He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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KEI TĒNEI WĀHANGA

Kōrero Poto

Kupu Whakataki

A Aotearoa i ngā tau o ngā 1830

Te hanganga o ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi

Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni (1835)

Ngā tau i mua tata atu i te Tiriti

Ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi me te Tiriti

Te Hainatanga o te Tiriti

Ngā kōrero ake o te Tiriti

Ngā rerekētanga i ngā tauira e rua o te Tiriti

Ngā take i haina ai ētahi, i kore ai ētahi e haina

Ngā mahi whakaoti

Nga Kaupapa-Here Tōmua A Te Karauna

Te Paheke atu ki te Pakanga

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā Kaupapa-Here "Whakakotahi" me ngā Urupare a te Māori

Te Wāhanga Tuatahi o te Rautau Rua Tekau

Ka Tipu Haere te aro ki te Tiriti

Te Neke ki ngā Tāone me te Tīmatanga Hou

Ngā Taukumekume mō te Tiriti

English version of this page

Ko Te HĪtori o Te Tiriti

Te paheke ATu ki te pakanga

I raro i te kaupapa here “whakakotahi”, ka whakamanaia e Kerei te Whakahau Kaiwhakawā ā-Takiwā 1847. Ka whakatūria he rangatira Māori ki ngā kōti hei “āteha”.  I kimihia anō ētahi Māori kia tū hei pirihimana. 

Nā ēnei mahi āna i tomo atu ai te pūnaha ture ki roto i ngā hapori Māori, i torokaha ake ai te mahi tahi a te Māori me tauiwi mō ngā kaupapa tauhokohoko. I aro anō te pūnaha ture ki ētahi whakaaro Māori mō tēnei mea te hara, me ngā momo whiu e tika ana. I pai ēnei kaupapa ki ngā Māori tokomaha, engari i āhua rūkahu a Kerei (he rite tonu tana whakangako i a ia ki ngā mana o Rānana) mō te kaha o te whakakotahitanga i raro i a ia. Ko tāna i pūrongo ai, hei aha te whakatū “Takiwā Māori” e riro ai i te Māori te mana whakahaere i āna ake kawenga. I whakaritea hoki kia tū mai ngā Takiwā nei i raro i te tekiona 71 o te Ture Kaupapa Taketake o Aotearoa 1852. 

Te nekeneke o te mana

Nā tēnei Ture anō i tuku te mana whakahaere i te motu ki ngā kaiwhakanoho.  Engari nā te noho mai o tētahi here pupuri whenua e rite ana ki ērā mō ngā whenua Pākehā, kua kore te nuinga o te iwi Māori (me ētahi Pākehā tokomaha) i āhei ki te pōti, ki te uru rānei ki ngā tikanga pāremata.  Ka kitea i konei te taukumekume a te Māori me tauiwi mō te mana te take. Ahakoa kei te kāwana te mana whakahaere i ngā take Māori, ka tū mai te rūnanga hou hei reo taikaha, hei reo tātā mō ngā hiahia o te Pākehā. Ka kite iho te iwi Māori kua nekeneke te pū o te mana. Kua neke atu i te kāwana – te māngai o te Kuīni nāna i haina te Tiriti – ki tētahi whakahaere kāore i nui te aroha ki te iwi Māori, i pare i ō rātou hiahia ki rahaki.

Ka tono ētahi rangatira nui te mana pērā i a Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi kia whai wāhi rātou ki te kāwanatanga o tō rātou ao, engari ka kaha kē atu te pīia o ēnei tono, ka kaha kē atu. I te tau 1858 ka whakamanaia ētahi ture (te Ture Waeture Takiwā Māori me te Ture Takaamionga Kōti Takiwā Māori) ko te tikanga mā konei e whai tikanga ai te uru atu a te Māori ki roto i te whakahaerenga o ā rātou ake kawenga. Engari kāore i kitea rawatia ngā hua o ēnei ture tae rawa ki ngā tau tuatahi o ngā 1860 – i tōmuri rawa tēnei hei whakarata i ētahi o ngā iwi Māori.

