He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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KEI TĒNEI WĀHANGA

Kōrero Poto

Kupu Whakataki

A Aotearoa i ngā tau o ngā 1830

Te hanganga o ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi

Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni (1835)

Ngā tau i mua tata atu i te Tiriti

Ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi me te Tiriti

Te Hainatanga o te Tiriti

Ngā kōrero ake o te Tiriti

Ngā rerekētanga i ngā tauira e rua o te Tiriti

Ngā take i haina ai ētahi, i kore ai ētahi e haina

Ngā mahi whakaoti

Nga Kaupapa-Here Tōmua A Te Karauna

Te Paheke atu ki te Pakanga

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā Kaupapa-Here "Whakakotahi" me ngā Urupare a te Māori

Te Wāhanga Tuatahi o te Rautau Rua Tekau

Ka Tipu Haere te aro ki te Tiriti

Te Neke ki ngā Tāone me te Tīmatanga Hou

Ngā Taukumekume mō te Tiriti

English version of this page

Ko Te HĪtori o Te Tiriti

NgĀ tau i mua tata atu i te Tiriti

Ko ētahi atu kaupapa nui e rua i ara ake i te wāhanga whakamutunga o ngā 1830, ko te māharahara o te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi i ngā mahi hoko whenua a ngā Pākehā e noho ana ki Aotearoa, me ngā mahi a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, i tāna kaupapa “whakakoroni pūnahanaha” i Aotearoa. Ko ngā raruraru hoko whenua me te whakapau kaha a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ki te tukutuku mai i ngā tāngata ki konei noho ai, he āhuatanga kua kore i taea e te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi te karo. Āpiti atu ki tērā, ko te haere ture kore o ana tāngata i Aotearoa tētahi take me āta tirotiro ka tika.

Mai i te tīmatanga o te whakapāpā tahi a te iwi Māori me te Pākehā, kua haere ōna anō mahi hoko whenua. Ka tae ki te wā o te Tiriti, e whā ngā momo hoko whenua. Ko te tuatahi, ko ngā whakaritenga i waenga i ngā rangatira me ngā whakahaere mihingare, i hua ake i te hiahia o ngā rōpū mihingare ki te whenua hei whakatū teihana mihingare, tae atu ki ētahi atu whare, pāmu hoki mō rātou. Arā anō ngā whakaritenga tauhokohoko iti i waenga i te Māori me ngā kaipatu tohorā, ngā kaitapahi paparākau, me ngā kaihokohoko, i ētahi wā, hei whenua whakahaere pakihi, i ētahi wā, hei pito whenua mō ā rātou whānau Māori hāwhe kaihe. Ka kaha ake te tūpono uru mai o te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi ki te whakahaere i te whenua i te mutunga o te 1830, ka kaha ake anō te uru mai o ētahi tāngata arumoni i New South Wales, pērā i a William Wentworth, ki ngā mahi hoko whenua. Ka hokona e ia ngā whenua rahi tonu, mai kore e whiwhi taitara tūturu ā taihoa ake. Ko te momo hoko whenua tuawhā, ko tā te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni hoko inati i ngā whenua rahi tonu i te haurua whakatetonga o Te Ika a Māui me te haurua whakateraki o Te Waka o Māui, i ngā tau 1839-40. He nui anō ngā tautohe mō te āhua o tā rātou hoko. Arā anō ētahi mihingare i hoko whenua, ahakoa te kore e whakaae o Rānana, ka tāpui kē ai mō te Māori, kia kore ai e riro katoa atu i te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni.

Ko tētahi āhuatanga matua o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ko te whakahau kia hokona katoatia ngā whenua i Aotearoa ki te Karauna anake.

