He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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KEI TĒNEI WĀHANGA

Kōrero Poto

Kupu Whakataki

A Aotearoa i ngā tau o ngā 1830

Te hanganga o ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi

Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni (1835)

Ngā tau i mua tata atu i te Tiriti

Ngā kaupapa-here a Ingarangi me te Tiriti

Te Hainatanga o te Tiriti

Ngā kōrero ake o te Tiriti

Ngā rerekētanga i ngā tauira e rua o te Tiriti

Ngā take i haina ai ētahi, i kore ai ētahi e haina

Ngā mahi whakaoti

Nga Kaupapa-Here Tōmua A Te Karauna

Te Paheke atu ki te Pakanga

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

Ngā Kaupapa-Here "Whakakotahi" me ngā Urupare a te Māori

Te Wāhanga Tuatahi o te Rautau Rua Tekau

Ka Tipu Haere te aro ki te Tiriti

Te Neke ki ngā Tāone me te Tīmatanga Hou

Ngā Taukumekume mō te Tiriti

English version of this page

Ko Te HĪtori o Te Tiriti

NgĀ taukumekume mŌ te tiriti

Kua kaha tonu te neke whakamua o te iwi Māori i roto i ngā āhuatanga ohaoha i ngā tau rangea o ngā 1950 me ngā 1960. Engari ka tae ki ngā 1970, kua hē haere anō. I te mōmōhanga o te hinu, ko ngā Māori pūkenga kore ngā mea tuatahi i whakamutua tā rātou mahi.  

Te mautohe mō ngā take Māori: ngā 1970

Whakaete mai ana he whakatupuranga hou – he Māori noho tāone, whai mātauranga, ko ētahi ngā tama me ngā tamāhine o ngā kaiārahi o te whakatupuranga o mua atu. Whakahētia ana e rātou te korenga o ngā kāwanatanga i whakatinana i ngā kupu o te Tiriti (heoi, ki ētahi, he hanga “nukarau” kē te Tiriti).

Kāore ētahi o te hunga Māori taipakeke i tautoko i te tū kairiri a ngā rōpū pērā i a Ngā Tamatoa. He huinga tauira a Ngā Tamatoa i Tāmaki-makau-rau, i whai i te tauira o ngā whawhai “wewete here” puta noa i te ao. Nāna i whakarite ētahi mautohe ki Waitangi i ia Pepuere. Engari o te hunga i hiahia kia kōkiritia ngā take i runga i te whakaaro rangatira me te hūmārie, whakaae ana te katoa arā ētahi take nui me rongoā ka tika. 

I te tau 1975 ka whakakotahi mai te iti me te rahi i runga i te karanga a te kuia rongonui o Ngā Puhi, a Whina Cooper. E 30,000 tāngata i hīkoi mai i Te Hiku ki Te Ūpoko o te Ika, ka tau atu ki te Pāremata ki te kawe ā-tinana i tō rātou whakahē i te rironga tonutanga o ngā whenua Māori.

He titiro anō ki te Tiriti

I tumeke, i mīharo anō ngā Pākehā tokomaha ki te hīkoi me ētahi atu kaupapa pēnei o ngā 1970. Kua roa hoki rātou e pānui ana, e rongo ana i ngā kōrero mō te pai o te noho tahi o ngā iwi ki Aotearoa. Kua mōhio iāianā ki tā te Māori, kāore kē i tino pai rawa. Kua mōhio anō ko te Tiriti o Waitangi – i whakaarohia e te tokomaha he āhuatanga kau nō ngā rā o nehe – ko ia te tāhuhu o te hononga o te Māori me te Karauna, ki tā te Māori titiro.

Ka pihi ake he whakatupuranga hou o ngā karu hītori, ngā tohunga takenga tangata me ētahi atu pūkenga. Ka werohia e tēnei hunga ngā kōrero kua roa e whakaaetia ana mō te noho tahi o ngā iwi i Aotearoa i roto i ngā tau.

Ka nui kē atu ngā Pākehā e haere ana ki ngā hui akoako mō te Tiriti. Ka pihi ake he whakatupuranga hou o ngā karu hītori, ngā tohunga takenga tangata me ētahi atu pūkenga. Ka werohia e tēnei hunga ngā kōrero kua roa e whakaaetia ana mō te noho tahi o ngā iwi i Aotearoa i roto i ngā tau. Ka tae ki ngā 1980, kua noho ētahi pukapuka mō te Tiriti me ōna kaupapa e hāngai ana ki ngā rārangi o ngā tino pukapuka e hokona nuitia ana. Kei konā tonu ōna kaiwhakatakē, engari ka tokomaha haere tonu ngā Pākehā e tautoko ana i ngā tono a te iwi Māori kia “whakatinanatia” te Tiriti.

Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 1975 ka whakamanaia te Ture mō te Tiriti o Waitangi, ā, nāna i whakatū te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi hei tirotiro i ngā take a te iwi Māori. Ko te wawata ia mā konei e ea ai ngā mamae. Heoi anō, he tāpae whakatau noa te mahi i taea e te Rōpū nei, ka mutu, mō ngā āhuatanga anake i pā i mua atu i te tau 1975.

I te 1980 ka whakaputa te Rōpū Whakamana i ētahi pūrongo nui mō te takahanga o ngā whenua me ngā wai e whaitake ana ki te Māori – taha tikanga, taha wairua. Engari nō te tau 1985 rawa i whakahoutia ai te ture, e āhei ai te Rōpū Whakamana ki te tirotiro i ngā take puta atu ki te tau 1840. Nā konei i whakaaetia ai tana tuhi pūrongo mō ngā take o ngā tau kua pahure.

I te tau 1977 me te 1978 ka whakanōhia e Ngāti Whātua a Takaparawhau, i Ōrākei, mō tētahi 506 rā. Tāoro ana tēnei mahi ki te nuku o te whenua, ko tōna otinga atu, panaia ana ngā Māori e te pirihimana. Nō muri ka whakaae te Karauna i tangohia hētia te whenua i a Ngāti Whātua. I whakatauira mārire tēnei take i te whāroa o te mamae, waihoki ngā mautohe whenua ki Raglan, ki hea, ki hea.

Ka tipu haere te tūranga o te Tiriti: ngā 1980

Kāore te Tiriti e whai mana ā-ture motuhake nei i Aotearoa, hāunga anō ngā wāhi kua āta whakahuatia ia i roto i ētahi atu ture. Mai i ngā tau waenga o ngā 1980 ka whakahuatia ngā "mātāpono" o te Tiriti i roto i ētahi ture maha, tae atu ki te Ture Hinonga Kāwanatanga o te tau 1986. 

I te tau 1987 ka puta te whakatau a te Kōti Pīra e tautoko ana i tā te Kaunihera Māori o Aotearoa, tāna whai kia tiakina ngā pānga Māori i roto i ngā hua e puritia ana e te Karauna i mua atu.  Ki te tokomaha he tuatahi tēnei, kia pēnei te arotau o te whakatau a tētahi kōti. He tino rerekē i te whakatau mōiriiri a te Kaiwhakawā Matua James Prendergast i te tau 1877, i kī ai ia “he hanga kore kiko i roto i te ture” te Tiriti".

Mai i ngā 1980 kua whakaae ngā kāwanatanga me whakaea ngā take aro whakamuri a te iwi Māori i raro i ngā kupu o te Tiriti. Nāwai ā ka whakaae te Karauna kia whiriwhiria tikahia ngā take, hei aha te kawe ki te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti. I te tau 1988 ka whakatūria te Treaty of Waitangi Policy Unit (i muri mai ko te Tari Whakatau i ngā Take e pā ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi) i roto i te Tari Ture. Ko tāna he tāpae whakaaro mō ngā kaupapa here, he āwhina i ngā whiriwhiringa me te haringa o ngā kerēme Māori huhua ki ngā kōti me te Rōpū Whakamana mō ngā whenua, ngā ngahere, ngā tauranga ika me ētahi atu rawa te take. Ka whiriwhiria ngā whakatau tuatahi ki a Waikato-Tainui (he mea whiriwhiri tika ki a rātou) me Ngāi Tahu (i muri i te uiuinga a te Rōpū Whakamana).

Ka haere tonu te kawe take ki te kōti me te whiriwhiri take, ko te hokonga o ngā ngahere mahi moni e te Karauna te kaupapa. Nā konei ko te Ture Hua Ngahere Karauna o te tau 1989. Nā tēnei ture i tiaki ngā pānga Māori ki ngā whenua ngahere i puritia i mua atu e te Karauna. Ka ahu mai te pūtea hei whakatakoto kerēme ki ēnei whenua i ngā huamoni e puta ake ana i ngā moni rīhi i utua e ngā kamupene ono rākau tūmataiti mō ngā whenua i onokia e rātou. I te tekau tau ka whai mai, ka noho ko te whakawānga me te whakataunga o ngā kerēme aro whakamuri tētahi aronga nui o te iwi Māori.

Anga whakamuri, anga whakamua

I te tau 1990, i te huritau 150 o te hainatanga o te Tiriti, ka whakaata ngā tāngata o Aotearoa mō te wāhi ki te Tiriti i roto i ō rātou hītori. Ko ētahi e whakapono ana ko te arotahi hou ki te Tiriti mai i ngā 1970 ka take i noho tōtara wāhi rua ai tēnei motu i rongonui mō te pai o tana whakawhanaungatanga ā-iwi. Engari ki ētahi, tae atu ki ngā Māori tokomaha, ko te kore i paku aro ki te Tiriti i mua te take i ara ai te riri i ētahi wā. 

