He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Ngā Āhuatanga i Pā - Te Tiriti
1800 - 1849
1850 - 1899
1900 - 1949
1950 -

Ngā Āhuatanga i Pā - Aotearoa Whānui
1800 - 1849
1850 - 1899
1900 - 1949
1950 -

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WĀtaka

HE WĀTAKA MŌ TE TIRITI 1800-1849

C1800 Te tūtakitanga tuatahi a te MĀori me te PĀkehĀ

[Sainson, Louis Auguste de], b. 1800 :Enlevement du Boyd par les Nouveaux Zealandais. Boilly sc. [Paris, 1839].

He whakaaturanga auaha o te whakaekenga o te Boyd i Whangaroa.

Title: ATL PUBL-0034-2-390
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Kua tīmata te noho mai o ngā kaiwhai kekeno, o ngā kaiwhai tohorā i waenganui i te iwi Māori. He tokoiti noa iho ngā Pākehā i aua wāhi, ā, hei manuhiri rātou mō te tini o ngāi Māori. E whakaarotia ana 100,000 te iwi Māori i ō rātou rohe motuhake. Ka tūtaki ngā iwi e rua i ēnei tau tuatahi i ngā ūnga kaipuke ki te hokohoko, ki te tope rākau rānei (hei rewa mō ngā kaipuke), ā, ka ara ake te pōhēhētanga me te tūkino i ētahi wā. I ētahi wā ka takahia te tapu, ka tūkinotia rānei te Māori, ka murua rānei ō rātou taonga. Me te aha, ka rapu utu a Māori, mā te whakaeke i ngā kaipuke. I pēneitia te Fancy i te tau 1795, te Royal Admiral i te tau 1801, te Elizabeth, te Seringapatam me te Parramatta i te tau 1808. Mutu rawa atu ko te kōkiritanga i te kaipuke uta taonga o te Roera Nawi e mōhiotia nei ko te Boyd, i Whangaroa i te tau 1809, i tahuna ai te kaipuke. Engari i te ngakinga o tēnei parekura, i hē kē te tohu i te kāinga hei hārotanga mō te matā me te ahi.

1814 Te mĪhana a Marsden

Backler, Joseph 1815-1897 Revd Samuel Marsden. First missionary to New Zealand. Born 1764. Died 1838. [Between 1832 and 1838].

Te Mātenga, i waenga i te 1832 me te 1838.

Title: ATL G-620
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Ko Rev. Samuel Marsden (Te Mātenga) te minita mihingare ki te koroni mauhere o Ingarangi i New South Wales, ā, ko ia tētahi o ngā kaikauwhau i te rongopai tuatahi kia tae mai ki Aotearoa. Ahakoa kua tae kē mai rātou i te tau 1807, kāore i whakatūria he mīhana mō te Church Missionary Society (CMS) i Rangihoua i mua i te marama o Tīhema 1814.

Tokotoru ngā kaikauwhau i haere tahi mai i te taha o Te Mātenga, ehara nei i te Minita tūturu, a William Hall rātou ko Thomas Kendall, ko John King. Ka tū a Te Mātenga ki te kauwhau i te Rongopai i te Rā o te Kirihimete – ki te iwi Māori. He mea whakamāori tēnei mā rātou e tētahi o ngā rangatira o reira, e Ruatara. Kua tūtaki kē ia ki a Te Mātenga i Ingarangi i mua. Ka hokona e Te Mātenga tētahi kaipuke kawe taonga mō te mīhana (te Active) ā, ka tonoa mai i tētahi haerenga para i te huarahi, i te marama o Hune 1814.

I taua wā anō, nā ngā mahi hē a te tangata ki ētahi Māori, i te kaipuke, i uta rānei, i whakatūria ake ai a Thomas Kendall hei Kaiwhakawā ā-Takiwā i Pēwhairangi, e te Kāwana o New South Wales, e Kāwana Macquarie. Ko te tiati Pākehā tuatahi tēnei i Aotearoa.

1831 Ka tukua he pitihana e ngĀ rangatira MĀori ki te KĀwanatanga o Ingarangi

Eruera Maihi Patuone, one of the chiefs who signed the 1831 petition, photographed by G W Redfern.

