He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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KEI TĒNEI WĀHANGA

Kōrero Poto

Kupu Whakataki

A Aotearoa i ngā tau o ngā 1830

Te hanganga o ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi

Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni (1835)

Ngā tau i mua tata atu i te Tiriti

Ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi me te Tiriti

Te Hainatanga o te Tiriti

Ngā kōrero ake o te Tiriti

Ngā rerekētanga i ngā tauira e rua o te Tiriti

Ngā take i haina ai ētahi, i kore ai ētahi e haina

Ngā mahi whakaoti

Nga Kaupapa-Here Tōmua A Te Karauna

Te Paheke atu ki te Pakanga

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā Kaupapa-Here "Whakakotahi" me ngā Urupare a te Māori

Te Wāhanga Tuatahi o te Rautau Rua Tekau

Ka Tipu Haere te aro ki te Tiriti

Te Neke ki ngā Tāone me te Tīmatanga Hou

Ngā Taukumekume mō te Tiriti

English version of this page

Ko Te HĪtori o Te Tiriti

Te Hainatanga o te Tiriti

Nō te taenga ake o Hopihona ki Pēwhairangi i runga i te HMS Herald i te 29 Hanuere 1840, ka noho ko ia te Rūtene-Kāwana o tētahi koroni kāore anō i whakatūria, kāore anō i āta whakatauria tōna rahi. Ko ngā tohutohu a Lord Normanby ki a ia (otirā, nō James Stephen, o te Tari o ngā Koroni, te ringa tuhituhi i ngā tohutohu) kia riro i a ia te mana whakahaere i te whenua, engari kia whakaae anō ngā rangatira Māori ki tēnei āhua. Kāore i hoatu ki a Hopihona he tauira o te Tiriti. I a ia e rere mai ana ki Aotearoa, ka peka atu a Hopihona ki Poihākena, ka āta kōrerorero tahi ki a Tā George Gipps, Kāwana o New South Wales i tērā wā. Ka puta i a Gipps he pānui ōkawa e mea ana katoa ngā taitara mō ngā whenua i Aotearoa, ka mātua whakawhiwhia e te Karauna.

Ka tae ake a Hopihona ki Pēwhairangi, ka whakakorehia te tūranga o Te Pūhipi hei Rēreneti o Ingarangi. Heoi, ka tonoa a Te Pūhipi kia āwhina ki te whakarite i ngā pānui ōkawa (ki te reo Pākehā anake) e whakaatu ana kua noho ko Hopihona hei Māngai mō Ingarangi, hei Rūtene-Kāwana anō hoki, e whakamōhio ana anō hoki kāore e mana ngā mahi taunaha whenua kia whakaaetia rā anō e ngā mana hou. Ka tonoa a William Colenso (Te Koroneho), te kaitā o te mīhana CMS, kia tā mai i ēnei, me tētahi reta (ki te reo Māori anake) ka tohaina ki ngā “tino rangatira ” o te “Whakaminenga o ngā Hapū” e whakaatu ana kua tatū mai he “rangatira” i raro i te maru o te Kuini o Ingarangi “hei Kāwana hoki mō tātou”. Ka pōwhiritia ngā rangatira Māori kia tūtaki ki a ia i te Wenerei (te 5 Pepuere), i te kāinga o Busby i Waitangi.

Ka whakariterite a Hopihona me tana hēkeretari, a J.S. Freeman, i ētahi kōrero mō roto i tētahi tiriti tuku mana kia hainahia e ngā rangatira i taua hui. Mauria atu ana ngā kōrero nei ki a Te Pūhipi, hei tirotiro māna. Ki tā Te Pūhipi, kāore i eke panuku ngā kōrero. Ka kī ake ia māna e whakapai ake. Oti ana ngā mahi whakatikatika nei a Te Pūhipi i te 3 Pepuere. I te whakamātauranga tuarua ki te āta whakatakoto i ngā kōrero kia tika, ka oti mai he Tiriti e toru ōna upoko, me ētahi atu kōrero roa tonu e whakamārama ana i te kaupapa o te Tiriti. Kāore a Hopihona i pai ki aua whakamārama. Ka kuhu atu ia i ētahi kupu whakamārama poto ake hei kupu whakataki, engari ka pupuri ki ngā wāhanga e toru a Te Pūhipi. Hei whakatepe, ka tāpiria he kōwae whakatūturu.

