He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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KEI TĒNEI WĀHANGA

Kōrero Poto

Kupu Whakataki

A Aotearoa i ngā tau o ngā 1830

Te hanganga o ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi

Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni (1835)

Ngā tau i mua tata atu i te Tiriti

Ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi me te Tiriti

Te Hainatanga o te Tiriti

Ngā kōrero ake o te Tiriti

Ngā rerekētanga i ngā tauira e rua o te Tiriti

Ngā take i haina ai ētahi, i kore ai ētahi e haina

Ngā mahi whakaoti

Nga Kaupapa-Here Tōmua A Te Karauna

Te Paheke atu ki te Pakanga

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā Kaupapa-Here "Whakakotahi" me ngā Urupare a te Māori

Te Wāhanga Tuatahi o te Rautau Rua Tekau

Ka Tipu Haere te aro ki te Tiriti

Te Neke ki ngā Tāone me te Tīmatanga Hou

Ngā Taukumekume mō te Tiriti

English version of this page

Ko Te HĪtori o Te Tiriti

KŌRERO POTO

Me kī pēnei noa ake, ko tēnei mea te hītori, he taukumekume i waenga i ngā whakamāoritanga maha o ngā āhuatanga kua pā i ngā rā o mua. E taea ana ngā hītori katoa te taukumekume, ā, kua roa ngā karu hītori e taukume ana i ngā hiahia me te mārama o ngā āpiha Karauna me ngā rangatira Māori i whai wāhi ki te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840. E whai ana tēnei kōrero poto mō te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te whakaata i ngā māramatanga o nāianei e whakaaetia nuitia ana mō te Tiriti me ngā hononga o te Karauna me te iwi Māori i tērā wā.

I te tīmatanga: ngā tau 1830

I Aotearoa i te tau 1840, 100,000 pea ngā Māori, ā, he tino tokoiti ngā Pākehā – ko te nuinga, he kaipatu tohorā, he kaipatu kekeno, he kaihokohoko rānei – tae atu anō ki ngā mihingare i tukuna mai hei whakawhere i ngā Māori kia tahuri ki te whakapono Karaitiana. He tokomaha ngā mihingare i hāpai i ngā mahi tautiaki i ngā tāngata whenua o te ao, kāore i pai ki ngā mahi hē, mahi ture kore a ētahi o ngā Pākehā e noho ana ki Aotearoa i tērā wā. I kaha anō te tautoko mai a ētahi o te Tari Koroni i Ingarangi i ngā mihingare nei. I te āwangawanga hoki ngā mana o te Emepaea kei whakakā ngā Pākehā ture kore i te riri ki te Māori, ā, ka mate te Tari ki te whakapau moni nui tonu ki te pēpēhi i te whawhai. 

Ka tae ki ngā 1830, kua tīmata te here a Ingarangi i ngā mahi a ngā kaiwhakanoho, ā, i te tau 1832 ka whakatūria a James Busby (Te Pūhipi) hei māngai whaimana i Pēwhairangi. Ahakoa kāore a Ingarangi i tino kaikā kia riro i a ia te mana whakahaere o te whenua nei, kāore rātou i hiahia kia tangohia a Aotearoa e tētahi atu o ngā whenua o Ūropi mō rātou ake. 

Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni, 1835

I te tau 1835 ka kumea e Te Pūhipi ngā whakaaro o ngā rangatira tokomaha o Te Tai Tokerau kia haina i te W[h]akaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni. Ko tā te whakaputanga nei, he whakapūmau i te “Kīngitanga” me te “mana i te w[h]enua” o te "w[h]akaminenga o ngā hapū o Nu Tīreni". Engari i te mutunga iho, he tuhinga niho kore.

Ka kaha ake te whakaaro me āta whai wāhi atu a Ingarangi. Ko tētahi take i pēnei ai, ko te aranga ake o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, he rōpū kōkuhu moni tūmataiti ko te “whakakoroni pūnahanaha” tā rātou whāinga nui. Ko te hokonga inati o ngā whenua Māori tētahi mahi hē i hiahia ai te hunga atawhai tangata kia tere haukotia.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi, 1840   (Treaty of Waitangi, 1840)

Ka tae rawa ki te tau 1839, kua kore i taea e te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi te kore e aro mai ki ngā āhuatanga i Aotearoa. I te Ākuhata ka tonoa mai a William Hobson (Te Hopihona) ki te whiriwhiri tahi ki a ngāi Māori kia riro ai i Ingarangi te mana whenua o ngā wāhi o Aotearoa e whakaaro ana ia e tika ana. 