Pērā anō i te Tiriti tonu, he rerekē pea tā te Pākehā titiro ki te tikanga o tēnei mea, te hoko i te whenua, i tā te Māori. Kāore i te whakaae tahi ngā karu hītori katoa, engari he tokomaha rātou e whakaaro ana kāore te Māori i whakapono ka hokona ana te whenua, ka riro mō ake tonu atu. Ki tā te Māori, ka āhei te kaihoko mai ki te whakamahi i te whenua, i runga anō i ngā hononga tauawhiawhi i waenga i a rātou me aua Pākehā e noho tahi ana ki a rātou. Koinei anō te whakapae a te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ka tupu haere te āwangawanga o te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi ki te āhua o ngā mahi hoko whenua, ā, i te tau 1838, ka whakahaeretia e te Whare o ngā Ariki he uiuinga motuhake. Ko tā rātou i kite ai, ki te waiho kia haere tonu, taihoa pea ka pakaru mai te riri i Aotearoa. Kāore te Kāwanatanga i hiahia kia pērā, inā e kumea tonutia ana ōna whakaaro e ngā rōpū atawhai. Ko tētahi āhuatanga matua o te Tiriti o Waitangi, ko te whakahau kia hokona katoatia ngā whenua i Aotearoa ki te Karauna anake, e mea ana kāore ngā tāngata tūmataiti e āhei ki te hoko whenua mai i te Māori – ka hokona katoatia ngā whenua Māori ki te Karauna. Ko te whakaaro ia, mā konei e nahanaha ake ai te āhua o ngā mahi hokohoko whenua.

Ko te hoko whenua ki te Karauna anake, he tikanga i whāia i ngā koroni katoa o Ingarangi. Hei tauira, i Amerika (i te wā i noho ai a Amerika hei koroni nā Ingarangi), kāore i mana te hokonga o ngā whenua o te tangata whenua mēnā i hokona tikahia mai i a rātou e ngā kaihoko tūmataiti, e ngā mana ā-rohe rānei.

Me kōrero anō te Pūtahi o Niu Tīreni, i tū mai i te tau 1837, i huri ki te Kamupene Whakakoroni o Niu Tīreni i te tau 1838. He tūātinitini ngā kōrero mōna me tana hononga ki te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi. Heoi anō, ko te whakapono o te hunga whakatairanga i te Kamupene (ko E.G. Wakefield tana kaihautū), ko te neke a ngā tāngata o Ingarangi ki whenua kē noho ai te rongoā mō ngā raruraru pāpori o Ingarangi. Kua whakatūria kētia e rātou tētahi koroni whai hua ki Ahitereiria ki te Tonga (1834), ā, kua tahuri ki te āta whakatakoto mahere mō ngā paenoho Pākehā i Aotearoa. I te mutunga o te tau 1839, ka wehe mai ētahi tāngata e hia rau nei i Ingarangi, e whai ana kia rarau tā rātou noho ki Aotearoa. Engari kāore anō tēnei wawata o rātou kia whakaaetia e te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi.

I te wā e haere tonu ana ngā whiriwhiri a te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi me te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, i te titiro anō te Kāwanatanga ki ētahi ara e hurihia ai a Aotearoa hei wāhanga o Ingarangi. (Heoi, kia maumahara tātou ehara a Aotearoa i te whāinga mātāmua a te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi, a te Tari o ngā Koroni rānei i ērā wā, e warea kē ana a Ingarangi ki a Āwherika ki te Tonga me Kānata.) E taukumea ana te āhua o te urutomo mai. Kua toro mai a Kāpene William Hobson (a Te Hopihona), kaihautū o te HMS Rattlesnake, ki Aotearoa i te Haratua o te tau 1937, ā, ko tāna atu ki te Kāwana o New South Wales, me whiwhi “taitara ā-ture te Karauna mō ētahi takiwā torutoru nei, tae atu ki ētahi i Pēwhairangi”. I ēnei paenoho tauhokohoko iti, ka whakatūria he kōti, nāwai nāwai ā, ka horapa haere te mana o Ingarangi ki te nuku o te whenua.