Te Kīngitanga

I tō rātou mataku kei riro haere tonu ō rātou whenua me tō rātou mana, ka tahuri ngā iwi maha ki te whakakaha i ō rātou rūnanga ā-iwi. Arā anō ētahi i ārahina e Waikato-Tainui ki te whakatū kīngi Māori me kore e taea ō rātou whenua me ā rātou tāngata te whītiki i ēnei wā o te pāhekeheke.

Heoi anō tā rāua i wawata ai, mā rāua e whakahaere ā rāua tāngata i raro i te maru o Kuīni Wikitōria.

Ehara, i te tau 1858, ka tū mai ko Potatau Te Wherowhero, ko ia te Kīngi Māori tuatahi. Whai i muri i a ia ko tana tama, a Tāwhiao, hei Kīngi tuarua i te tau 1860. Ko tā rāua i kī ai, kāore rāua i whakahē i te taetae mai a tauiwi ki konei noho ai, i te mana whenua rānei o te Karauna i ngā whenua o te Karauna. Heoi anō tā rāua i wawata ai, mā rāua e whakahaere ā rāua tāngata i raro i te maru o Kuīni Wikitōria, pērā anō i te Pāremata i whakahaere ana i ngā kawenga a ngā kaiwhakanoho.

Ki ētahi o tauiwi, he ara te Kīngitanga e taea ai te kuhu atu te “ture” ki ngā takiwā Māori “mana kāwanatanga kore”. Engari ki tā Hōri Kerei (i whakahokia mai hei Kāwana i muri i te tau 1861) rāua ko Thomas Gore Brown (Koa Parāone) he “rīki whenua” te Kīngitanga e āta takahi ana i te mana o te Karauna, e whakararu ana i te taetae tonu mai o tauiwi ki Aotearoa. E arotahi ana tēnei whakaaro ki ngā kupu a ētahi o ngā kaiārahi wāwāhi tahā o te Kīngitanga, engari ka noho koinei te aronga nui o te urupare a te Karauna ki te Kīngitanga. 

Te mautohe ki te hokonga o te whenua

I ngā 1850 ka kaha ake te ātete a te iwi Māori i te hokonga o ō rātou whenua. Kua whakaahuatia e ngā karu hītori ētahi tauira maha o ngā mahi māminga a ngā āpiha hoko whenua a te Karauna, tae atu ki te hoko i ngā poraka whenua ahakoa te whakaae a te tokoiti noa o te hunga nōna te whenua. Ko tētahi atu mahi nukarau, ko te whiriwhiri tahi ki ētahi rangatira tokoiti i tētahi tāone noho tawhiti i ngā whenua e hokona ana, ka whakamōhio noa i ērā atu tāngata nō rātou te whenua kua hokona kētia.

I te tau 1859 ka whakaae a Kāwana Paraone ki te hoko i ētahi whenua i Waitara, ahakoa te kaha whakahē a te rangatira nui a Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitāke, me ētahi atu kaikerēme, i tēnei mahi. Ka whakahaua e Parāone te ope taua kia tautoko i te rūritanga o te whenua nei i te Maehe 1860, ka taka ki te whawhai mau pū, kotahi tau e haere ana te riri nei. I muri mai ka whakaae a Kāwana Kerei nō te Karauna te hē, whakahokia ana te poraka ki te hunga nōna ake te whenua.

Te hui i Kohimarama, 1860

I te Hūrae o te tau 1860, ka whakarauikatia e Kāwana Parāone ētahi rangatira i whakaarotia he “kūpapa”, ki Kohimarama, i Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ko tana tūmanako, kia tautoko mai rātou i te tū a te Karauna i Taranaki. Me tana hiahia anō kia mōriroriro kē atu te Kīngitanga, i te mea i tautoko te Kīngitanga i ngā Māori i ātete i ngā hōia i Waitara. Kāore i tino kaha te hāpai a ngā rangatira i tēnei hiahia o Parāone, engari he nui atu i te 200 ngā rangatira o ngā tōpito o te motu i puta ake ki te hui, ā, i te mutunga o te hui, ka whakaūngia ngā kupu o te Tiriti o Waitangi. 

I āhua puta i te hui he kī taurangi ki te Māori e mea ana ka whai wāhi tūturu rātou ki te whakahaerenga o ngā take e pāpā ana ki a rātou.