Hoatu ana he kape o tēnei tauira ki a Henry Williams (Te Karuwhā) rāua ko tana tama, a Edward, hei whakamāori mā rāua ī te 4 Pepuere. I te 5 Pepuere, kua tae atu ki a Hopihona te tauira Māori o te Tiriti o Waitangi hei tāpae ki te aroaro o ngā rangatira e rūmene mai ana ki Waitangi i taua rā. Ka takoto te Tiriti ki mua i te aroaro o ngā rangatira āhua 500 nei i tae ake. Ka whakaekea te hui e te pō, e haere tonu ana ngā whakawhiti kōrero me ngā taukumekume. Pēnei tonu a Hopihona ka toru rā pea ngā rangatira e āta wānanga ana i te tuhinga, engari ka tonoa ia kia hoki ake i te 6 o Pepuere, i te mea e whāwhai ana ngā rangatira ki te hoki. I taua wā, ka hainahia te Tiriti e ētahi rangatira āhua 40 nei. Kātahi ka haria ki Waimate ki te Raki, ā, atu i reira ki tētahi hui nui i te Hokianga, ā, ka tāpiria ōna anō waitohu whakaae i reira. Ehara i te mea ko Waitangi anahe te wāhi i hainahia ai te Tiriti. I kawea haeretia ki ōna anō tōpito o te motu. Nō te 17 Pepuere ka tāia ētahi kape e rua rau o te Tiriti. Ka tū he hui nui ki Waitematā i te tīmatanga o Maehe, ka kohia ētahi atu waitohu whakaae i reira.

Ka tukuna he kape o te tauira Māori me tē tahi whakapākehātanga o tēnei tauira, he mea tuhi anō tēnei e Te Karuwhā.

I te 6 Pepuere, i ētahi rā tata rānei i muri mai, ka tukuna he kape o te tauira Māori me tētahi whakapākehātanga o tēnei tauira, he mea tuhi anō tēnei e Te Karuwhā, ki a Kāwana Gipps i New South Wales. E mau mai ana ngā waitohu o Hopihona me Te Karuwhā ki runga, ka tuhia anō hoki ki runga ngā kupu whakatūturu e whai ake nei (ki te reo Pākehā): “Tēnei au te whakatūturu nei ko te whakapākehātanga o runga ake nei o te Tiriti o Waitangi te mea tino tata e taea ana, inā te āhua o tēnei reo.” (Tari Rekoata Tūmatanui, Rānana, CO 209/7, 13-15). Riro ana ko tēnei whakapākehātanga o ngā kupu Māori o te Tiriti te tauira Pākehā whaimana o te Tiriti.

He tokomaha ngā karu hītori e kī ana he mea waihanga te Tiriti i runga i te pōnānā, e ngā tāngata kāore noa iho i matatau ki tērā mahi. Ko ētahi anō e kī ana he tino taunga a Gipps rāua ko Hopihona ki ērā atu tiriti i hainahia e Ingarangi me ētahi o ngā tāngata whenua i Āwherika me Āhia. E kī ana anō rātou kei wareware ngā tohutohu a Lord Normanby, he mea āta tuhituhi mārire ērā hei ārahi i a Hopihona, he whāiti anō ngā kōrero o roto mō ngā mahi hoko whenua. Ki tā rātou, i mōhio tonu a Hopihona me ana kaitohutohu e aha ana rātou i a rātou ka tuhi i ngā kōrero ake o te Tiriti (ki te reo Pākehā). Waihoki, ko ētahi anō e kī ana kāore e tino tika ana te kī i whakamāoritia te Tiriti i runga i te pōnānā. Ki tā rātou, ahakoa i oti i te pō kotahi, i mahia e tētahi tokorua i āhua matatau tonu ki te reo Māori. Arā ētahi karu hītori e mea ana me āta tirotiro anō ko te momo reo Māori i whakamahia e ngā mihingare i ērā wā, kei reira kē pea ētahi tīwhiri mō te tikanga o ētahi o ngā kupu matua. Heoi anō, ahakoa pēhea te titiro, he pono te kōrero i oti katoa ngā mahi tuhituhi, whakamāori i te Tiriti, tae atu ki te hainatanga i te 6 Pepuere 1840, i roto i ngā rā torutoru noa iho nei.

Kāore i tuhia te Tiriti i runga i te whakaaro kei a ia ngā tohutohu katoa mō te huringa o Aotearoa hei koroni i ngā tau kei te heke iho.