Ka tae a Te Hopihona ki Pēwhairangi i te Hānuere 1840, me te pānui ka āta tirohia te katoa o ngā hokonga whenua. He mea whakamāori te Tiriti e te mihingare nei a Henry Williams (Te Karuwhā), ka tāpaea ki te aroaro o ngā rangatira Māori āhua 500 i te 5 Pepuere 1840. I te rā o muri mai ka hainatia e ētahi rangatira āhua 40. Hepetema rawa ake, kua hainatia ētahi tauira o te Tiriti puta noa i te motu e ngā rangatira āhua 500, he wāhine anō ētahi. Ko te tino nuinga i haina i tētahi tauira reo Māori.

Te mana whenua

Kua noho ngā rerekētanga i waenga i te tauira reo Pākehā me te tauira reo Māori hei tautohenga mā ngā karu hītori. I whakaae ngā rangatira Māori i raro i te Tiriti ka tukuna te mana kāwanatanga ki te Karauna. Engari ko te mea e tautohea ana, āe rānei i mōhio rātou ka pā atu anō tēnei mana whakahaere ki ā rātou ake kawenga (ka pā noa rānei ki ā tauiwi), i mārama rānei rātou ki te tikanga o te ‘sovereignty’, koia te kupu i whakamahia i te tauira reo Pākehā. Ā, he mea nui ki te Māori te kupu ā-waha, nō reira he rite te mana o ngā whakamārama i puta i te waha o Te Hopihona ki tērā o ngā kupu i tuhia.

I kōrero nuitia e Te Hopihona ngā painga ka puta ki te iwi Māori i te Tiriti, me te whakaiti i te pānga o te kāwanatanga ki te rangatiratanga. Ko te rangatiratanga hoki te mea i whakapūmautia ki ngā rangatira i te Atikara II o te Tiriti reo Māori. I te rongonga ake ka toitū tonu tō rātou mana, whakaae tonu atu ētahi rangatira ki te haina i te kirimana. Arā anō ētahi i haina, engari me te ngākaurua anō. Ā, ko ētahi anō i kape i te Tiriti, ā, arā ētahi kāore i tae atu te Tiriti ki a rātou.

Ka puta te kupu a te Tari Koroni e mea ana ko ngā hapori katoa ka taka ki raro i te Tiriti, tae atu ki ērā kāore i haina. Engari kāore anō i tatū ka pēhea rawa te haere kōtui o te mana whenua i riro i a Ingarangi me te rangatiratanga o ngā Māori. Ka pānuitia te mana whenua ki runga o Aotearoa whānui i te 21 Mei 1840. I te tau 1841 ka riro hei koroni motuhake.

Nō te Hepetema 1842 ka mate a Hopihona. Ko Robert Fitzroy (Te Pitiroi) te kāwana hou, nāna i whakaū ētahi whakaritenga i raro i te ture hei hāpai i ngā tikanga Māori. Engari anō te kāwana o muri mai i a ia, a Hōri Kerei, ko tāna, he whai kia tere whenumi te iwi Māori ki roto i te iwi Pākehā. Heoi, i pōturi tonu te rongo tūturu i te pānga o te Tiriti, ā, e tino hāngai ana tēnei ki ngā takiwā he Māori te nuinga o ngā tāngata e noho ana ki reira.

Te ngaronga o te whenua me te awe: ngā 1850 ki ngā 1870

E taetae tonu mai ana ngā kaiwhakanoho, ā, i te tau 1852 ka takoto he kaupapa taketake e tuku ana i te mana kāwanatanga ki a rātou. Ka hē kē atu i konā te hononga Tiriti. Kāore i uru he Māori ki te Whare Pāremata kia 1867 rawa te tau. Ka nui tō rātou āwangawanga i te rironga atu o te mana tūturu i te kāwana ki ngā kaiwhakanoho. Me te āwangawanga anō o ngā rangatira tokomaha i te rironga o te whenua. I ngā tau tuatahi o ngā 1860, kua riro te nuinga o Te Waipounamu me tētahi haurima pea o Te Ika a Māui i ngā ringaringa o tauiwi. Ko tētahi o ngā urupare a te iwi Māori, he whakatū i te Kīngitanga i te tau 1858. Ki tā te kāwanatanga, he tukituki tā ēnei momo kaupapa i te mana whenua o te Karauna.

