Minita mō ngā Take Māori, ngā ture e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori, ka ahu whakamua anō hoki ngā whakataunga o ngā kerēme i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nā te Ture Whakarerekē i ngā Take Māori 1974 ka hurihia ngā kaupapa here e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori. Ka unuhia ētahi o ngā āhuatanga wetiweti o te Ture Whakarerekē a Nāhinara o te tau 1967, pērā i ngā wāhanga i tango i ngā ārai e hokona wawetia ai te whenua o te Māori. Ki tā te kāwanatanga Reipa titiro, ko te pupuri a te hunga whai pānga ki ō rātou whenua hei painga mō rātou, koirā kē te whāinga nui.

Arā anō tētahi tohu o te matawhānui o te kawanatanga Reipa i raro i a Kirk, ko te Ture mō te Tiriti o Waitangi 1975, nāna nei te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i whakatū. Ka whakaritea ko te rā 6 o Pēpuere hei rā whakanui i te Tiriti o Waitangi, huaina houtia ai ko te “Rā o Aotearoa”. Taihoa ka hoki anō ki tōna ingoa ake – te Rā o Waitangi. Ka noho tēnei rā hei rā hararei tūmatanui.

Kāore anō kia eke te wā o te kāwanatanga Reipa, ka mate a Norman Kirk i te Ākuhata o te tau 1974.

 T. W. Lewis

Group portrait including  T W Lewis (standing, third from left).
  T. W. Lewis

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Mō hia ngā tau, he āpiha a T. W. Lewis nā te Tari mō ngā Take Māori. Ka mahi ia mō ngā Minita mō ngā Take Māori tokoono i ngā tau 1869 ki 1891. Mō ngā tau whakamutunga 12, ko ia te tuarua i te tari.

I te tau 1891 ka whakatakoto pūrongo a Lewis ki tētahi kōmihana uiui mō ngā ture whenua Māori. Ka kī ia, ko te whāinga nui o ngā kaupapa here a te Karauna e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori i ngā rua tekau tau kua taha, ko te huaki i ngā whenua o te Māori hei whakanoho i te Pākehā. Hei ko tāna, ki te kore e tutuki tēnei, kāore he take o ngā hanganga ture nui a te Karauna, ngā Ture Whenua Māori me te Kōti Whenua Māori.

 

 Gilbert Mair (Te Mea)

A formal portrait of William Gilbert Mair, possibly taken while he was a member of the Colonial Defence Force. Taken by Hartley Webster circa 1860.
Gilbert Mair

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I whānau mai a Te Mea (1843-1923) ki Wanganui. I tōna ohinga, i te wā e mahi ana ia mō tōna matua i te kari kāpia i Te Tai Tokerau, ka ako ia ki te kōrero Māori. Whāia, ka mahi a Te Mea hei kairūri whenua, hei karaka, hei kaiwhakamāori ā-waha ki te Whare Kōti o Tauranga.

Ka pakaru mai ngā riri i te tau 1867, ko Te Mea tērā ka tono hei hōia. Māia tōna tū i te matawhāura, whai anō ka kake ia ki te tūranga hei rūtene. Ko ia tērā kei mua e haere ana i ngā whawhai ki a Te Kooti i te tau 1869; ka kake anō ia hei kāpene. Whai muri i tēnei, ka eke ia hei kaiārahi o te “ope rererangi o Te Arawa”, ngā toa kūpapa ki te Kuini. Ka kī a Te Mea koia ērā ko ngā “whānako whā tekau”. I te wā e hōia ana ia, ka puta tōna koi, tana mōhio, tana kore mataku. He tohunga ia mō te whakamoe kokoti.

I te taunga o te rangimārie, ka tū a Te Mea hei āpiha hoko whenua a te Karauna ki te puku o Te Ika a Māui. Nui rawa atu te whenua i riro mai i  a ia – tae rawa ki ngā raorao o Kāingaroa. I roto i ana mahi hokohoko whenua, he āwhina nui tana noho tata me Te Arawa i te wā o ngā pakanga. Nō muri ka puta tana whakahē i ngā tikanga apo whenua Māori a te kāwanatanga.

Taihoa ā, ka eke a Te Mea hei kaiwhakamāori ā-waha mō te Whare Pāremata, hei Āpiha Kāwanatanga hoki ki Tauranga. I ōna wā, ka tū ia hei perehitini o te Poari Whenua Māori o Ikaroa, hei Kaiwhakawā Takiwā, hei Kaiwhakahaere i raro i te Ture Kaunihera Māori 1900. I te wā ko ia te Kaiwhakahaere, nāna te mahi ki te whakatinana i te maha o ngā waeture nā te Kaunihera Māori o Te Arawa i whakatakoto.

He tangata a Te Mea ka kitea whānuitia i te tāone o Rotorua – e ārahi tūruhi ana, e whakamāori ā-waha ana, e whakanui ana i ngā rangatira maha ka haere ki te takiwā o ngā puia. E mea ana tētahi kōrero, “kāore i teitei ōna matatika i a ia ka kohi taonga Māori”; hāunga tērā, ka pūmau ana hononga ki ngā iwi o Te Arawa. Ko Te Mea tētahi o ngā Pākehā tokoiti kia takoto ki Muruika, te urupā o Te Arawa i Ōhinemutu.

 F. E. Maning

Artist unknown.
F. E. Maning

Image: ATL G-331
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I whānau mai a Frederick Edward Maning (1811/12?–1883) ki Airana; ā, nō te tau 1833 tau ai ia ki Te Hokianga. Ka moe ia i tētahi wahine Māori o taua takiwā, ka riro mai he whenua, ka tīmata tana mahi tauhokohoko. Tau pai ana ia ki te momo o te “Pākehā-Māori” –  ka pai noa iho te noho ki te ao Pākehā, ki te ao Māori. I te kawenga o te Tiriti o Waitangi ki roto o Te Hokianga i te 1840, ka whakahēngia e ia; ko tāna, e kore e pai te haere tahi o ngā tikanga a te Māori me ngā whakahaere a te Pākehā; i tua atu, ka māharahara ia kei whakakorehia ngā hokohoko whenua ki te tau te mana me ngā ture o Peretānia. Ka kino hoki ia ki ngā mihinare Ingarihi, kei kaha rawa tō rātou awe i runga i a Rūtene-Kāwana Wiremu Hopihona kātahi anō nei ka tau ki Aotearoa.

I te tekau tau atu i 1850 i te hoko papa rākau, kāpia a Maning. I te tau 1865, ka tohungia ia hei kaiwhakawā mō te Kōti Whenua Māori kātahi nei ka waihangatia. Ka noho ia i tēnei tūranga, tae atu ki te 1876.

I a ia ka kaumātua haere, ka tawhiti atu a Maning i te iwi Māori. Kāore ia i rata ki ngā tātaringa o ana whakatau, kāore hoki ia i kaingākau ki ngā rōpū mautohe Māori ka puea i Te Tai Tokerau i te tekau tau atu i 1870. Kei te hau te rongo mōna i ēnei rā hei kaituhi o ngā pukapuka rongonui, a Old New Zealand me A History of the War in the North.

Walter Mantell (Te Tipa)

Walter Baldock Durant Mantell, circa 1870. Photographer Unknown.
Walter Baldock Durant Mantell

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Nō te tau 1840 ka tae mai a Te Tipa (1820-1895) ki Aotearoa. Mai i te tau 1845 ki 1848, ko ia te Kaiwhakahaere i ngā Huarahi Taua i Porirua; i reira ka ako ia ki te kōrero Māori. I te tau 1848 ka huri ia hei āpiha hoko whenua mā te kāwanatanga i Te Waipounamu.