Eruera Maihi Patuone, tētahi o ngā rangatira i haina i te pitihana o te tau 1831.

Title: ATL PA3-0197
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Kua tupu haere te mahi takatakahi tikanga me te raruraru i waenganui i ngā heremana, i ngā mauhere kua oma i ngā whare herehere me ngā tāngata paoe noa mai i New South Wales, ā, kua tīmata hoki te māharahara kei tangohia a Aotearoa e te Wīwī. Nā reira, i runga i te whakaaro o Kāwana Darling, ka āwhina te mihingare a William Yate i ngā rangatira 13 o Te Tai Tokerau kia tukua he reta ki a Kīngi Wiremu IV. Ka īnoi rātou ki a ia kia tiakina rātou, ā, ka hainatia ki ō rātou moko. Kua tupu ngā āwangawanga i muri i te haerenga o te Elizabeth, i te tukunga o taua kaipuke e tana kāpene kia kawea a Ngāti Toa i Kapiti kia whakaekea a Ngāi Tahu ki Akaroa. Ka whakaae te Karauna o Ingarangi ki te pitihana, ā, ka puta tana kī, tērā tonu ia e tiaki i te iwi Māori.

Ki Runga.

1832 Ka tohua a Te Pūhipi hei RĒreneti o Ingarangi

Busby-B282-HC-651lge.

Te Pūhipi, i te tau 1832.

Image: Private Collection courtesy ATL Busby-B282-HC-651lge
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Ka tohua e te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi ko James Busby (Te Pūhipi) hei Rēreneti o Ingarangi, kia taea ai e ia ngā iwi Māori, ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua me ōna pānga hokohoko te tiaki. He momo māngai kāwanatanga o raro ia, engari kāore ōna tino mana, nā te mea kāore a Aotearoa i raro i te mana o Ingarangi. I tae mai ia i te marama o Mei i te tau 1833, ā, ka waihangatia e ia tētahi whare i ngā whenua i hokona e ia i Waitangi. He uaua hoki tana mahi ki Aotearoa nei, ka mutu anō pea tōna mana i te ungaunga i ngā tāngata o Ingarangi kia pai te noho, waihoki te iwi Māori. I kitea tonutia kāore ana hōia, koia i kīia ai he “manuao kore-pū" ia.

1835 Te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu TĪreni

[Sainson, Louis Auguste de], b. 1800 :Defrichement d'un champ de patates. Boilly sc. Paris, 1839.

He ohu wāhine Māori e karikari ana i te whenua mō te māra kūmara. He whare hakahaka, tuanui tāwhana, kei te tuarongo, me ētahi atu wāhine tokorua e kōrero ana ki ngā heramana Wīwī. I Aotearoa te ringatoi, a Sainson, i te taha o Dumont d'Urville, i te tau 1827. I Te Tai Tokerau tētahi kitenga pēnei, i Pewhairangi pea.

Image: ATL PUBL-0034-2-387
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I te whakaaro ētahi meake pea ka anga mai te whenua Wīwī ki te tango i Aotearoa. Nā reira ka tahuri a Te Pūhipi ahakoa te kore e whakaae o ōna rangatira Pākehā, ki te tuhituhi i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tīreni. I hainatia e ngā rangatira 34 o Te Tai Tokerau. Arā anō ngā hainatanga, tae atu ana ki ētahi mai i ngā rohe ki te tonga, i tāpiritia i roto i ngā tau e whā o muri mai. Ka kī tēnei huihuinga ko rātou te Whakaminenga o ngā Hapū o Nu Tīreni, engari kāore he tohu i huihui anō taua kotahitanga, hāunga te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840.