Nō te tau 1860 i hū ai te riri i Taranaki, ka toro ki roto o Waikato i te tau 1863, ahu atu ki Te Puku o te Ika. Nō te tau 1872 rawa i mutu ai te horapa haere. Ka whakatūria he ture i te tau 1863 i taea ai e te kāwanatanga te tango ngā whenua o ngā Māori i uru ki te pakanga. Ka nui te whakatakariri o te iwi Māori i tēnei āhua. Arā hoki ētahi Māori kāore i whawhai, i whawhai rānei i te taha o te Karauna, i tangohia anō hoki ko ō rātou whenua.

Nā te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1862 i āhei ai ngā kaiwhakanoho ki te hoko i ngā whenua Māori i muri i te tirohanga nō wai ake aua whenua. Ko te whakaaro ia, ka uru he Māori ki roto i ēnei āhuatanga, engari i turakina te Ture i te tau 1865, ka tū kē mai he pūnaha kōti ōkawa ake e kaha hāpai ana i ngā tikanga ture Pākehā, e whakakaha ake ana i te awe o ngā kaiwhakawā Pākehā.

Nō te hapori kē ngā pito whenua Māori, ehara nō te tangata takitahi. Engari ka whakawhiwhia e te kōti ngā taitara ki ngā tāngata takitahi, me te aha, kua kore i noho mā te rangatira me te iwi e whakataki ngātahi ō rātou whenua.  Ka āhei noa te tangata nōna te ingoa e mau ana ki te taitara ki te hoko i tana pānga whenua, kāore he tirotiro, kāore he aha.

Ahakoa arā ētahi iwi i whai kia hokona rautakihia ō rātou whenua, kāore i tino nui tō rātou awe i roto i te hokonga o te whenua. Kotahi mano, e iwa rau rawa ake te tau, kua riro tētahi wāhanga nui o Te Ika a Māui, nā te nui o te utu hei kawe i ngā nawe ki te kōti, me te tukunga o ngā taitara takitahi.

Te aro nui ki ngā nawe: ngā 1890 ki ngā 1970

I roto i ngā tau ka kaha kē atu te tahuri a te iwi Māori ki te Tiriti hei tiaki i a rātou i ngā mahi hē a te Karauna, engari kāore i tutuki tō rātou hiahia kia whakatūturutia. Ka whakatūria he Pāremata Maōri i ngā 1890, engari kāore i whakaaetia e te kāwanatanga. Ka whakatūria anō hoki te Kauhanganui, he whakakaha ake tēnei i te Kīngitanga.

Heoi anō, ka mau tonu te Karauna ki te whakaaro me whakawhenumi te Māori ki roto i te porihanga Pākehā. Ka waiho mā ngā kaiwhakawā e whakawā i roto i ngā hapori Māori, i runga i te ture Pākehā. Ko tōna haurua o te taupori Māori i tuku i ā rātou tamariki ki ngā Kura Māori. He tokomaha ngā kaihautū o te ao Māori i kuraina tuatahitia i ngā Kura Māori nei.

I te wāhanga tuatahi o te rautau rua tekau, i whaihua ētahi o ngā whakapaunga kaha a Apirana Ngata, a Māui Pōmare, a Te Rangihīroa mā, me ētahi anō o te Young Māori Party. Hei tauira, arā ngā pūtea i whakaritea hei whakapai ake i ngā whenua e puritia tonutia ana e te iwi Māori.  Nō ngā 1920 ngā takahanga tuatahi ki te whakatika i ngā mahi hē i pā ki te Māori, inā i utua he moni paremata mō ētahi roto. 