Ko te mahi tuatahi mā Te Tipa, ko te whakarite i ētahi whenua rāhui mō te iwi o Ngāi Tahu. Kei Ngā Pākihi Whakatekateka o Waitaha, kātahi anō ka hokona mai e H.T. Kemp, ēnei whenua. Kātahi ka taka a Te Tipa ki ana mahi. Ka tāwarea e ia ngā tāngata e 600 o te iwi o Ngāi Tahu kia whakaae kia wehea te tekau eka (4 heketea) mō tēnā, mō tēnā o rātou o te poraka whenua e 20 miriona eka (8 miriona heketea). Whāia, ka tutuki i a ia te hoko i te poraka o Murihiku (7 miriona eka – 2.8 miriona heketea); me kī, ko te katoa tēnei o te tonga-mā-uru o Te Waipounamu; i tua atu ka hokona e ia ētahi wāhanga o Horomaka, i runga anō i te matapiko. Ko tētahi rautaki a Te Tipa kia whakaae a Ngāi Tahu ki tāna i hiahia ai, ko te tuku kī taurangi mō te whakatū kura, mō te whakatū hōhipera. Kāore i tutuki ēnei kī taurangi āna.

Nō muri ka tau te pōuri ki runga i a Te Tipa nā te whati o tana kupu ki a Ngāi Tahu. Ka pīra hua kore ia ki te Hēkeretari mō ngā Koroni me ngā mana kāwanatanga o Aotearoa. Ka haere tonu tana whawhai mō tēnei take i tana kuhunga ki te Pāremata i te tau 1861. I te marama o Hūrae 1861, ka whakaae ia kia tū hei Minita mō ngā take Māori i te kāwanatanga o Te Pōkiha, i runga i te whakaae a Te Pōkiha ka whakamanatia ngā kī taurangi ki a Ngāi Tahu. Ka tatari ia mō te ono marama; i te korenga ake o te whakamanatanga o ngā kī taurangi ki a Ngāi Tahu ka rihaina ia.

Ka ngana tonu a Te Tipa kia hua te tika ki a Ngāi Tahu, hauwarea.

 William Martin (Wiremu Mātene)

William Martin.
William Martin

Image: ATL C-022-009
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Nō te tau 1836 ka eke a Wiremu Mātene hei rōia i Ingarangi. I te marama o Hānuere o te tau 1841 ka tohungia a ia hei kaiwhakawā matua tuatahi mō Aotearoa. I te marama o Pēpuere o te tau 1842 ka noho te Kōti Matua i Tāmaki-makau-rau mō te wā tuatahi.

Ko tētahi o ngā whakawā tuatahi mō Maketū, he Māori nō Pēwhairangi; ko te whakapae, nāna te mokopuna a tētahi rangatira o Ngā Puhi i kōhuru, tāpiri atu ko ētahi pākeke Pākehā tokorua me tētahi tamaiti Pākehā. Nā te whakawākanga ka toko te pātai me pēhea te takoto o te ture o Peretānia ki te koroni hou. Ka puta te kōrero a Mātene, he rite te pā o te ture ki ngā tāngata katoa a te Kuini, ahakoa ko wai te iwi, ahakoa he aha ngā tikanga ki tēnā rohe, ki tēnā rohe. He mea nui tēnei ki ngā Māori e whakarongo pīkari ana ki āna kōrero. Ka whakaharaina, ka whakamatea a Maketū.

Nā Mātene ngā kāwana tōmua i tohutohu mō te maha o ngā ture. Ka whai wāhi ia ki ētahi whakatakotoranga nui i te ture, tae rawa ki ētahi i noho hei takenga mō te pūnaha ture o Aotearoa. Aro nui ai ia ki te Māori me tōna ao, ka kuhu a ia ki ngā kaupapa e pā ana ki te rapu mātauranga a te Māori. I whakapono ia he ritenga tapu te Tiriti o Waitangi; mā konei anake ka tū te mana whenua o Peretānia ki Aotearoa.

Ka tohungia a Matene hei Tā i te tau 1860. I taua tau anō ka puta tana tuhituhinga e arohae ana i ngā kaupapa here a te kāwanatanga e pā ana ki Taranaki. Whāia, ka whakahē a ia i te hokonga o ngā whenua o te Māori. Ki tāna i titiro ai, he nui ake ngā hara i utaina ki runga i te Kīngitanga, tērā i ngā hara o te Kīngitanga. I te tau 1874 ka hoki ia ki Ingarangi, ka mate i reira i te tau 1880.

 Donald McLean (Te Mākarini)

Donald McLean, circa 1870s. Photographer Unknown.  
Donald McLean

Image: ATL 1/2-005166-G
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I whānau mai a Te Mākarini ki ngā moutere Inner Hebrides i Koterana i te tau 1820. Nō te tau 1840 i tau ai ia ki Aotearoa. Ka ako pai ia i te reo Māori. I te tōmuatanga o te tau 1844, ka eke a ia hei Kaitiaki mō ngā Māori i Taranaki. Ko tana mahi he whakatau i te rangimārie i waenganui i te iwi Māori me ngā tāngata whai. Ka ruku hōhonu ia ki nga tikanga a te Māori. I te tau 1846 ka whakakorehia e Hōri Kerei Te Tari Tiaki i ngā Māori, ka kuhuna a Te Mākarini hei āpiha pirihimana i Taranaki.

Ki a Te Mākarini, ko te huarahi pai rawa hei whai mā te iwi Māori, ko te huarahi o te Pākehā, arā, me kuhu te Māori i a ia ki te ao o te Pākehā, kei reira te oranga mōna.

Atu i te tau 1848 ka whakamahia e Hōri Kerei a Te Mākarini hei āpiha hoko whenua. Nā te pai o ana mahi ki Wanganui, ki Rangitīkei, ki Te Matau a Māui, ki hea atu, ka kake a ia hei māngai o te Tari Hoko Whenua Māori. I te tau 1856 ka tohungia a Te Mākarini hei hēkeretari mō ngā take Māori. I te tīmatanga, āta haere noa iho ana hokonga whenua, ka mutu, he mārama ngā whakahaere ki te katoa. Heoi, ka nui haere ngā ātete a te iwi Māori mō te hokonga whenua, ka mahi tinihanga ia. Ka haere huna ana utu ki ētahi rangatira, me tana tono i a rātou ki te whakawherewhere i ō rātou iwi kia hoko i ō rātou whenua. Ka tipu ngā raruraru ā, nā te hoko whenua i Waitara, ka pakaru te riri ki Taranaki. Kore rawa a Te Mākarini i whāki i tōna hara i Waitara, ka huri kē ia ki te whakapae i te Kīngitanga.

I te tau 1863 ka tohungia a Te Mākarini hei Āpiha mā te Kāwanatanga ki Te Matau a Māui. He nui ōna whenua hei whāngai hipi ki taua rohe. Ka ruku a ia ki ngā rīriri o Te Tai Rāwhiti i te pokapū o te tekau tau atu i 1860.

I te tau 1866 ka pōtitia a ia hei Mema Pāremata mō Ahuriri; nō te tau 1869 ka tohungia a ia hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori, hei Minita Ārai i te Hoariri i roto i te kāwanatanga a Fox (Te Pōkiha). Nāna te Ture Whenua Māori 1873, he whakahounga nui o ngā ture e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori. I mua i te whakamanatanga o tēnei ture, 10 anake ngā tāngata ka tohungia ki runga i te tiwhikete taitara whenua. Ka mana tēnei ture, me takoto ngā ingoa katoa o te hunga e whai pānga ana ki tētahi pito whenua. Ko ētahi atu whāinga o te ture nei, he tāmi i ngā mahi tinihanga me te tiaki i te Māori kei riro ōna whenua katoa.

