He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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KEI TĒNEI WĀHANGA

Kōrero Poto

Kupu Whakataki

A Aotearoa i ngā tau o ngā 1830

Te hanganga o ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi

Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni (1835)

Ngā tau i mua tata atu i te Tiriti

Ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi me te Tiriti

Te Hainatanga o te Tiriti

Ngā kōrero ake o te Tiriti

Ngā rerekētanga i ngā tauira e rua o te Tiriti

Ngā take i haina ai ētahi, i kore ai ētahi e haina

Ngā mahi whakaoti

Nga Kaupapa-Here Tōmua A Te Karauna

Te Paheke atu ki te Pakanga

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā Kaupapa-Here "Whakakotahi" me ngā Urupare a te Māori

Te Wāhanga Tuatahi o te Rautau Rua Tekau

Ka Tipu Haere te aro ki te Tiriti

Te Neke ki ngā Tāone me te Tīmatanga Hou

Ngā Taukumekume mō te Tiriti

English version of this page

Ko Te HĪtori o Te Tiriti

Te kŌti whenua mĀori

I te tau 1862 ka whakamanaia e te Whare Pāremata o Aotearoa tētahi Ture Whenua Māori. I runga i tēnei ture, ka āhei ngā kaiwhakanoho ki te hoko tika mai i ngā whenua Māori. I mua atu i tērā, hāunga tētahi wā poto i ngā tau waenga o ngā 1840, kāore i whakaaetia tā rātou pēnei.   

Nā tēnei ture anō o te tau 1862 i kaha ai te whai wāhi a te Māori ki te whiriwhiri nō wai ngā whenua Māori. Tekau mā tahi ngā Māori i meatia hei kaiwhakawā o te pūnaha kōti ā-rohe nei. He mea whakamātau te pūnaha nei i Te Tai Tokerau, ā, i āhua whai hua tonu.

Engari ka turakina tēnei, ka tū mai he tikanga hou i te tau 1865. Ko tēnei tikanga hou, he Kōti Whenua Māori kotahi e whakahaeretia ana e te Pākehā, he tata ake ki te pūnaha ture a ngā kaiwhakanoho, kaua ngā tikanga Māori. Ka heke te tūranga o ngā kaiwhakawā Māori ki tō te āteha noa iho, ā, kua kore  rātou i āta whai wāhi ki te whiriwhiringa o ngā take i uru mai ai ngā tikanga Māori. Kāore i whakatūria he kaiwhakawā he paku toto Māori anō ōna tae rawa ki te tau 1923.

Tērā anō ngā kaiwhakawā Pākehā e whakatū whakawānga ana ki ngā tāone. I te nuinga o te wā e noho tawhiti ana rātou i ngā whenua e whakawāngia ana, ā, tērā ka haere tonu te whakawānga mō ētahi marama. Me te aha, ka tino nui te utu ki ngā Māori i whai wāhi atu. Ka āhei te tangata takitahi, ahakoa nōna ake te whenua, kāore rānei, ki te tono kia āta tirohia te taitara. I ētahi wā ka mate te hapori nui tonu ki te tomo i te kōti, i te mea me tāpae ā-tinana rawa ngā taunakitanga i te rā tonu o te whakawānga, koirā anake i whakaaetia e te kōti. Ki te kore ngā kaipupuri whenua taketake e whakaae ki te puta ake, ki te kore rānei e mōhio e tirohia ana ō rātou whenua, tērā tonu ngā whenua te whakawhiwhia ai ki tangata kē.

Riro ana ko te kaha raruraru i te noho nama tētahi tikanga i whāia nuitia e ngā kaihoko whenua nukarau. He maha ngā whiriwhiringa hoko whenua kua kitea e ngā karu hītori i pēnei teāhua.

Arā anō ētahi kaitono i whakapūmautia tō rātou taitara ki te whenua, engari nā te nui o ngā moni i pau (ki ngā utu kōti, ngā rōia, ngā kaiwhakapākehā, ngā kairūri, ngā hōtēra, ngā aha atu) ka mate rātou ki te hoko atu i ētahi pānga ki ngā whenua i whakawhiwhia rā rātou. Riro ana ko te kaha raruraru i te noho nama tētahi tikanga i whāia nuitia e ngā kaihoko whenua nukarau. He maha ngā whiriwhiringa hoko whenua kua kitea e ngā karu hītori i pēnei te āhua. 

