He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
|

KEI TĒNEI WĀHANGA

Kōrero Poto

Kupu Whakataki

A Aotearoa i ngā tau o ngā 1830

Te hanganga o ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi

Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni (1835)

Ngā tau i mua tata atu i te Tiriti

Ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi me te Tiriti

Te Hainatanga o te Tiriti

Ngā kōrero ake o te Tiriti

Ngā rerekētanga i ngā tauira e rua o te Tiriti

Ngā take i haina ai ētahi, i kore ai ētahi e haina

Ngā mahi whakaoti

Nga Kaupapa-Here Tōmua A Te Karauna

Te Paheke atu ki te Pakanga

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā Kaupapa-Here "Whakakotahi" me ngā Urupare a te Māori

Te Wāhanga Tuatahi o te Rautau Rua Tekau

Ka Tipu Haere te aro ki te Tiriti

Te Neke ki ngā Tāone me te Tīmatanga Hou

Ngā Taukumekume mō te Tiriti

English version of this page

Ko Te HĪtori o Te Tiriti

NgĀ kaupapa here TŌmua a te karauna

Ka tae ki ngā tau whakamutunga o ngā 1830, kua kite ngā tāngata tōrangapū me ngā kātipa i Ingarangi me Poihākena e whakanohonohongia noatia ana a Aotearoa. E riro mai ana ētahi whenua Māori i ngā ringa o tauiwi, kua whai wāhi anō te Māori ki te horapa haere o te ōhanga o te ao.

Whakatau ana te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi me whai kia riro tūturu i a rātou te mana whenua i Aotearoa, otirā, me te whakatau anō kāore he take o te tukurua i ngā kaupapa here o mua atu (kāore i whaihua i wāhi kē) e tiakina ai ngā tāngata whenua ki ngā papa rāhui wehe motuhake i ngā paenoho Pākehā. Ka akiaki ngā kātipa i te iwi Māori kia tūhono atu ki te porihanga o ngā kaiwhakanoho. Ka whiwhi tonu rātou i ngā āheinga me ngā painga o ngā tāngata o Ingarangi, i raro i te pūnaha ture kotahi. I whakaurua tēnei me ētahi atu whāinga ki roto i te Tiriti me ngā ture tōmua o te koroni.

Mai i te whiriwhiri tahi ki te whakahau

Heoi anō, e kore e whakaaetia, e āwhinatia rānei te iwi Māori kia uru atu i runga i ā rātou ake tikanga. Mā te Karauna kē me ngā kaiwhakanoho e whakarite te āhua o te uru atu. Nō reira, he whakawhenumi kē te kaupapa, ehara kē i te tūhono noa, i te whakakotahi noa. 

Kua mōhio kē ngā mana o Ingarangi me kimi rawa he whenua mō ngā kaiwhakanoho, ā, ka hiahia tonu ngā kaiwhakanoho mā rātou tonu rātou e whakahaere taha kāwanatanga nei, ka mutu, kia awe tonu te pērā. Nō reira mai i te tīmatanga, i āhua mōhio anō pea te Karauna he uaua te ū ki ngā kī taurangi o te Tiriti e tiaki ana i te mana Māori. I tino pēnei te āhua i ngā 1860, i te urunga o ngā pāremata me ngā kāwanatanga i kōwhiria e ngā kaiwhakanoho tonu ki roto i tēnei mea te “Karauna”, i te taha tonu o ngā kātipa Ingarihi.  

Nō te aranga ake o te riri i waenga pū o ngā 1840, ka whakawhirinaki anō te Karauna ki te tautoko mai a ōna hoa Māori.

I te tīmatanga, i Te Ika a Māui, i waho atu o ngā kāinga noho Pākehā torutoru i te takutai, ka mate te Karauna ki te āta whiriwhiri tahi ki ngā hapori Māori e taea ai tō rātou mana whenua te roha haere. He iti hoki te pūtea me te ope pirihimana, hōia i tukuna mā Rūtene-Kāwana Hopihona. Nō te aranga ake o te riri i Pēwhairangi i waenga pū o ngā 1840 (me ētahi atu wāhi i muri mai), ka whakawhirinaki anō te Karauna ki te tautoko mai a ōna hoa Māori e mutu ai te pakanga. Engari i muri i ngā whawhai a ētahi iwi Māori i Te Moana a Toi, ka whakatau te Tari Koroni i te tau 1843 ka pā anō ngā ture o Ingarangi me ngā whakahau o te Tiriti ki ērā o ngā rangatira me ō rātou iwi kāore i haina i taua  kirimana.