Heoi, kāore i aro atu ngā kaiwhakawā o te Kōti Whenua Māori me ētahi atu ki ēnei tikanga whakamarumaru i te Māori me ōna whenua. Ahakoa te tika o te ritenga e mea ana kia whakaingoatia ngā tāngata katoa e whai pānga ana ki runga i te tiwhikete taitara whenua, ka ngaro tonu ngā whenua o te Māori i te mea ka āhei te tangata takitahi ki te hoko i ōna pānga whenua – hauware atu te mana o te hapū, iwi rānei. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka ngoikore ngā iwi me ō rātou rangatira. I te tau 1874 ka whakawhiwhia a Te Mākarini ki te tohu Tā. Ka mahi haere ia, ā, nō te tau 1876 ka mate.

 Walter Nash (Waata Naahi)

Undated portrait of Walter Nash. Photographer unknown.
Walter Nash

Image: ATL 1/2-059930-F
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I te tau 1929 ka kuhu a Waata Naahi (1882-1968) ki te Pāremata hei Mema Reipa mō Te Awakairangi i te pōti whāiti mō taua rohe. Ka mau ia ki tēnei tūru, ā mate rawa. I te kakenga o Reipa hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1935 ka tohungia ko Naahi hei Minita Tiaki Pūtea. I te tau 1951 ka kake a ia hei kaiārahi o te rōpū Reipa. Nō te tau 1957 ka hoki anō a Reipa hei kāwanatanga, ko Naahi te Pirimia me te Minita mō ngā Take Māori.

I mua i taua pōti whānui, ka whakahau te Komiti Kaupapa Here Māori a te rōpū Reipa – i raro i te Mema Pāremata Māori mō te Tai Tonga a Eruera Tirikātene – kia whaikiko ake ngā kaupapa here e pā ana ki ngā whenua Māori, kia whakaritea hoki he tūranga mō tētahi Māori whai mana ki te rūnanga kāwanatanga. (I ngā tau o mua kua noho he Māori ki taua rūnanga, engari kua hapa tēnei whakaritenga i roto i ngā tau.) Kāore ia hāpaitia e ia ngā tūtohi a te Komiti. E ai ki te tumu kōrero a Claudia Orange, kāore a Naahi i tuku mā ētahi atu ngā take Māori e kōkiri, kāore hoki ia i tino aro atu ki ngā Mema Pāremata Māori. Ka tono te Komiti kaupapa here Māori kia whakatūria te 6 o Pēpuere (te rā o Waitangi) hei rā hararei mō te motu, inā rā, koinei tonu tētahi o ngā oati a Reipa i mua i te pōti o te tau 1957. Heoi, kāore a Naahi i whakatinana i te oati. I te mutunga, nā runga i ngā akiaki a Tirikātene me ētahi atu Mema Māori, ka whakatauria e Naahi te rā 6 o Pēpuere hei “rā whakamoemiti”. Nō te tekau tau atu i te tau 1970 kātahi anō ka whakamanatia te rā o Waitangi hei rā hararei mō te motu.

Lord Normanby

George Augustus Constantine Phipps Normanby.
George Augustus Constantine Phipps Normanby.

Image: ATL 1/1-001568-G
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Ko Lord Normanby (a Constantine Henry Phipps, 1st Marquess, 1797-1863) te Hēkeretari o te Whenua o Ingarangi mō ngā Koroni mai i Pepuere 1839, i te wā e whakatatūria ana te tū o Ingarangi ki Aotearoa. Nāna i whakaae te whakapiringa o Aotearoa ki Ingarangi, nāna hoki i whakaae ki a Te Hopihona hei Rūtene-Kāwana tuatahi. I te 14 o Akuhata 1839, ka whakaputaina e Lord Normanby te kaupapa whakamutunga o ngā tini tohutohu ki a Hopihona, kei reira nei ngā tikanga hei whai māna i tana mahi hou. Kei roto i ēnei te rapu i te whakaaetanga o te Māori ki te tuku i te mana whenua, ngā take i whakaarotia ai he mea tino nui tēnei hainatanga tiriti ki te iwi Māori, me ngā tikanga hei whai mō ngā hoko whenua ki ngā Pākehā kua oti kē.

I ēnei tohutohu i whakaae a Normanby e ai ki te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi, kua oti kē a Aotearoa te whakaingoa hei "whenua whai mana, hei whenua motuhake" (me te mōhio anō he uaua tēnei āhua i te noho motuhake o tēnā iwi, o tēnā iwi). E ai ki ngā tohutohu nei, kāore rawa te Karauna i hiahia ki te kōhaki i te whenua hou. I raro i ngā tohutohu, me mahi nui kē a Te Hopihona "kia āta whakaae mārire te iwi Māori i runga anō i ā rātou tikanga tuku iho" kia "tukua te mana whenua o te katoa, o tētahi wāhi rānei o ngā moutere e hiahia ai rātou ki te tuku, ki raro i te mana o te Kuini o Ingarangi''.

Ko tēnei Lord Normanby te Mākihi o Normanby tuatahi, ko te Mākihi tuatoru o Normanby te Kāwana o Aotearoa mai i 1875 ki te tau 1879.

 James Prendergast

James Prendergast, New Zealand’s third chief justice.
James Prendergast

Image: DNZ 1/2-031752: F
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Nō te 1862 ka tau a James Prendergast (1826-1921) ki Ōtepoti. Ka ako ia i te ture i Ingarangi, ā, ka whakamanatia tana tū hei rōia i Ōtākou i taua tau anō. I tae ia ki Ōtākou i te wā ka hurahia ngā papa koura o te takiwā. Whai anō ka hua te ora ki tōna kamupene, pērā anō ki te ōhanga o te rohe. Ko tētahi o ana kiritaki tuatahi ko Julius Vogel, ā tōna wa ka kake hei Pirimia o Aotearoa.

I te tau 1863 ka kake a Prendergast hei rōia matua mō Ōtākou, whāia, i te tau 1865 ka kake anō ia hei rōia a te Karauna mō Ōtākou. I taua tau anō ka karangahia a ia ki te Kaunihera Ture, ka eke hoki hei rōia matua i te kāwanatanga o Stafford. Ko ana mahi nui, ko te ruruku i ngā ture haranga, ko te whakarite, whakatakoto tikanga hoki mā te rāngai ture o Aotearoa. I te tau 1870 ka tohungia a Prendergast hei perehitini tuatahi o te Rōpū Ture o Aotearoa.

I te tau 1875, ka tohungia e te kāwanatanga o Vogel a Prendergast hei Kaiwhakawā Matua o te Kōti Matua o Aotearoa, he tūranga ka nōhia e ia mō ngā tau e 24 ka whai. Tērā pea ko tana whakataunga nui rawa atu, ko tana whai wāhitanga nui rawa atu ki ngā whakawhanaungatanga i waenganui i ngā iwi, ko te Wī Parata v Pīhopa o Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara. Ka tū tēnei whakawākanga i te tau 1877 mō ētahi whenua Māori i Porirua. Kāore a Prendergast i whakaae mā te kōti e titiro ngā take i runga i te taitara o te tangata whenua. Hei ko tāna, he “mohoao” te iwi Māori me ana tikanga, kāore ōna mana ā-ture, nā reira kāore ōna tika. Ki ōna whakaaro, he “hanga kiko kore” te Tiriti o Waitangi, i te mea e kore e taea te whakatū ture whai kiko i raro i a ia.