Ka titiro kōtaha mai te Tari o ngā Koroni ki tēnei pukapuka, i runga i te mōhio ehara a Aotearoa i te taiwhenua o Ingarangi, kāore hoki rātou i hiahia kia hinga mai ngā taumahatanga mō te tiaki i Aotearoa ki runga i a ia. Ko ngā kaitohutohu i te Tari o ngā Koroni ko ngā rōpū mihingare, ā, i pūmau anō te whakaaro o taua Tari kāore he mana tōrangapū toitū i Aotearoa, e taea ai e Ingarangi te tūhonohono ā-kāwanatanga ki Aotearoa nei. Heoi anō, i whakaaetia te Whakaputanga e te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi. E mea ana ētahi karu hītori kāore te Whakaputanga i tino aronuitia, kāti, nō te nohonga mai o tērā hei maioro i te tangohanga o te mana whenua o Aotearoa, kātahi anō ka arongia atu. E whakaarotia ana koinā te take i whakamahia taua pukapuka hei kārangaranga ingoa ki ngā rangatira, kia tūtū ai ki te haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te 6 o Pēpuere 1840.

Ko ētahi atu karu hītori e mea ana ko te Whakaputanga tētahi whakapuaki tuatahi o te mana whenua o te iwi Māori i waenganui i ngā whenua o te ao hou. Kia tāpiritia ki ētahi atu āhuatanga o ngā 1820 me ngā 1830, ka kitea he whakaahuatanga te Tiriti i tētahi noho tahitanga i āta whiria e ngā taha e rua. Ehara i te whakaarahanga ake o te mana Pākehā, ehara hoki i te whakakoretanga atu o te mana Māori taketake.

1835-40 He Āwangawanga mŌ te oranga o te iwi MĀori

Church Missionary Quarterly Papers :Church-Missionary settlement at Kiddeekiddee, New Zealand. [London, Seelys, 1830].

He papa kāinga Mihingare i Kerikeri, 1830.

Image: ATL PUBL-0031-30
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Nō ngā tau whakamutunga o ngā 1830, i runga i tētahi pūrongo nā te Komiti mō ngā Tāngata Whenua (1836–1837), me te pūrongo o te Whare o ngā Rangatira o Ingarangi mō te "āhua o ngā moutere o Aotearoa i ēnei rā” (1838), he nui te hunga atawhai tangata ka āwangawanga mō ngā momo tāngata Pākehā kua tae mai ki konei. Ka uru mai ngā mihingare i ētahi wā ki te whakakāhore i ngā hoko whenua, i ētahi wā ki te hoko whenua mō rātou anō, i ētahi wā hei kaitiaki mō aua whenua kia taea e te Māori te hāereere me te noho i runga i ō rātou whenua. Ka akiaki ngā tāngata nei i te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi kia huri mai ki te aukati i te mate nui o te whanonga hē, tae atu ki te torotoro o ngā tahumaero o tāwāhi, i heke ai te tini me te mano o te Māori ki te waro hunanga tangata. I runga i te kaha-kore o te tūranga o Te Pūhipi, ko te hiahia i te mutunga kia kumea mai te whenua ki raro i Ingarangi, kia kāwana tikatia e Ingarangi.

1837 MĀ PeretĀnia e whakatŪ koroni

[Messenger, Arthur Herbert] 1877-1922 :Landing of New Zealand's first Governor, Captain Hobson, Bay of Islands, 1840 - [Wellington ; Publicity Branch, New Zealand Railways, 1928].

Te ūnga mai o te Kāwana tuatahi o Aotearoa, o Te Hopihona, ki Pewhairangi, 1840.