Te whai kia haere kōtui te mana whenua me te rangatiratanga 

Ka noho tonu mai te raruraru o te whai kia haere kōtui te mana whenua o te Karauna me te kī taurangi o te Tiriti kia mau tonu te mana o ngā rangatira Māori i ō rātou ake ao. Ka mahi te kāwana o muri mai i a Hopihona, a Robert FitzRoy (Te Pitiroi), ki te hāpai i ētahi tikanga Māori i roto i te pūnaha ture, engari ko te nuinga o ngā kaupapa here a te Karauna e aro kē ana ki te whakawhenumi i te Māori ki roto i te porihanga o tauiwi.  Arā ētahi Māori i mōhio ki ngā raruraru i pā ki te tangata whenua o Ahitereiria i raro i te mana o Ingarangi, me tō rātou māharahara kei pērā anō ko te iwi Māori. Kua whakatūria he Kaitiaki i te Tangata Whenua hei tiaki i ngā hiahia o te Māori, engari i taupatupatu tana tūranga i te mea i mua i te tau 1842, ko ia anō te tangata i tohua hei whiriwhiri tahi i ngā hokonga whenua mai i te Māori. I te tūnga mai o Kāwana Kerei, ka aro atu ia ki ngā kaiwhakanoho e whakahē ana i te tūranga Kaitiaki, turakina ana e ia te tūranga i te tau 1846.

Te Whakahē i te Tiriti

He tokomaha ngā kaiwhakanoho i kaha kē tā rātou tātā i te Tiriti, tae atu ki ngā kaupapa here a Te Pitiroi i whakaaro ai rātou e kaha rawa ana te arotau atu ki te iwi Māori. Ki tā te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, ko te aro ki ngā āheinga whenua o te Māori e tohua ana i te Atikara Tuarua, me noho whāiti ki “ētahi āpure torutoru i whakatipuria ai he rīwai, i tū mai ai he kāuta noho”. Ki tāna anō, “he hanga te Tiriti me whakamihi, engari ko tāna kaupapa kē, he whakarata i te hunga mohoao mō tētahi wā”. Arā anō ētahi tāngata i Rānana kei tēnei whakaaro, engari i kaha tohea tēnei e ngā mihingare me ngā kātipa a te Karauna i Aotearoa.

I te tau 1844, tērā tētahi komiti pāremata i kī ake he hanga te Tiriti kāore i hangaia i runga i te whakaaro tōtika, ā, me tāke tonu te katoa o ngā whenua Māori kāore e āta whakamahia ana hei whakatipu kai. Ki te kore e utua te tāke, ka tangohia aua whenua. I te tau 1846 ka whakaataria ēnei tūmomo whakaaro ki tētahi kaupapa taketake hou me tētahi tūtohi hou mō te koroni. Ka riro i te kāwana ngā whenua Māori rahi tonu kāore e āta nohoia ana i runga i ngā tikanga Pākehā. Ko te tohe a ngā mihingare, he rerekē te tikanga o te “noho whenua” e whakahāngaitia ana ki te Māori, arā, ko te whakatipu kai, i tērā e hāngai ana ki ngā kaipupuri whenua i Ingarangi.

Te kaupapa hoko whenua a Hōri Kerei

Arā ētahi wāhanga matua o tēnei kaupapa taketake kāore i whakatinanatia, i te mea i te Nōema 1845 ka makere a Te Pitiroi, ka tū kē mai ko Tā Hōri Kerei hei Kāwana. I mōhio a Kerei ki te whāia ēnei momo kaupapa here e tango kau ana i te whenua i te Māori, he pakanga pea kei te haere.  Ki tāna, ka whakaae noa te Māori ki te hoko i ngā takotoranga whenua rahi tonu ki te Karauna.

Ka whakawāteatia ngā pūtea i hiahia rā ia, ka tahuri a Kerei ki te hoko i ngā whenua nui tonu. Ka haere tonu tēnei mahi i muri i tana wehenga atu i Aotearoa i te mutunga o te tau 1853. Tae rawa ki te tau 1865, he tata ki te katoa o Te Waipounamu, me tētahi haurima o Te Ika a Māui kua riro i te Karauna i ēnei mahi hokohoko. 

Kua kore i taea e rātou te whāwhā atu ngā painga o te ōhanga hou.

He nui ake i te 34 miriona eka i hokona i a Ngāi Tahu i Te Waipounamu. Ko te tohe a te iwi nei i muri mai, kāore i taunahatia he papa rāhui mō rātou, he rerekē ngā pou tawhā o ngā poraka whenua i hokona i tērā i whakaaetia, kāore i tika ngā utu i utua, ka mutu, ko ngā kī taurangi mō ngā kura, ngā hōhipera me ērā atu painga o ngā paenoho Pākehā ka puta ki a rātou, he ngutu kau. I te mutunga iho, kua kore i taea e rātou te whāwhā atu ngā painga o te ōhanga hou. Ka teretere mai ngā tini kaiwhakanoho, ka noho kōpipiri a Ngāi Tahu ki ētahi papa rāhui e 37,000 eka te rahi, he whenua pāpaku te nuinga. Waihoki, kāore rātou i āhei atu ki ō rātou wāhi mahi kai. Ko te mea tino hē katoa, ko te iti o ngā whenua pai hei whakatipu huawhenua, kararehe, me te aha, kāore rātou i āhei ki te tahuri ki ngā mahi ahuwhenua hei oranga mō rātou i te ōhanga hou.