Kei te whiriwhiri tonu ngā tumu kōrero me nga tohunga o te ture mehemea he rerekē te titiro a Prendergast ki ngā tikanga a te Māori, he whakaata noa iho rānei tāna i te ia o te ture i aua wā. Hāunga tērā, nāna i whakatakoto te papa mō te ture ki Aotearoa. Kei te tika pea te kōrero, he rite ana tirohanga mō ngā ture me ngā tikanga a te Māori ki te nuinga o ngā tāngata whai i Aotearoa i te rau tau 1800.

 W. L. Rees

William Lee Rees, circa 1878. Photographer Unknown.
W. L. Rees

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I whānau a William Rees (1836-1912) i Ingarangi. Ka whakawahia ia hei minita mō te Hāhi Congregational i Ahitereiria i te tau 1861. Nō muri ka mahue i a ia te hāhi, ka huri hei rōia.

I te rongotanga o Rees mō te koura ka huraina ki Ōtākou i te tau 1866, ka haere mai ia. Ka mahi ia hei rōia mō ētahi tau. I ngā tau 1876 ki 1879, he Mema Pāremata ia mō tētahi rohe pōti i Tāmaki-makau-rau. Whāia, ka tū ia hei rōia mō Ngāti Porou i Te Tai Rāwhiti, i tā rātou take mō ngā hokonga whenua nanakia ki tō rātou rohe. Nā tōna matatau me tana korokoro tūī, ka tautokona ia e ngā rangatira pērā i a Wī Pere o Rongowhakaata / Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki / Te Whānau-a-Kai.

Ka rapua e Rees rāua ko Wī Pere he huarahi e taea ai te karo i ngā ture me ngā taumahatanga ka pā ki te whenua he tokomaha ōna kaipupuri, me te rapu me pēhea e taea ai te whakamahi i ngā whenua. Nā Rees i whakawhere ngā Māori kia tū rāua ko Wī Pere hei kaitiaki mō ngā whenua; ka riro i a rāua te mana whakahaere i ētahi o ngā whenua. Ko ngā moni hua mai i ngā hokonga me ngā rīhi whenua, ka whakahokia hei whakapai i ngā whenua e toe ana. Kāore i tutuki tēnei kaupapa, nā te paheketanga o te ōhanga me te whakakeke o ētahi kaitōrangapū – kāore i tautokona e te Pāremata ētahi pire hei tīmata i te kaupapa nei.

Tērā pea ko te mahi nui rawa i oti i a Rees mō ngā kaupapa whenua Māori, ko tana tū hei heamana o te Kōmihana Ture Whenua Māori i te tau 1891. Ka haehaea e ia ngā putanga kētanga o te Kōti Whenua Māori, pērā i te paheketanga o nga tikanga me te noho a te Māori, nā te whakatakitahi o ngā pānga whenua ki tēnā, ki tēnā, ki tēnā, kāpā ki te iwi. I whakapono a Rees nā ngā Ture Whenua Māori ka tino whīwhiwhi ngā āhuatanga katoa, tē aro e ngā rōia. Nō te ekenga o te rōpū Rīpera hei kāwanatanga, ka hāpaitia e rātou ētahi o ana tūtohinga.

 J. C. Richmond

Head and shoulders portrait of James Crowe Richmond. Taken by an unknown photograph between 1880 and 1898.
James Crowe Richmond

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Nō te tau 1851 ka tae tuatahi a J. C Richmond (1822-1898) ki Aotearoa. Ka noho ia ki Taranaki. Ka hipa te toru tau, ka hoki ia ki Ingarangi; heoi, nō te tau 1857 ka hoki tūturu ia ki Aotearoa.

I te tau 1858 ka tohungia ia ki te Kaunihera ā-rohe o Taranaki. Hīkaka ia ki te huaki i ngā whenua o te Māori ki ngā tāngata whai; whai anō ka whakapono ia me whakahinga te Māori ki raro, tae atu ki ngā “pōreareatanga”. I te tau 1860 ka uru ia ki Pāremata, heoi i whai ia i te tokomaha o ngā Pākehā o Taranaki, ka rere mōrehu ki Whakatū i te pakarutanga mai o te riri. Ka noho ia ki Whakatū, ka eke hei ētita mō te Nelson Examiner; ka eke hoki ki te Kaunihera ā-rohe o Whakatū.

I te tau 1865 ka tohungia a Richmond hei Hēkeretari mō te Koroni mō tētahi wā poto; whāia, ka pōtitia ia ki te Pāremata mō tētahi rohe pōti i Taranaki. I te tau 1866 ko ia i te kawe i ngā take Māori i te kāwanatanga o Stafford. Ahakoa tana whakapau kaha ki te whakanoho i ngā tāngata whai ki runga i te whenua, ka whakahokia e ia ētahi whenua i raupatutia i Te Moana a Toi, i Taranaki. Ka ngana hoki ia kia tuwhera te Kīngitanga, hauwarea. Tatū ki te tau 1868, ahakoa te ngana a te kāwanatanga o Stafford kia katia te riri e kawea ana e Tītokowaru rāua ko Te Kooti, kāore tēnei i tutuki. Nō te tau o muri mai ka hinga te kāwanatanga o Stafford. Koinei te mutunga o ngā mahi a Richmond ki ngā turanga teitei.

 G. W. Rusden

G.W. Rusden.
G. W. Rusden

Image: State Library of Victoria
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Mō te nuinga o tōna oranga, ko Ahitereiria te kāinga o George W. Rusden (1819-1903). He āpiha ia i ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe. I te mutunga o tana mahi i te tau 1881, ka huri ia ki te tuhi hītori mō Ahitereiria me Aotearoa. Ka haehaea e ia ngā kaupapa here a te Karauna e pā ana ki ngā tāngata whenua.

I roto i tana pukapuka History of New Zealand (1883) ka whakapae a Rusden nā Te Paraihe (John Bryce) – i taua wā ko ia te Miinita mō ngā Take Māori – i whakamate ētahi wāhine, tamariki i te hēte wūru o Handley i te wā o ngā riri i Taranaki. Ka werohia e Te Paraihe tēnei whakapae, ka rongohia te whakawākanga e te Kōti Teitei i Rānana. Ka hinga a Rusden, ka tāmia tana pukapuka, ka whakawhiwhia a Te Paraihe ki te rima mano pāuna mō te pā mamae – kātahi tētahi moni nui mō ērā wā. Nā te kitenga o tōna pono, ka whakaae a Te Paraihe kia iti iho te moni ka utua ki a ia, hei whakaea noa i ana whakapaunga.

 H. R. Russell

Henry Robert Russell, circa 1877. Photographer Unknown.
H. R. Russell

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Ka tae a Henry R. Russell (1817-1891) ki Aotearoa i te paunga o te tekau tau atu i 1840. He whakatipu kau tā rātou mahi ko ana teina, tuākana i runga i ētahi whenua rīhi i te Māori i Wairarapa. Nō muri ka riro mai tōna pāmu, ka huri ia ki te whakamahi i te whenua.

Ka whai hua a Russell. Tae rawa ki te tau 1879, e 25,000 ana hipi. I whai wāhi ia ki ngā tōrangapū o te rohe. Ka tohungia ia ki te Kaunihera Ture i te tau 1862. I te tau 1869 ka tīmata tana mahi hei waha kōrero matua mō te kāwanatanga i Te Matau a Māui.