Nō te 30 Haratua 1839 te whakatau kia tāpiria ētahi wāhi o Aotearoa ki ngā whenua ake o Ingarangi. Nā Lord Normanby, te Hēkeretari mō ngā Koroni, tēnei whakatau. Nō te Pipiri 1839 ka hainahia e Kuini Wikitōria he momo pānui ōkawa e kīia nei he ‘Letters Patent’. Nā tēnei pānui i whakarerekē ngā taitapa o New South Wales kia uru mai ai “ērā o ngā whenua o te huinga moutere i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa e karangatia nei ko Niu Tīreni tērā ka taka ki raro i te maru o te Kuini”. Nō reira i te whakahautanga kua riro i te Karauna te mana o te whenua o Aotearoa i te tau 1840, ka noho kē a Aotearoa hei wāhanga o te koroni o New South Wales.

He kaha tonu te ngarengare o ngā tohutohu kia uru te katoa o Aotearoa ki roto i ngā whakaritenga, me te whakaaro anō ka puta ngā painga ki te Māori ina pērā te āhua.

Ka tuhia ngā tohutohu mā Hopihona i waenga o te tau 1839, kātahi ka tukuna ki a ia i te Akuhata. Nā te rerenga mai o ngā kaipuke o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni ki te takiwā o Te Moana o Raukawa, ka tohutohungia a Hopihona kia whakapau kaha ki te tāpiri i te katoa o Aotearoa ki raro i te maru o Ingarangi, mēnā ia i whakaae e tika ana. Engari kāore i te tino mōhiotia pēhea rawa te awe o Hopihona i roto i tēnei mahi. He kaha tonu te ngarengare o ngā tohutohu kia uru te katoa o Aotearoa ki roto i ngā whakaritenga, me te whakaaro anō ka puta ngā painga ki te Māori ina pērā te āhua. Kua oti i te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi te whakatau he “mana ā-ngutu noa” te mana Māori i tērā wā, ā, ko ngā painga o te tiaki a Ingarangi i a rātou “ka nui noa atu i ngā painga o te pupuri tonu ki tō rātou mana motuhake, he mana kua kore hoki e taea e rātou te pupuri kia mau”.

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Kāore e arohia ngā tohutō i roto i ngā mahi kimi.

Kia ngāwari, kia horo ai te pānui

Haere ki te hītori poto

 

NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

Heaphy, Charles  1820-1881: [Birdseye view of Port Nicholson, in New Zealand, shewing the site of the town of Wellington, the river and valley of the Hutt and adjacent country, taken from the charts and drawings made during Col[one]l Wakefield's survey, [1839] and now in the possession of the New Zealand Company.  Drawn, lithographed by T. Allom [from a drawing by Charles Heaphy].  Printed by Hullmandel & Walton.  London, Published by Trelawney Saunders, [1843?].
Pōneke, 1839.

Image: ATL
C-029-006-b

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Artist unknown: William Deans and his brother squatted at Riccarton in front of the R[iver] Otakaroa or the Putaukanuit [?] R[iver], the Avon, in 1843 on the farm abandoned by Dodd & Davis, which was a little colony of itself on which they had expended several hundred - the plains around them are rich and ready for the plough at the back of the farm is a wood of 300 acres (only 50 - Godley).  [Between 1844 and 1851].
a William Deans me tana teina i Riccarton, Ōtautahi, 1843.

Image: ATL
A-195-017

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[Bowring, Walter Armiger]  1874-1931: [Jillett's whaling station on Kapiti Island, 1844] - [1907?].
Te teihana patu tohorā o Jillett, i Kapiti, 1844.

Image: ATL
D-018-012

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Noyce, E: Embarking for the land of gold in hope.  Taking leave of old England. [/ E. Noyce]. 68 Basinghall Street [London?], Bauerricher & Co, [Between 1852 and 1860].
Ētahi whānau e noho ana ki ō rātou pāhi i te wāpu, i Ingarangi, i te takiwā o ngā 1850, e tatari ana kia rere tō rātou kaipuke (ki Ahitereiria, ki Aotearoa rānei).

Image: ATL
E-079-002

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[Heaphy, Charles]  1820-1881: The "Cuba" at anchor, in a N.W. breeze, at Port Nicholson heads, 1840, an original drawing by Chas Heaphy, then draughtsman to N.Z.Company [1839].
Te Cuba kua tuku i tana punga, i tētahi hau uru-mā-raki, i te pūaha o Pöneke, 1840.

Image: ATL
A-144-003

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