I pau tētahi wāhanga nui o te pō o te 5 Pepuere i a Te Karuwhā me ngā rangatira e āta whakawhiti kōrero ana mō te Tiriti me ngā hua ka puta ina whakaaetia. Ki tā ētahi karu hītori, mēnā i whakapono a Te Karuwhā, i runga i te āhua o aua kōrero, kāore te tauira Māori i paku whakaata i ngā whāinga a Ingarangi, tērā kua tono ia kia mahia ētahi whakatikatika i mua i te hainatanga. Engari kāore kau kē ia i pērā. Arā ētahi atu e mea ana tērā pea i whai tonu a Te Karuwhā kia arero-rua ētahi o ngā kupu, kia whakaaetia ai te Tiriti e ngā Māori, he whakapono nōna (pērā me te nuinga o ngā mihingare o ērā wā) he painga anō mō te Māori ki te taka a Aotearoa ki raro i te maru o Ingarangi. I ēnei rā, e arohia nuitia ana ko ngā rerekētanga i waenga i te tauira Pākehā me te tauira Māori o te Tiriti. E tino hāngai ana tēnei kōrero ki te tikanga o te kupu ‘kāwanatanga’ me te ‘rangatiratanga’, ā, i riro i a wai te mana tūturu. Engari i te wā i hainatia ai, kāore i tino kaha te wānanga i ēnei rerekētanga. Tērā pea i aro nuitia kētia ko ngā kōrero ā-waha me ngā whakamārama a Te Karuwhā. Kia maumahara anō kāore i tuhia te Tiriti i runga i te whakaaro kei a ia ngā tohutohu katoa mō te huringa o Aotearoa hei koroni i ngā tau kei te heke iho. Ki tā Ingarangi, he takahanga tōmua noa hei whakawhiti i te mana o ngā rangatira takitahi ki tētahi pūtahi whaimana kotahi. Ka mea ā, ka rongo ngā rangatira, ō rātou iwi, me tauiwi i te pānga o taua mana.

I te 1 Maehe, ka pā te roro ikura ki a Hopihona. Ka tukuna mai e Kāwana Gipps a Meiha Thomas Bunbury ki Aotearoa me tētahi punua ope taua, i tae mai i te 16 Āperira. Ka rere a Bunbury i runga i te Herald, ka tae rawa ki Rakiura i te tonga, he kohikohi waitohu haere te mahi. Hui katoa, e 50 pea ngā hui i tū puta noa i te motu, i ngā marama e whitu mai i te Pepuere ki te Mahuru o te tau 1840.

He nui ake i te 500 ngā rangatira – he wāhine tonu ētahi – i tā i ō rātou waitohu whakaae ki tētahi o ngā tānga e iwa o te Tiriti e toitū tonu ana. E puritia ana, e whakaaturia ana hoki ēnei e Te Whare Tohu Tuhituhinga o Aotearoa, i Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara. I te mea he uaua te wehewehe i ētahi o ngā ingoa, kāore i te āta mōhiotia tokohia rawa ngā rangatira i haina. Ko te tino nuinga o te hunga i haina, i hoatu i ō rātou waitohu ki tētahi o ngā tauira Māori, hāunga anō ētahi rangatira e 39 o Waikato i haina i tētahi tauira reo Pākehā i te Whanga o Manukau me Te Pūaha o Waikato (engari i reira anō pea tētahi tānga reo Māori hei tirotiro mā rātou). He mea haina anō ia tānga o te Tiriti e ōna anō kaitaunaki Pākehā rerekē i tēnā wāhi, i tēnā wāhi.

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NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

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Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

King, Marcus  1891-1977: The signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, Feb 6th, 1840   [Wellington, Free Lance]  1939.
Te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, 6 Pēpuere 1840.

Image: ATL C-033-007
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Johnson, John] 1794-1848: The first Government Settlement on the Waitemata River, 1st October 1840.
Te Paenoho Kāwanatanga tuatahi i te Awa o Waitematā, 1 Oketopa 1840.

Image: ATL E-216-f-115
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Artist unknown: The power of God's Word. [1856]. Shows Henry and William Williams calming hostile Māori by speaking extracts of the Bible in Maori.
a Henry (Te Karuwhā) rāua ko William Williams, e whakaataria ana e kauhau ana i te rongopai ki ētahi Māori pukuriri.

Image: ATL
PUBL-0151-2-013

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[Hutton, Thomas Biddulph]  1824-1886: Sketch of Henry Williams house & premises from behind Horotutu Bay of Islands N[ew] Zealand  March 1859.
He tuhinga o te kāinga o Te Karuwhā i Horotutu, Pēwhairangi, Māehe 1859.

Image: ATL A-197-011
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Hutton, Thomas Biddulph  1824-1886: A taua [1843?]. Group of 14 Māori men and women in conference on the verandah of a European house, possibly the Treaty House at Waitangi.
Ētahi wāhine, tāne Māori 14 e kōrero tahi ana i te parani o tētahi whare Pākehā, tērā pea ko te Whare o te Tiriti i Waitangi.

Image: ATL E-137-q-009
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Williams, Edward Marsh: H.M.S Herald in Sylvan Cove, Stewarts [sic] Island, 1840. [n.d.].
Te H.M.S Herald i Sylvan Cove, Rakiura, 1840.

Image: ATL A-083-005
© Image copyright conditions