I āhua ora ake te iwi Māori i muri i te tau 1935. I iti ake te ōrau o ngā kōhungahunga e mate ana, i pai ake anō hoki ētahi atu waitohu pāpori. Ka kaha ake te whakanuitia o te rā i hainatia tuatahitia ai te Tiriti, arā, te 6 Pēpuere, me te rūpeke atu o te mātinitini ki Waitangi i ia tau. I te tau 1960 ka tohua te Rā o Waitangi hei “rā whakanui ā-motu”. I te tau 1973, ka meatia hei rā whakatā tūmatanui.

Te whakatau i ngā take: mai i te tau 1975

Nā te Ture mō te Tiriti o Waitangi 1975 ka whakamanatia te Tiriti i roto i te ture. He mea whakatū te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei tirotiro i ngā take Māori, engari ko ngā āhuatanga anake mai i te tau 1975 i whakaaetia kia tirohia. Heoi, i te tau 1985 ka whakawhānuitia atu te awe o te Rōpū kia taea ai e ia te tiro whakamuri ki ngā take i pā mai i te tau 1840. I konei ka noho ko te whakataunga o ngā take tētahi arotahinga nui a te iwi Māori.

Arā ētahi tāngata e whakapono ana nā ngā mautohe me ngā riri o te iwi Māori mō ngā take Tiriti mai i ngā 1970, kua hē te noho tahi a ngā tāngata katoa o Aotearoa; arā anō ētahi e mea ana ko te roa kē o te wā e takahia ana te Tiriti, koirā kē te take i raru ai tā tātou noho. Ahakoa pēhea, nā te iti o tō tātou nei porihanga me ngā hononga maha i waenga i te iwi Māori me te iwi Pākehā, e kore e taea te karo ngā ueuetanga i te hapori e hua ake ana i ngā tautohetohe mō te Tiriti.

Ko ētahi tāngata ka tiro whakamuri rā anō ki ngā kī taurangi o te tau 1840 e mau mai ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, te tuhinga taketake o Aotearoa, me te wānanga i te wāhi ki ēnei kī taurangi i roto i Aotearoa i ēnei rā.



Kāore e arohia ngā tohutō i roto i ngā mahi kimi.

NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

French sailors assisted by Māori hauling fishing lines in from the sea at Kororāreka beach in 1835. Artist: Barthelemy Lauvergne.
He heremana Wīwī e āwhinatia ana e ētahi Māori ki te tō i ngā aho hī ika i te moana, i te takutai i Kororāreka, i te tau 1835. 

Image: ATL B-098-005
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James Busby.
James Busby.

Image: Private collection, courtesy of Alexander Turnbull Library
HC-651

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Reconstruction of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, by Marcus
      King in 1939.
He whakaahuatanga nā Marcus King, o te hainatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1939.

Image: ATL C-033-007
© Image copyright conditions

Grand reform banquet. Demonstration in favour of the immediate establishment of representative institutions in this colony, to be held at the Britannia Saloon, on Thursday, the 1st March, 1849.
He hākari nui mō te whakahou tikanga. He whakakitenga tautoko i te whakatūranga i ētahi whare pāremata i tēnei koroni, arā, kia tū wawe tonu, ka tū ki te Britannia Saloon, ā te Tāite 1 o Māehe, 1849. 

Image: ATL
Eph-D-POLITICS
-1849-01

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The camp of the Royal Artillery at Waitotara, Taranaki, 1864. Artist: Joseph Osbertus Hamley.
Te hōpuni o te Royal Artillery i Waitōtara, i Taranaki, i te tau 1864. 

Image: ATL E-047-q-036
© Image copyright conditions

A Fernhill family group photographed outside their whare in 1929 by Henry Whitehead.
Tētahi whānau nō Fernhill, he mea whakaahua i waho i tō rātou whare i te tau 1929 e Henry Whitehead. 

Image: ATL G-5639-1/1
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Minister of Māori Affairs, Duncan McIntyre and the leader of Te Roopu Ote Matakite, Whina Cooper exchange greetings at Parliament in 1976.
Ko te Minita mō ngā Take Māori a Duncan McIntyre me te kaihautū o Te Roopu Ote Matakite, a Whina Cooper e mihimihi ana i te Whare Pāremata i te tau 1976. 

Image: ATL EP/1976/0596/17A
© Image copyright conditions