I ngā tau o muri mai, arā ētahi iwi i piri ki te Karauna e kī ana ko te hui i Kohimarama te tīmatanga o tēnei piri tahi. Ahakoa he wā tēnei i kaha taukumekume ai te iwi Māori me te iwi Pākehā, he tata ki te kotahi marama te roa o te hui, ā, i reira ka whakapūmau ngā āpiha a te Karauna i tō rātou hiahia hāpai i te Tiriti. I āhua puta i te hui he kī taurangi ki te Māori e mea ana ka whai wāhi tūturu rātou ki te whakahaerenga o ngā take e pāpā ana ki a rātou.

Ka tono ngā rangatira i puta ake ki Kohimarama kia auau tonu te tū o ngā hui pērā. Whakaae ana a Parāone. I tō rātou pai ki te piri mai a ngā rangatira nei, ka pōti te Huinga Whānui o te Pāremata kia whakawāteatia ngā pūtea hei whakatū anō i tētahi hui. Engari i te hokinga mai o Tā Hōri Kerei hei kāwana i te tau 1861, ka whakakorehia e ia ngā whakaritenga, i te mea ki a ia he mahi heahea te “kāranga i te tokomaha o ngā Māori mohoao kia huihui ki te hanga Kaupapa Taketake mō rātou anō”. 

Ngā Rūnanga: ngā whakarauikatanga ā-iwi

Ko tāna kē i kōkiri ai, kia whakahaeretia ngā rohe Māori e ētahi rūnanga ā-iwi, heoi, ka āta tirohia ēnei e te Karauna. E whai ana tēnei whakaaro i te ture o te tau 1958, i whakakaha ake i te whakataki a te iwi Māori i a rātou anō. Ka kīia ngā rūnanga nei ngā “Whakahaere Hou”, ā, i āhua whai hua tonu i ngā rohe e āhua rata ana te Māori. Engari i ērā atu hapori Māori kua matangurunguru ki te Pākehā, e kore e taea e tēnei kaupapa te whakamauru te matakana o te iwi Māori ki te Karauna.

Ngā Pakanga o Aotearoa

Nō te Hūrae 1863 i pakaru mai ai te Riri ki Waikato. Ka urutomo ngā hōia a te Emepaea i te pū o te Kīngitanga. Ki tā te Karauna, i pērā ai i te mea taihoa ka whakaeke tētahi ope taua i raro i te Kīngitanga i Tāmaki-makau-rau. Engari kua parea tēnei whakaaro ki rahaki e ngā kaihautū o te Kīngitanga, ahakoa te hiahia o ētahi o ngā rangatira kia pērā rātou.

Ka mutu te whawhai ki Waikato i te tau 1864, i te 15 marama i muri mai. Ukuuku ana tērā te rohe, waimaero ana hoki te Kīngitanga, engari kāore i ngaro rawa. E ai ki tētahi Komihana Roera, i hua ake te whakaekenga i tētahi whakahau i puta ki ngā Māori o Waikato i muri i tō rātou huakanga e ngā hōia a te Karauna.

Ka whakahaua e te Ture Whakanoho o Aotearoa o te tau 1863 kia raupatutia ngā whenua o te “hunga tutū” – i te nuinga o te wā me te kore tonu e whakatū uiuinga, te kore rānei e wātea o ngā pātū ture e wātea ana ki ērā atu tāngata o Ingarangi (ā, ahakoa e wātea ana ētahi tikanga paremata ōkawa).

Hui katoa, he nui atu i te whā miriona eka ngā whenua Māori i raupatua.

Ka toro te riri ki ērā atu wāhi i te puku o Te Ika a Māui, ka raupatua ngā whenua rahi tonu i Waikato, i Taranaki, i Te Moana a Toi, i Te Matau a Māui (i “tautukua” rānei ki te Karauna – i pērāhia hoki ētahi i Te Moana a Toi). He rerekē te āhua o te raupatu whenua i tēnā rohe, i tēnā, engari i te nuinga o te wā, ka whakaroatia ake te ātetetanga a ngā Māori. Ko tētahi take i pēnei ai, ka uru atu anō ngā whenua o te tokomaha o ngā kūpapa ki roto i ngā whenua i raupatua.