ATL: A-109-018
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I ana mahi i ētahi atu wāhi o te ao, i mōhio anō te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi he nui te utu o te whakahaere koroni, ka nui hoki te raruraru. Ko te tukunga iho, i mahi anō a Ingarangi i te tuatahi kia kaua e tau ngā taumahatanga mō Aotearoa ki runga i a ia. Ko tāna mahi i te tuatahi kia tukua mā ngā mihingare e kawe te ngākau o ngā kaiwhakanoho Pākehā me te iwi Māori kia mahi tahi, me te tono mai anō i a Te Pūhipi kia mahi tahi ki ngā rangatira i Te Tai Tokerau. Ka rangona te ngākau manawahē o Te Pūhipi i ana pūrongo, nā te mea i te nui haere tonu ngā hoko whenua a ngā kaiwhakanoho Pākehā, me ngā kaihoko whenua o New South Wales, ki ngā rangatira Māori o Aotearoa. Ka karanga ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua o Ingarangi i Kororāreka (e kīia nei ināianei ko Russell) ki a Kīngi Wiremu IV, i te marama o Māehe 1837 kia tiakina rātou, ā, ka puta ā rātou whakahē ki ngā whakahaere a Te Pūhipi. Ka whakaae ngā āpiha o te Tari o ngā Koroni "he tika kei te hē katoa ngā āhuatanga o Aotearoa, ko wai te tangata e kore e tangi ki ōna raruraru, ā, kua roa hoki te tini e kī ana, he hauwarea a Te Pūhipi, kāore e tika mō te tūranga rā". Nō te marama o Tīhema 1837, i runga i te whakaaro kua kaha kē te whakataiwhenua i Aotearoa, ka tahuri te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi me ōna kaiārahi, a Lord Melbourne rāua ko Lord Glenelg, ki te whakarite tikanga mō Aotearoa. Ko te whakaaro ia, kia āta whakahaeretia te whakataiwhenua i Aotearoa, otiia kia whakamutua rawatia ngā hoko tāhae i ngā whenua o te iwi Māori. Kia tae ki waenganui i te tau 1839 kua tau ngā whakaaro o te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi kia whakataiwhenuatia tētahi wāhi o Aotearoa ki New South Wales.

Ki Runga.

1838-39 Ka kake te hao whenua ki tŌna tihi

Clayton, Matthew Thomas 1831-1922 :Settlement of Wellington by the New Zealand Company. Historical gathering of pioneer ships in Port Nicholson, March 8, 1840, as described by E J Wakefield. Wilson & Horton chromolith. Mt Clayton [delt.] ; Auckland, Wilson & Horton, 1899.

Te huihuinga o ētahi kaipuke kawe kaiwhakanoho, i Pōneke, Maehe 8, 1840. He mea whakaahua i runga i ngā whakamārama a E J Wakefield.

Image: ATL C-033-005
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Ka pōnānā katoa ngā kaihokohoko whenua i taua wā ki te hao i ngā whenua o Aotearoa. I tua atu i te tokoiti i hiahia ki te whenua iti hei nohonga mō rātou, tērā anō hoki ngā kaihoko whenua korokoro hōhonu nei, i akiaki i a ngāi Māori kia hoko whenua ki a rātou, i ētahi wā, he hoko tino hē, mō te whenua nui noa atu. Ka pitihana ngā karere o te rongopai i Rānana kia huri mai ki te tiaki i te iwi Māori. Ko ētahi o ngā tini hoko nunui, ko: tā W.B. Rhodes, i kī ake kua hokona e ia a Kapiti Motu, a Horomaka i Te Waipounamu, a Te Upoko o te Ika, me Te Matau a Māui, ko te utu mō Te Matau a Māui, £150; ko tā Daniel Cooper, i kī ake kua hokona e ia te 133,000 heketea i Te Matau a Māui, i Te Kūrae o Māui me te Māhia mō te £383; me tā te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, i kī ake kua hokona e ia tētahi 20 miriona eka, ko te hautoru waenga o Aotearoa mai i Niu Pāremata ki Horomaka, i roto i ngā marama torutoru noa iho.

1839 Ka tohua ko Wiremu Hopihona

McDonald, James Ingram 1865-1935 :Captain William Hobson, R.N., first Governor of New Zealand, 1840. 1903.

Kāpene William Hobson (Te Hopihana), R.N., Kāwana tuatahi o Aotearoa.