Pērā i ētahi atu tāngata whai mana o taua takiwā, e hīkaka ana a Russell ki te hoko i ngā whenua o te Māori. Heoi, i pukuaroha ia ki te ora o ngā Māori o Te Wairarapa me Te Matau a Māui. I whakaae ia kia puritia e te Māori ētahi whenua mōna anō. I ētahi wā ka tautoko ia i ētahi Māori e whakatenetene ana kia nui atu te moni mō ō rātou whenua.

I te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1870, ka tautoko a Russell i a Hēnare Matua, he kaiārahi o te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua i Te Matau a Māui, ko tā rātou, he whai kia hurihia ngā hokonga whenua i whakapaetia he whānako. Hei āwhina i ōna hoa Māori, ka whakatūria, ka utua e ia tētahi “tari whakahētanga” i Ahuriri. Nāna hoki a Te Wananga, te nūpepa reo Māori o te rōpū, i āwhina ā-pūtea. Kāore i rata ngā Pākehā ki ana mahi. Kaha te pau o ana moni ki ēnei kaupapa.

Nā te kore i tareka e te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua te unu i ngā hokonga whenua, ka arotahi a Russell ki te wero i ngā hokonga whenua mā roto i te Kōti Matua. Heoi, kāore i nui ana toanga ki reira.

Ka tae ki te 1879, kua taka kē a Russell ki te whero, ka kore haere te kaha o te rōpū Whakahētanga. I te tau 1883 ka hoki ia ki Ingarangi, ka mate i te tau 1891. Kāore i tangi te iwi Māori mōna, i te mea kua kore rātou e mārama he aha tāna i whai. Ka tika te kōrero, he maha ngā taha o tēnei tangata.

 Michael Joseph Savage (Te Hāwiti)

Head and shoulders portrait of Michael Joseph Savage. Photographer and date unidentified.
Michael Joseph Savage

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Nō te tau 1919 a Te Hāwiti i kuhu ai ki te Pāremata hei Mema mō te rōpū Reipa. I te kakenga o Reipa hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1935, ko ia te Pirimia, ko ia hoki te Minita mō ngā Take Māori. Ka kawea e ia ēnei tūranga tae rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1940.

I a ia ka whakahiato, ka whakatinana i ngā kaupapa here e pā ana ki te Māori, ka arotahi a Te Hāwiti ki te Wāhanga III o te Tiriti e whakaū ana i te mana taurite taha pāpori, taha ohaoha. Ki tāna, ka taea tēnei mā tētahi pūnaha toko i te ora whānui, mā te āta whakamahi hoki i ngā whenua Māori. Kua tīmataria kētia ēnei kaupapa i te wā i a Āpirana Ngata.

Nā te hononga i waenganui i a Reipa me Rātana, tāpae atu ki ngā Mema Pāremata Reipa/Rātana, ka kaha ake te whai a Reipa kia wātea ki te Māori te whiwhinga ōrite.

Ka nui ngā manaakitanga a te kāwanatanga i te iwi Māori i tēnei wā, tāpiri atu ko ngā hua i puta i te oranga ake o te ōhanga whai muri i te toanga o Reipa i te pōti whānui o 1935. Waihoki, i ōrite te tuku a te kāwanatanga i te penihana kore mahi ki te Māori, me te tuku pūtea hei hoko whare. Ka mihi te iwi Māori mō te rewanga o ngā pēhitanga i runga i a rātou.

 Richard Seddon (Te Hētana)

Richard John Seddon dressed in evening suit. Photographer Unknown.
Richard Seddon

Image: ATL 1/2-005255-F
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Nō te tau 1866 ka tae a Te Hētana (1845-1906) ki Aotearoa. Ka whai hua ia i ngā papa koura o Waimea, ā, nō muri he whakahaere hōtera tana mahi ki Te Tai Poutini. Ka hau te rongo mōna i te kaiaka me te mekemeke – he wā anō mā te mekemeke rā anō e tau ai te kōrero.

I te tekau tau atu i 1870 ka kuhu ia ki ngā tōrangapū o Te Tai Poutini. I te tau 1879 ka pōtitia ia ki te Pāremata mō te rohe pōti o Hokitika, ā, nō muri mō Westland. Ka puta te rongo mō te roa o ana kōrero me tana kūare. Hāunga, he matatau tonu ia ki te ao tōrangapū; hurihia ai e ia tōna āhua wana kore hei painga.

I te kakenga o te rōpū Rīpera hei kāwanatanga i te tau 1891, ka kuhu a Te Hētana ki te rūnanga kāwanatanga. I te tau 1892 ka kake ia ki te tūranga o te Pirimia, tatū rawa ki tōna matenga i te tau 1906. Ko ia anō hoki te Minita mō ngā Take Māori atu i 1893 ki 1899. Nā runga i ngā whakakīkī a te rōpū Kotahitanga, i te tau 1900 ka katia e Te Hētana ngā hokonga whenua Māori kua roa kē e haere ana. Nā te tū o ngā Kaunihera Māori me ngā Poari Whenua Māori, ka taea e te Māori te kati i ētahi hokonga whenua me te whakataki i te hauora o te hapori. Hāunga, nō te tau 1905, i runga i ngā akiaki a ngā tāngata whai, ka huripokina ngā kaupapa here a Te Hētana e pā ana ki te Māori me tāna noho, me te aha, ka nui atu te whenua ka ngaro.

 Henry Sewell

Henry Sewell.
Henry Sewell

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Kia eke rā anō ōna tau ki te 45, kātahi anō ka tau a Henry Sewell (1807-1879) ki Aotearoa, hei āpiha mā te Rōpū o Waitaha. Ka nui ana mahi tōrangapū ā-motu – ko ia te pirimia tuatahi o Aotearoa, hāunga te mea mō ngā wiki e rua anake.

He kaiwhakamārie a Sewell, ka wehi ki a ia te takahi i te Māori ki raro. Ko tāna, he whai i te huarahi ngāwari, mā te whitiwhiti, mā te patipati. Ka whakapono ia ko te huarahi pai rawa atu ki te whakawhenumi i te Māori me te huaki i tōna whenua ki te Pākehā, ko te rapu kia tautoko mai te Māori mā te tutuki i ō rātou hiahia, mā te hoatu hoki i tētahi wāhi whai kiko ki a rātou i roto i ngā whiriwhiringa mō te wāwāhitanga o ngā whenua.

I te tau 1860 nāna i whakatakoto te Ture Kaunihera Māori, e puritia ai e te Māori tētahi wāhanga o ngā whenua ka hokona. Ka whakaritea tētahi wāhanga o ngā moni mai i te hoko i ngā whenua mō ngā take whakapono, ngā take mātauranga a te Māori. Ka whakahaerehia katoatia ēnei e tētahi “kaunihera Māori”. Kāore i manaakitia tēnei Pire, pērā anō te mea tuarua o te Pire i whakatakotoria i 1861.

Pōuri katoa a Sewell i te pakarutanga mai o te riri i 1860. Nā tana whakahē ki ngā kaupapa raupatu whenua, ka whakawātea ia mai i te kāwanatanga. Whāia, ka kuhu ia ki ētahi kāwanatanga o muri mai. Ka mate ia i Ingarangi i te tau 1879.

 John Sheehan (Hōne Hīhana)

John Sheehan, circa 1884. Photographer Unknown.
John Sheehan

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I whānau mai a Hōne Hīhana ki Tāmaki-makau-rau i te tau 1844. Ka ako ia hei rōia. I te tau 1869 i roto ia i tētahi kēhi roa i te Kōti Whenua Māori e pā ana ki ētahi whenua i Ōrākei (Tāmaki). Nā tēnei mahi ka whakahoahoa ia ki ētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Whātua. Ka kuhu ia ki ngā tōrangapū o te rohe, ka whai i ētahi tūranga whakahaere ki te porowini o Ākarana.