I pīia e te kōti ngā tikanga Māori tuatinitini e pā ana ki te pupuri me te tuku whenua, ka arohia kētia ko tētahi pūtoi ture māmā. Me uaua ka arohia ngā rerekētanga i waenga i ngā tikanga a tēnā iwi, a tēnā, me pēhea rānei e āhei mai ai ngā rōpū maha ki ngā rawa o tētahi pito whenua kotahi. Nā konei i taka ai ētahi iwi i puta ki te kōti ki te ngangare tahi, ā, kua whakataetae mō ngā whenua i whakaaetia i mua atu kia noho ki a rāua tahi.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori: he hanga wāwāhi i te pupuri a te iwi i te whenua

E whakaae ana te nuinga o ngā karu hītori, ko te tino whāinga o te kōti, he muku atu i te noho o ngā whenua ki te hapori, me te akiaki i te Māori kia hoko i ana whenua ki a tauiwi, ehara kau ana ko te huri noa i ngā whenua taitara Māori taketake kia noho hei whenua e puritia ana i raro i te karāti a te Karauna. He āhuatanga ēnei i wāwāhi haere i te mana ā-iwi. I whakaataria ēnei whāinga e rua i te āhua o te tuku i ngā taitara whenua. 

I raro i te Ture o te tau 1865, me kī ka whakaritea kia noho ia pito whenua ki ētahi kaipupuri 10, iti ake rānei. Ka mahi te Pāremata ki te whakamārama ko ngā tāngata 10 ka whakaingoatia, ka noho noa iho hei kaitiaki mā te whānuitanga atu o te iwi. Engari kāore tēnei whakaaro i paku arohia e te Kaiwhakawā Matua tuatahi, e Francis Dart Fenton. Ki tāna, ehara ko te “puritanga e te hapori” te whāinga o te Ture. Me te aha, riro atu ana i te tokomaha tonu o ngā Māori ō rātou whenua.  

Kāore he whakaritenga i roto i te ture mō te tū ā-rōpū a ngā kaipupuri Māori takitini kia 1894 rawa te tau.

Tērā anō te Ture Whenua Māori hou o te tau 1873, ko tana whakahau, me whakarārangi rawa te ingoa i ia kaipupuri ki te taitara, engari kua kore i taea te taitara te tuku ki te hapū, ki te iwi rānei (e taea ana hoki tēnei i raro i te Ture o te tau 1865, ahakoa kāore i whakatinanatia). Nā reira i kaha kē atu ai te kōkiri a te ture hou i te pupuri takitahi. Ka āhei ia tangata i whakaingoatia ki te hoko i ōna pānga me te kore tonu e whakapā atu ki ērā atu kaipupuri. Kāore he whakaritenga i roto i te ture mō te tū ā-rōpū a ngā kaipupuri Māori takitini kia 1894 rawa te tau. Me kī pēnei noa ake, ko te pupuri ā-iwi i te whenua i tohea e Wiremu Kīngi i Waitara i te tau 1860, he mea āta turaki kia kore rawa.

Ka kite iho ngā hapori maha tonu kua riro ō rātou whenua hei taitara pepa noa iho e puritia ana e ngā tāngata takitahi kāore i noho haepapa ki te iwi. Heoi anō te mahi whaihua e taea ana, ko te hoko atu i te whenua. 

Te kaupapa hoko whenua: mai i ngā 1870 haere ake

Mai i ngā tau tuatahi o ngā 1870 ka whakapau kaha anō te Karauna ki te āta hoko i ngā whenua Māori. Ko ngā kaupapa here manene, rawa tūmatanui a Sir Julius Vogel te tūāpapa. Waihoki, kāore i ārikarika te hoko a te Karauna i ngā whenua Māori i te wāhanga tuatahi o te rautau rua tekau. Nō te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao i āhua whāmutua ai. I taua wāhanga tuatahi o te rautau rua tekau he tata ki te toru hauwhā o Te Ika a Māui kua ngaro atu i te iwi Māori. I Te Waipounamu, kua riro noa atu te nuinga o ngā whenua i te Karauna i mua i te tau 1865, ā, he iti ake i te kotahi ōrau e toe tonu ana ki te Māori.