Hui katoa, he nui atu i te whā miriona eka ngā whenua Māori i raupatua. I te mutunga iho, ko tētahi haurua pea o tēnei i utua, i whakahokia rānei ki te Māori, engari i ētahi wā kaore i whakahokia ki ngā tāngata nō rātou ake te whenua. Waihoki, kāore i whakahokia ki te iwi i raro i te taitara ā-iwi – i whakahokia ki ngā tāngata takitahi i raro i te kārati a te Karauna. 

Nō te tau 1872 rawa i mutu ai te whawhai. I tēnei wā, kua kawa haere ngā whakaaro o ngā kaiwhakanoho ki te Māori. Engari koinei anō te wā i kaha ake ai te whakawhirinaki a te Karauna ki te tautoko a ngā hōia Māori. Kua heke te tokomaha o ngā hōia a te Emepaea i te wehenga atu o ētahi i raro i te kaupapa here “kuhu i a ia anō” a te kāwanatanga kaiwhakanoho i muri i te tau 1864. E whai ana te kaupapa here i te rironga mā te minitatanga o Aotearoa (kaua te kāwana) e whakataki te whiriwhiringa o ngā take Māori katoa. Mai i tēnei wā, ka noho ko te Kāwanatanga kē o Aotearoa te “Karauna”. Engari ka mau tonu te titiro a te iwi Māori ki te Kuini me te Whare Pāremata o Ingarangi mā rātou kē te iwi Māori e tiaki.

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Kāore e arohia ngā tohutō i roto i ngā mahi kimi.

Kia ngāwari, kia horo ai te pānui

Haere ki te hītori poto

 

NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

Maori bargaining with pakeha, 1844-1846.
Ētahi Māori e hokohoko ana ki tētahi Pākehā, i te tau 1845-1846.

Image: ATL A-079-017
© Image copyright conditions

Portrait of Ngāti Haua leader, Wiremu Tamihana Tarapipipi Te Waharoa, around 1865, possibly taken during a visit to Wellington.
He whakaahua o tētahi kaihautū o Ngāti Haua, a Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapīpipi Te Waharoa, i te takiwā o te tau 1865, he mea whakaahua pea i tētahi haerenga ki Pōneke. 

ATL
Ref: F-53942-1/2
© Image copyright conditions

Whatiwhatihoe Burton Brothers reference: BB N3638 Photograph taken by the Burton Brothers (Alfred) 07.06.1885 - 10.06.1885 View of a long thatched building. There is a covered porch area at the front. Inscriptions: On lower neg - '3638 King's Palace - Whatiwhatihoe Muir & Moodie.Late Burton Bros Dunedin'(M&M added at later date).
Ko Whitiora i te kāinga o te Kīngi Māori, i Whatiwhatihoe.

Image: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa C.010004
© Image copyright conditions

 

View of Wiremu Kingi te Rangitake's Pa, March 9th 1861. Watercolour by the Commanding Officer of the 57th Regiment, Henry James Warre.
He tirohanga ki te pā o Wiremu Kīngi te Rangitāke, i te 9 o Māehe 1861. He paniwaituhi nā te Āpiha Matua o te 57th Regiment, a Henry James Warre. 

Image: ATL A-236-020
© Image copyright conditions

The site of the Kohimarama conference, the Melanesian Mission buildings at Mission Bay, Auckland. Photographed in 1860 by John Nicol Crombie. Urquhart album, Alexander Turnbull Library.
Te wāhi i tū ai te hui ki Kohimārama, ngā whare o te Melanesian Mission i Mission Bay,
Tāmaki-makau-rau. He mea whakaahua i te tau 1860 e John Nicol Crombie. 

Image: Urquhart album, ATL PA1-q-250-17
© Image copyright conditions

 

Maori encampment at Helensville, Kaipara Harbour, 1863.
He puni Māori i Helensville, i te whanga o Kaipara, 1863.

Image: ATL 1/2-096081
© Image copyright conditions

Major Westrup’s camp, Kohangarearoa, not far from Manutuke.
Ko te puni o Major Westrup, i Kōhangarearoa, kāore i tawhiti i Manutūkē. 

Image: ATL
PA1-q-193-085-1

© Image copyright conditions