I te tau 1872 ka pōtitia a Hīhana ki te Pāremata. Ko ia te Pākehā tuatahi ki te Pāremata i whānau mai ki Aotearoa. Ko ia hoki te rōia mō te Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua i te tekau tau atu i 1870. Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Kahungunu ngā kaiārahi i tēnei rōpū. Ka whakapae rātou i whānakohia ngā whenua o te Māori e ētahi āpiha hoko whenua nanakia a te kāwanatanga pēnei i a Te Mākarini (Donald McLean), āpiha hoko whenua matua o te kāwanatanga. He māngai kaha a Hīhana mō te rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, heoi, kāore tonu i wetekina tētahi hokonga whenua kotahi.

Ka eke a Hōri Kerei hei Pirimia i te tau 1877, ka tohungia e ia ko Hīhana hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori, hei Minita mō te Ture. Ka tono ia kia whakahokia mai te tikanga e mea ana kei te Karauna anake te mana ki te hoko whenua Māori. I whakapae ia mā tēnei mahi e pana ngā kuruki rātou ko te hunga whai moni i ngā hokonga whenua, ka ngāwari atu ngā ture whenua Māori, ka mutu ngā mahi whānako i te Kōti Whenua Māori, pērā i ngā mahi i te kōti i Kēmureti. Ko tāna i whakapono ai, kāore i te tika ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860. Nā reira ka ngana ia ki te kōrerorero me ngā mana o te Kīngitanga me ō Taranaki, kia tuwhera aua rohe hei wāhi noho mō te Pākehā.  He nui ōna hoariri kaha; nā tēnei me tana kore take haere, kāore i tutuki te maha o ana kaupapa. Hē katoa i a ia ngā whitiwhitinga kōrero me Te Whiti o Rongomai, rangatira o te hunga mautohe mārire o Parihaka; hei tā Hīhana, he rūkahu, he whiwhita inati. Ka hē hoki tana whai kia tau ngā raruraru e pā ana ki ngā whenua raupatu i Taranaki i runga i te rangimārie. I whai wāhi ngā raruraru i Taranaki ki te hingatanga o te kāwanatanga o Kerei i te tau 1879 me te kotinga o ngā mahi tōrangapū a Hīhana. I te tau 1881 nā ngā Pirihimana Mau Pū i raro i tana piki tūranga a Te Paraihe (John Bryce) te kāinga o Parihaka i whakaeke. Nā tana kaihoro i ngā kai noa o tēnei ao, ka mate tōmua a Hīhana i te tau 1885.

 William Spain

William Spain.
William Spain

Special Collections, Auckland City Libraries (NZ)
Ref: 3-554
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Ka whānau mai a William Spain i Ingarangi i te tau 1803. Ka ako ia hei rōia. I te tau 1841 ka kuhu ia hei Kōmihana mō ngā Kerēme Whenua i Aotearoa. Ko tāna mahi, he rangahau i ngā kerēme a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni e mea ana i hokona e ia e 20 miriona eka (e 8 miriona heketea) i te tau 1839. Ahakoa kei te tohea nuitia aua whenua e ngā Māori whai pānga ki aua whenua, kua tae kē mai te tini rau tāngata whai ki te noho i te whenua.

I te marama o Mei i te tau 1842 ka tīmata te mahi a Spain ki Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara. Ka hurahia e ngā rangahautanga kāore he kiko o te nuinga o ngā kerēme a te Kamupene, mō Whakatū, mō Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, mō Wanganui. Hāunga tērā, kāore tonu i whakakāhoretia aua kerēme e Spain. Ka mahi ia me ngā tautoko a Kāwana Pitiroi ki te whakarite paremata hei utu mā te Kamupene e "tutuki" ai aua hokonga. He mea tika tēnei, ki tō Spain whakaaro, i te mea kei te hiahia te Māori kia tau te noho a te Pākehā me āna painga; i tua atu, ka ea te taha ki ngā tāngata whai i haere mai, i hoko whenua i runga i te ngākau pono. Ka whakaae ētahi Māori kia whiwhi rātou i te paremata me te manawapā anō, ko ētahi kāore i whakaae (nā ngā āpiha o te Tari Tiaki i te Tangata Whenua te whakatau).

Ka wehe a Spain i Aotearoa i te tau 1845, ka mate ia i Ahitereiria i te tau 1876. ka haere tonu ngā kerēme a te Kamupene mō ētahi tau, kātahi anō ka whakatauhia – mā te hoko, mā te pū rānei.

James Stephen

Carlo, Baron Marochetti: Marble bust of Sir James Stephen. 1858.
James Stephen

Image: National Portrait Gallery, London no. NPG1029
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He rōia Ingarihi a Stephen (1789-1859) i noho i Īnia ki te Uru mō tētahi wā, he tangata i kite i ngā mahi whakataurekareka, ā, i muri, i huri ia ki te whakahē i aua tikanga. I moe ia i te tuahine o William Wilberforce (te mema pāremata nāna i ārahi te kaupapa whakakāhore i te whakataurekareka tangata). He pou hoki ia nō te rōpū kaikauwhau i te rongopai, i kaha rawa tā rātou kawe i te kaupapa whakakāhore, me ētahi tikanga whakapai ake i te noho o te tangata, ā, he here tata hoki ō rātou ki te CMS. Nō tana houtanga atu ki te Pāremata o Peretānia i te tau 1808, ka kake ia ki te tūranga o te Hēkeretari o Raro Pūmau o ngā Koroni, ā, koia tētahi o ngā kaiwaihanga i ngā kaupapa here o Ingarangi mō ana koroni, tae noa ki tāna tukunga i tōna tūranga i te tau 1847. Kia tae ki ngā tau whakamutunga o ngā 1830, i pēnei tonu ia kua koroni kē a Niu Tīreni, tā te mea he maha ngā tāngata o Ingarangi, tōna 2000 pea, i reira. Kua noho ture kore te koroni, kāore he ture hei pupuru tikanga, nā reira kua tae noa mai te wā ki te whakarite tikanga whai mana e tukua ai ki te Karauna o Ingarangi te mana whakahaere i te whenua.

Nō ka tatū ngā whakaaro o Glenelg me tango a Te Pūhipi, me whakatū kanohi kāwanatanga, me te tuku i taua tūranga ki a Te Hopihona, ka tīmata a Stephen ki te whakarite Tohutohu a te Kīngi mā Te Hopihona. I ngā tuhinga tuatahi rawa i riro ko ngā tikanga tiaki i ngā whāinga tika o te tangata a ngā rōpū kauwhau i te rongopai hei kaupapa matua, engari kia tae ki waenganui o te tau 1839, ko te nuinga o ngā tuhinga i anga kē ki te whakawhitinga o te mana whenua i Ingarangi, me ngā tikanga e taea ai. Ahakoa, kāore i tuhia e rātou tētahi tiriti tuatahi, kāore hoki he whakaritenga mō tētahi ope hōia hei taituarā, i tua atu i ērā hōia ka whakaaetia e Gipps te tuku.