Ehara i te mea he mea hoko rawa ēnei whenua katoa. I raro i te Ture Rawa Tūmatanui o te tau 1864 me ētahi ture anō o muri mai, i whakaaetia te tango noa i ngā whenua Māori (tae atu ki ō te Pākehā) hei hanga huarahi, ara rerewhenua, tae atu ki ētahi atu ratonga tūmatanui, me te kore tonu e utu moni paremata mō aua whenua i ētahi wā. He maha ngā tauira o ngā whenua Māori i tangohia pēneitia, engari ka waiho noa ngā whenua Pākehā e pātata ana. I ētahi wā ka kōpikopiko rawa ngā ara kia āta haerehia ai ngā whenua Maōri, kaua ngā whenua Pākehā. Ko tētahi atu nawe o te iwi Māori, arā ētahi whenua i tangohia hei whakatū kura, karekau kē i whakamahia mō tērā kaupapa, kāore rānei i whakahokia ki a rātou. Ki tā rātou anō, ka mate rātou ki te utu reti ki te mana ā-rohe, engari kāore ō rātou māngai i runga i aua whakahaere, kāore rānei rātou i whiwhi i ngā ratonga e tika ana.

Te Māori i roto i te Whare Pāremata

Me uaua ka whiriwhiri tahi te Karauna ki te iwi Māori mō te whenua me te ture whenua te take, ahakoa ko te tikanga koinei tonu te tāhuhu o te haere kōtui a te Maōri me te Karauna i raro i te Tiriti. I te tau 1867 ka whakatūria ētahi tūru Māori rangitahi e whā ki te Whare Pāremata – ko tētahi take i pēnei ai, he mataku nō te Karauna kei pōkia ngā rohe pōti Pākehā e te huhua o Māori mā kua āhei ki te pōti i te mea kua whiwhi taitara whenua takitahi. I muri mai ka puta te whakahē a te iwi Māori e mea ana mēnā i whāia te ōrau o te iwi Māori i te taupori, e tika ana kia 20 neke atu ngā tūru ki a rātou.

Ka tāpaea e ngā mema Māori ētahi pire maha tonu e whai ana kia whakatinanatia te Tiriti, ā, kia kaha ake te whakataki a te iwi Māori i a ia anō. Engari ka takahē ēnei i ngā ringa pōti o ngā mema Pākehā. He maha ngā hapori Māori i whakatū i ō rātou ake komiti ā-iwi hei mahi i ngā mahi o te Kōti Whenua Maōri, engari i whakaaetia ēnei hei rōpū whakamaherehere noa i te kōti, kaua hei kōti ake. 

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Judge Frederick Edward Manning’s courthouse, the first Native Land Court, Onoke, Hokianga. Photographed in 1909 by an unidentified photographer.
Te whare kōti o Tiāti Frederick Edward Manning, arā, o Te Manene i Ōnoke, i Hokianga. Koinei te Kōti Whenua Māori tuatahi. 

Image: ATL
PAColl-7081-36
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A crowd gathered at Ahipara on Māori Land Court day. On the right is W J Ried’s house.
Tētahi huinga ki Ahipara i te rā i whakaritea hei nohonga mō te Kōti Whenua Māori. Kei te taha matau ko te whare o W J Reid. 

Image: ATL 1/2-026780-F
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Portrait of Sir Julius Vogel. Photograph taken by Morris circa 1870s.
He whakaahua o Tā Julius Vogel.

Image: ATL 1/2-005288
© Image copyright conditions

Maori Committee meeting in Wellington, 1913.
Te Komiti Māori e hui ana i Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, i te tau 1913.

Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Ref: B-019453
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