Ko ētahi anō i whakaaro ka pai ake ngā rā kei tua nā te āta kōrerorero tahi, te mautohe i runga i te rangimārie, tae atu ki te whakaaro tōtika o te nuinga o ngāi tātou – Māori mai, Pākehā mai. Mehemea kua kore tētahi taha i tino whakarongo ki tētahi i ngā rā o mua, kua titiro rāua tahi ki ngā take ināianei, ā, he oranga kei roto i tērā; ina kore e kōrerorero tahi, hei reira kē mānukanuka ai.

I puta ake a Kuini Irihāpeti II ki Waitangi mō te huritau 150 o te Tiriti. Kāore e kore nāna i whakapuaki ngā tūmanako o ngā tāngata tokomaha (tae atu pea ki ētahi o te hunga nāna i haina te Tiriti) i a ia ka mea ake: “Mā te mahi ngātahi ka taea e ngā tāngata o Aotearoa te waihanga tētahi whenua tū pakari i runga i te whakaaro kotahi, he whenua ahurei i waenga i ngā whenua o te ao.”  

Ētahi Atu Pukapuka

  • James Belich, Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century (Tāmaki-makau-rau, 1996).
  • James Belich, Paradise Reforged: A History of New Zealanders from the 1880s to the Year 2000 (Tāmaki-makau-rau, 2001).
  • Richard S. Hill and Vincent O’Malley, The Māori Quest for Rangatiratanga/Autonomy, 1840–2000 (Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, 2000).
  • Michael King, The Penguin History of New Zealand (Tāmaki-makau-rau, 2003).
  • Claudia Orange, An Illustrated History of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, 2004).
  • Alan Ward, An Unsettled History: Treaty Claims in New Zealand Today (Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, 1999).

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Kāore e arohia ngā tohutō i roto i ngā mahi kimi.

Kia ngāwari, kia horo ai te pānui

Haere ki te hītori poto

 

NGĀ HONO E HĀNGAI ANA

Tāngata Ingoa Nui

Te Puni Kokiri

Archives New Zealand

Te Roopu Ote Matakite leader Mr Whakataka greeting the acting speaker Johnathan Hunt with a challenge before the steps of Parliament, 20 October 1975. Dominion Post Collection, Alexander Turnbull Library.
Ko te kaiārahi o te Roopu Ote Matakite, a Greg Whakataka, e wero ana i te kaikōrero o te wā, i a Jonathan Hunt, i ngā hīkoikoi i mua i te Whare Pāremata, i te 20 o Oketopa, 1975.

Image: Dominion Post Collection ATL
EP/1975/4446/8
© Image copyright conditions

Members of Nga Tamatoa on Parliament steps, Wellington, photographed on 11 November 1972 by an Evening Post staff photographer. The Dominion Post Collection, Alexander Turnbull Library.
Ētahi o ngā mema o Ngā Tamatoa i ngā Hīkoikoi o te Whare Pāremata, i te Whanga-nui-a-Tara.

Image: Dominion Post Collection ATL
EP/1972/5388/11a-F
© Image copyright conditions

Visitors come to offer support to a group of Māori land marchers camped on the Ngāti Poneke marae, Wellington, 30 December 1975.
He manuhiri i tae atu ki te tautoko i tētahi rōpū o te hunga hīkoi mō te whenua, e noho puni ana i te marae o Ngāti Pōneke, i te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, 30 o Tīhema 1975. 

Image: Dominion Post Collection, ATL EP/1975/5513/14
© Image copyright conditions

Protestors and police at Bastion Point during its occupation in 1978. Photographer: Robin Morrison.
Ngā kaiwhakahē me ngā pirihimana i Takaparawhau i tōna nohonga e ngā kaiwhakahē i te tau 1978.

Image: Auckland Museum
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Dame Whina Cooper (seated on right) and others in the public gallery of the Court of Appeal, 5 May 1987. Courtesy of The Dominion Post.
Ko Dame Whina Cooper (e noho ana i te taha matau) me ētahi atu, i te taiwhanga tūmatanui o te Kōti Pīra, i te 5 o Mei 1987. 

Image: The Dominion Post ATL waitangi3_111274
© Image copyright conditions

Image from the 1990 Commission’s Treaty of Waitangi campaign which aimed to create a better understanding of the Treaty as the founding document for New Zealand. Dominion Post Collection, Alexander Turnbull Library.
He whakaahua mai i te whakatutū tūmatanui a te Kōmihana o te Tau 1990, ko tōna whāinga nui kia piki ake te māramatanga ki te Tiriti i te mea koia te pukapuka taketake mō Aotearoa. 

Image: Dominion Post Collection, ATL EP-Ethnology-Maori Land from 1976-02
© Image copyright conditions