Ngā painga ohaoha, pāpori: ngā 1840 me ngā 1850

Heoi anō, he maha ngā iwi Māori i ora, taha ohaoha, i ngā tau o ngā 1840 me ngā 1850. He wāhi nui tō te Māori i roto i ngā paenoho Pākehā e tū tū mai ana i ērā wā. Ko te whakatipu kai tērā, me te kawe i ngā mahi taumaha e pahore ai te tuarā. Nā rātou anō tētahi wāhanga nui o ngā rawa ahuwhenua e hokona ana ki Ahitereiria, i nui ai ngā whiwhinga pūtea e riro ana i te kāwanatanga i ēnei hokonga.  

I raro i a Kāwana Kerei, ka tautoko tonu te Karauna i ngā whāinga ohaoha a te Māori. Engari i kīia ēnei kaupapa a Kerei e ōna kaiwhakahē he kaupapa here “parāoa me te huka”. I hoatu hoki he moni taurewa ki ngā hapori Māori mō ngā hanga pēnei i te mira parāoa, i te taputapu ahuwhenua me te kaipuke. I hoatu anō he penihana me tētahi utu ā-tau ki ōna anō rangatira nui te mana.

Ka kōkiri anō a Kerei i te “whakakotahitanga” o ngā iwi mā tana kuhu moni autaia tonu ki roto i ngā hōhipera. Ahakoa i wātea ngā hōhipera nei ki te katoa, i puta he painga ki te iwi Māori.  Ka tautoko ā-pūtea anō ngā kura mihingare i te hunga rapu mātauranga. Ahakoa te kore i tino whakapono, tētahi ki tētahi, i te tīmatanga, ka tae ki ngā 1850, kua pai ake te haere kōtui o ngā iwi e rua i raro i te Tiriti. 

next story.

Up.


Kāore e arohia ngā tohutō i roto i ngā mahi kimi.

Kia ngāwari, kia horo ai te pānui

Haere ki te hītori poto

 

NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

The first Government settlement on the Waitemata River, 1 October 1840. Artist: John Johnson.
Te kāinga Kāwanatanga tuatahi i te awa o Waitematā, i te 1 o Oketopa 1840. 

Image: ATL E-216-f-115
© Image copyright conditions

Hone Heke fells the flagstaff flying the British flag at Kororāreka. Artist: Arthur David McCormick (1908 book illustration).
Ka tuaina e Hone Heke te pou haki kei reira nei te haki o Ingarangi e kakapa ana, i Kororāreka.

Image: ATL A-004-037
© Image copyright conditions

Robert FitzRoy seated at a writing desk, circa 1860, photographed by Muall and Polyblank of London.
Ko Robert FitzRoy e noho ana i tētahi tēpu tuhituhi, i te takiwā o te tau 1860. 

Image: ATL
PAColl-6075-33
© Image copyright conditions

Government House, Auckland in the 1840s. Artist: Edward Ashworth.
Te Whare o te Kāwanatanga, i Tāmaki-makau-rau, i ngā tau 1840 -1850. 

Image: ATL E-216-f-015
© Image copyright conditions

Portrait of Sir George Grey, 1850-1898. Photographer unidentified.
He Whakaahua o Tā Hōri Kerei, 1850-1898. 

Image: ATL PA2-2509
© Image copyright conditions

Two men seated at a dining table, one possibly Maori, one Pakeha. 1850s? Artist: Joseph Turner.
Tokorua ngā tāngata e noho ana i te tēpu kai, he Māori pea tētahi, kotahi te Pākehā. I ngā tau
1850-1860.

Image: ATL E-371-f-036
© Image copyright conditions

Rhodes, Joseph]  1826-1905: Ahuriri harbour and roadstead.  [1850s] Shows a pa and small pakeha settlement.
Te Whanga i Ahuriri me te rori i ngā tau 1850 -1860. Ka kitea he pā Māori me tētahi kāinga Pākehā iti. 

Image: ATL A-159-033
© Image copyright conditions

Maori Parliament Building, Maungakawa.
Te whare o te Pāremata Māori i Maungakawa i waenganui i te tau 1890 me te tau 1899. 

Image: ATL PAColl-0940-1
© Image copyright conditions