Ko Stephen te kaitohutohu matua ki ngā Hēkeretari o te Whenua o Ingarangi mō ngā Koroni i tēnei wā. Kāore i mutu noa tana mahi i te whakapaoho kōrero mō ā rātou kaupapa me ā rātou tohutohu, engari i ahu mai i a ia ētahi o aua kaupapa. Rite tonu ki a Lord Glenelg rāua ko Lord Normanby, he tino tangata ia nō te whakapono, ko tana whakapono Karaitiana me ana tikanga whakapiki i te noho o te iwi te pūtake o ana tikanga tiaki i ngā whāinga tika o te tangata. Tētahi anō o ana hiahia kia tika ngā whakahaere e pā ana ki te iwi Māori, kia tupu hei tāngata o Ingarangi, kia kaua e whakangaromia rawatia, e taurekarekatia rānei.

 Robert Stout (Rāpata Taute)

Chief Justice Robert Stout, circa 1910. Photographer unidentified.
Robert Stout

Image: ATL PAColl-5800-59
© Image copyright conditions

I whānau mai a Rāpata Taute (1844-1930) ki Koterana. I tae ia ki Aotearoa i te tau 1864, ka noho ki Ōtepoti. Ka pūmau ia ki te mahi kura māhita. Whāia, ka ako ia i te ture, ā, nō te tau 1871 ka kuhu ia hei rōia. I te tau 1872 ka eke ia ki te Kaunihera ā-Rohe o Ōtākou, ka tū hoki hei rōia mō te rohe. I te 1875 ka kuhu ia ki te Pāremata hei Mema mō te rohe pōti o Caversham, whāia, mō te tāone o Ōtepoti. Ka tohungia ia hei rōia matua i te kāwanatanga o Kerei i te tau 1878.

I rihaina ia i te rūnanga kāwanatanga me te Pāremata i te tau 1879, kia nui ake ai ana mahi mō tana kamupene rōia. Ka hoki anō ia ki te Pāremata i te tau 1884 hei Mema mō te rohe pōti o Ōtepoti ki te Rāwhiti, ka hou atu ki te kāwanatanga o Te Pōkiha. Whāia, ka eke ia hei Pirimia, ā, tae ana ki te tau 1887. Ka whiwhi ia ki te tohu Tā (KCGM) i te tau 1886.

I te tau 1898 ka whakarērea e ia ngā mahi tōrangapū, nō te tau i muri mai ka tohungia ia hei kaiwhakawā matua mō te Kōti Matua. Ka noho ia ki tēnei tūranga atu ki te tau 1926. Nō te tau 1930 ka mate ia.

He wāhi nui tō Taute i te whakawhanaungatanga i waenganui i ngā iwi. Ki tāna titiro, me noho te kāwanatanga hei “matua” manaaki i te iwi Māori, kia taea rā anō e te iwi Māori te noho ki te taha o te Pākehā me tōna ao, kia taea hoki e ia te whakahaere i āna anō take. I te tau 1880 i roto a Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui (Meiha Keepa), rangatira o Muaupoko, i tētahi tohenga kino ki te kāwanatanga, mō ētahi rūri whenua ki Wanganui te take. Ka nōhia e Te Keepa te whenua, ka tohungia he “rūnanga” o ngā rangatira. E mea ana a Taute ki te āwhina i a rātou ki te whakatū rōpū kaitiaki kia whakahoki i te whenua, kia kaua e hokona. Kino te whakahē a Te Paraihe, te Minita mō ngā Take Māori ki tēnei kaupapa, i te mea he hoariri a Taute nōna i te Pāremata. Me te aha, kāore i roa ka huakina taua rohe ki ngā tāngata whai, i runga tonu i ngā whakaritenga a Te Paraihe.

Nā te nui o ngā whenua kei te riro i te Pākehā i ngā tau tōmua o ngā 1900, ka whakatūria te Kōmihana Whenua Māori i te tau 1907. Ko Taute rāua ko Āpirana Ngata ngā kaiwhakahaere. Ko te mahi nui mā rāua, ko te rapu huarahi hei whakamahi i ngā whenua Māori hei painga mō te Māori ka tahi, hei painga mō ngā tāngata whai ka rua. I pukuaroha te Kōmihana ki te Māori, hei ko tāna, “e rongo ana i te rawakoretanga i te wā o te rahi”. I tūtohu te Kōmihana kia puritia e te Māori te nuinga o ngā whenua kei a rātou tonu e pupuri ana, ā, mā te kāwanatanga e whakarato ngā āwhina ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua, māna anō hoki e ako te Māori ki ngā mahi hou. Hauwarea. Ka kaha kē ake te hokonga o ngā whenua o te Māori i roto i te rua tekau tau ka whai.

 Julius Vogel

Portrait of Julius Vogel. Photographer and date unidentified.
  Julius Vogel

Image: ATL PA2-2831
© Image copyright conditions

He kairipoata, ētita a Julius Vogel (1835-1899) i Ahitereiria, kātahi ka neke ki Ōtepoti noho ai i te tau 1861. Ka kuhu ia ki ngā kaupapa tōrangapū o te rohe. I te tau 1863 ka pōtitia ia ki te Pāremata. Ki tāna titiro, he moumou moni ngā pakanga o Aotearoa; ka kaha tana whakahau kia motuhake te tū taha pūtea, taha whakahaere, o Te Waipounamu. Nō muri ka tautoko ia i ngā tika o ngā porowini.

I te tau 1869 ka eke a Vogel hei kaitiaki pūtea mō te koroni i roto i te kāwanatanga o Te Pōkiha. E ora ake ai anō te ōhanga o Aotearoa, ka tīmata tana kaupapa tekau tau, kia mahia ngā mahinga nui mā te iwi whānui, kia kumea anō ngā rāwaho ki Aotearoa, noho ai. Ka utua tēnei mā te pūtea taurewa rahi mai i ngā tauhokohoko moni i Rānana. Ko tētahi wāhi nui o tēnei kaupapa, ko te hoko i ngā whenua o te Māori mō te moni iti rawa; nā tēnei ka kakama atu ngā hokonga whenua a te Karauna. Ko te whakapono o Vogel mā, kia kōmitimiti rā anō te Māori me ōna whenua ki roto i te ōhanga o te Pākehā, kātahi anō ka tau te rangimārie.

Tatū rawa ki 1876 i roto a Vogel i ngā kāwanatanga o te wā, ā, ko ia te Pirimia mō tētahi wā poto. Nā ana kaupapa nui i whakarerekē te āhua o te koroni, i kīia ai te kōrero, ko ia tētahi o ngā kaitōrangapū nui o Aotearoa i ngā 1800. Hāunga anō ngā tumu kōrero o ēnei rā, ka kī rātou nā ngā whenua o te Māori i hokona mai mō te moni iti rawa atu, ngā mahi i utu. Ka pātai ētahi mehemea i hua anō te pai ki te Māori i ēnei tūmahi.

 Frederick Weld

Frederick Weld.  
Frederick Weld

Image: ATL MNZ-0439-1/4-F
© Image copyright conditions

Ka tau a Frederick Weld (1823-1891) ki Aotearoa i te tau 1844, ka whakatū teihana hipi i Te Wairau me Wairarapa i te taha o ōna whanaunga, a Charles Clifford rāua ko William Vavasour. Ka tipu ōna whakaaro mō te Māori i āna tirohanga i tēnei wā. Ka kī a ia mō ana mahi tahi ki a rātou, “ahakoa mārō, i mahia i runga i te tika”. Heoi, kua puta ngā kōrero a tētahi tumu kōrero e mea ana kia tae ki ngā wā e pōrearea ana te Māori i ngā hiahia o ngā tāngata whai, tē arotia atu e Weld.

Ka uru a Weld ki te Pāremata i te 1853. I te tau 1860 ka kuhu ia ki te kāwanatanga o Stafford, ka noho hei Minita mō ngā Take Māori. Ki tāna titiro, nā te mahi hē a te Māori kia karanga mō tētahi “momo tino rangatiratanga” mō rātou, i kaha tonu te kāwanatanga ki te whawhai i tēnei mahi “tauwehe i te emepaea”. I tua atu, ki te kore te kāwanatanga o Peretānia e tautoko mai i tēnei kaupapa, kāti, ka whakatū tonu te koroni i āna ake hōia, ka whakahaerehia ngā take Māori i Aotearoa tonu. Kīia ai tēnei ko te kaupapa here “tū motuhake” a Weld. I te wā ko ia te Pirimia, ka tautoko ia i te raupatutanga o ngā whenua 1.2 miriona te rahi (paku raro iho i te haurua miriona heketea) i Waikato.

Ko tētahi atu mahi nui i te wā ko ia te Pirimia, ko te whakamanatanga o ngā ture waihanga i te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1865. Kei te whakapae ētahi tumu kōrero, nā ngā akiaki a te hunga hoko whenua Māori, ka mana tēnei. I ngā tekau tau ka whai ake, ka whakatere ake te Kōti i te rironga o ngā whenua Māori rahi tonu. Kāore a Weld i kite i tēnei. Ka whakawātea ia mai i ana mahi tōrangapū i te tau 1866, ka wehe atu i te koroni i te 1867. Whāia, ka tohungia ia hei Kāwana mō te Uru o Ahitereiria (1868-1874), mō Tasmania (1875-1880), mō ngā Straits Settlements hoki.

 Frederick Whitaker

Frederick Whitaker.
Frederick Whitaker

Image: ATL 1/2-089526
© Image copyright conditions

I whānau a Frederick Whitaker (1812-1891) ki Ingarangi. Ka ako a ia hei rōia. Nō te tau 1840 ka tau ia ki Aotearoa, ka tīmata tana mahi rōia i Pēwhairangi. I te tau 1845 ka tohungia ia ki te Kaunihera Ture. I te wā i a ia i reira, ka āwhinatia e ia a Wiremu Mātene rāua ko William Swainson ki te hanga mai i ngā ture. I waenganui i ngā tau 1855 ki te 1861, e whitu ngā wā ka eke a ia hei rōia matua. Ka tū ia hei Pirimia i te marama o Oketopa 1863 ki te marama o Nōema 1864.

Kīia ai te rōpū tōrangapū o Whitaker ko te ‘rōpū taua’. Ka whakapono ia, mā te ngāwari o te riro mai o ngā whenua o te Māori mō ngā tāngata whai, ka tareka te whakatau i te ‘rangimārie me te ahunga whakamua’. Kaha tana whakahau kia takahia te ara o te riri, me tana tautoko i te raupatunga o te nui o te whenua Māori, nui ake i te rahi i whakaarohia e Kāwana Hōri Kerei.

Nā Kerei i whakahinga te kāwanatanga o Whitaker i te tau 1864, ka whakawātea ia i tōna nohoanga i te Kaunihera Ture. Kātahi ka tīmata ana hokohoko whenua me tana mahi kaipakihi. Ko tētahi o ana hokonga nui ko te repo ki Piako mai i te kāwanatanga mō te iti rawa o te utu; whakapaetia tēnei he mahi ‘nanakia’.

Nō te tau 1876 ka hoki anō a Whitaker ki te Pāremata. Ka eke ki te taumata o ētahi tari kāwanatanga, tae rawa ki te tūranga o te Pirimia mō tētahi wā anō i te tōmuatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1880. Ka whakawhiwhia a ia ki te tohu Tā i te tau 1884.

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NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

Ngā Kaitōrangapū, Ngā Tiāti, me ngā Āpiha

Ballance, John
Bell, F. D.
Bryce, John
Buick, T. L.
Bunbury, Thomas
Busby, James
Coates, Joseph Gordon
Eyre, E. J.
Fenton, F. D.
FitzGerald, J. E.
Fox, William
Fraser, Peter
Glenelg, Charles Grant
Grey, Henry George (Earl)
Gorst, John
Hanan, Josiah Ralph
Herries, William Herbert
Hunn, Jack Kent
Kirk, Norman Eric
Lewis, T. W.
Mair, Gilbert
Maning, F. E.
Mantell, Walter
Martin, William
McLean, Donald
Nash, Walter
Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps
Prendergast, James
Rees, W. L.
Richmond, J. C.
Rusden, G. W.
Russell, H. R.
Savage, Michael Joseph
Seddon, Richard
Sewell, Henry
Sheehan, John
Spain, William
Stephen, James
Stout, Robert
Vogel,Julius
Weld, Frederick
Whitaker, Frederick

Ngā Kaihautū Māori 1840-1900

Carroll, James
Heke Pokai, Hone Wiremu (Hone Heke)
Kahutia, Riperata
Kaihau, Henare
Kawiti, Te Ruki
Mangakahia, Hamiora
Mangakahia, Meri Te Tai
Maniapoto, Rewi Manga
Matua, Henare
Nene, Tamati Waka
Ngapua, Hone Heke
Ngatata, Wiremu Tako
Niniwa-i-te-rangi
Nireaha Tamaki
Ormsby, John
Parata, Wiremu Te Kakakura
Pere, Wiremu
Pomare II
Taiaroa, Hori Kerei
Taiwhanga, Hirini Rawiri
Takamoana, Karaitiana
Taonui, Aperahama
Taraia Ngakuti Te Tumuhuia
Tawhai, Hone Mohi
Tawhiao, Tukaroto Matutaera Potatau
Te Hapuku
Te Heuheu Tukino III , Iwikau
Te Heuheu Tukino IV, Horonuku
Te Kawau, Apihai
Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki
Te Pahi
Te Rangihiwinui, Te Keepa
Te Rangi-puawhe, Te Keepa
Te Rangitake, Wiremu Kingi
Te Rauparaha
Te Waharoa, Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi
Te Wheoro, Wiremu Te Morehu Maipapa
Te Wherowhero, Potatau
Te Whiti-o-Rongomai III, Erueti
Te Whiwhi, Henare Matene
Tiramorehu, Matiaha
Titokowaru, Riwha
Tohu Kakahi
Tomoana, Henare
Topeora, Rangi Kuini Wikitoria
Tuhaere, Paora
Wahanui Huatare
Wahawaha, Rapata

Ngā Kaihautū Māori 1900-1975

Balneavis, Henare Te Raumoa Huatahi
Buck, Peter Henry
Carroll, Heni Materoa
Carroll, Turi
Cooper, Dame Whina
Henare, James Clendon Tau
Herangi, Te Kirihaehae Te Puea
Kenana, Rua
Koroki Te Rata Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero
Mahuta Tawhiao Potatau Te Wherowhero
Mawhete, Rangiputangatahi
Mitchell, Henry Taiporutu Te Mapu-o-te-rangi
Ngata, Apirana Turupa
Paikea, Paraire Karaka
Pomare, Maui Wiremu Piti Naera
Rata, Matiu
Ratana, Tahupotiki Wiremu
Rickard, Eva
Te Heuheu Tukino VI, Hoani
Tirikatene, Eruera Tihema Te Aika

Ngā Kāwana

Browne, Thomas
FitzRoy, Robert
Gipps, George
Grey, George
Hobson, William

Ngā Kaiwhakanoho me ngā Mihingare

Clarke, George
Colenso, William
Cowan, James
Grace, T. S.
Hadfield, Octavius
Marsden, Samuel
Pompallier, J. B. F.
Selwyn, G. A.
Taylor, Richard
Wakefield, Edward
Williams, Henry