Image: ATL A-044-002
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I te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni e tukutuku nei i ana kaiwhakanoho whenua i Rānana, ka tau ngā whakaaro o te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi me tohu a Kāpene William Hobson (Te Hopihona) hei Māngai Kāwanatanga. Ka wehe mai a Hopihona i muri tata mai i te kaipuke tuatahi o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni, te Tory. Ko te whakahau ki a ia, kia riro mai i a Ingarangi te mana whenua ki te katoa, ki tētahi wāhi rānei o Aotearoa i runga i te whakaaetanga o ngā rangatira maha. Ka uru a Aotearoa i raro i te mana o Tā George Gipps, te Kāwana o New South Wales, ā, ka piki a Te Hopihona hei Rūtene-Kāwana mā Gipps. I haerea tonutia a Aotearoa e ngā kaihoko whenua, i mua i te aukatinga o ngā whāinga wāhi hoko whenua, i mea rā rātou tērā e whakaurungia e Te Hopihona. Nō muri ka tātaihia he nui atu ngā whenua i taunahatia ai e rātou i ngā whenua katoa o Aotearoa.

1840 Te rĀhui i ngĀ hoko whenua

[Williams, John] d 1905 :[Maori bargaining with a pakeha. 1845 or 1846?].

Ētahi Māori e hokohoko ana ki te Pākehā, i te 1845, 1846 rānei.

Image: ATL A-079-017
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I haere a Te Hopihona i te tuatahi ki New South Wales ki te kōrerorero tahi ki tana rangatira ki a Kāwana Gipps. I a Te Hopihona ka wehe mai i Poihākena i te 18 o ngā rā o Hanuere 1840, ka rāhuitia e Gipps ngā hoko whenua katoa i te iwi Māori, i runga i tōna mana whakahaere i ngā iwi a te Kuini. Ko tana kī, e kore ngā hoko tae mai ki taua rā e whakamanaia, kia tirohia rā anō e ngā mana kāwanatanga tōtika. Ka tuaruatia te whakairinga o te rāhui e Hopihona i tana taenga atu ki Pēwhairangi i te 30 o ngā rā o Hānuere 1840, i muri tonu i tōna taenga mai. Nā te tangata nei nā William Colenso (Te Koroneho), o te Church Missionary Society, ngā pānui e rua i tā mā Hopihona, inā hoki koia anake te kaitā pukapuka i reira.

1840 Ka hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi

Signing the Treaty.

Te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi, 6 Pēpuere 1840.

Image: ATL C-033-007
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Te taenga tonutanga atu a Hopihona ki Pēwhairangi ka tūtaki ia ki a Te Pūhipi i runga i te Herald. Ka whakarite hui a Pūhipi kia pōwhiritia ngā rangatira o te "Whakaminenga" (kātahi anō tēnei kāhui rangatira ka hui i te wāhi kotahi) ki te tūtakitaki ki a Hopihona, ki te "rangatira i ahu mai i te Kuini o Ingarangi". Te tikanga ka tū tēnei hui i te Wenerei, te 5 o ngā rā o Pēpuere. Heoi anō, ka whakaritea he tuhinga tuatahi o te Tiriti i te reo Pākehā, ka tukua hoki he kape ki a Henry Williams (Te Karuwhā), hei whakamāori māna mā te hui. Ka whiriwhiritia ngā kaupapa i tuhia ki te Tiriti i roto i ngā reo e rua i taua hui, i mua i ngā tāngata Māori e 500 me ngā Pākehā e 200 pea. Ko te nuinga i tūpato anō ki ngā whakaaro kei muri i ngā tuhinga, engari, e ai ki ngā kōrero, nā ngā kupu a Tāmati Waka Nene i kawe te ngākau o te whakaminenga kia hinga ki te taha whakaae. I pēnei anō a Hopihona ka haere ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō ētahi rā, ka haere hoki ngā kupu taukumekume o tētahi taha, o tētahi taha. Ā, koia tēnā, i haere tonu ngā kōrero ki waenganui pō, i te wāhi e mōhiotia nei ināianei ko te marae o Te Tii. I te rā i muri mai, i te 6 o Pēpuere, ka whakakotahitia mai anō te hui i runga i te hohoro, i pānuitia anō ngā kupu, ko te kaihaina tuatahi ko Hone Wiremu Hene Pōkai (ko Hone Heke), tētahi o ngā kaihaina i te Whakaputanga o te tau 1835. I haina tōna 40 rangatira i te rā tuatahi. Ka pūhia e te Herald ana pūrepo 21, hei tohu whakamana i te rā. Kia tae ki te marama o Hepetema, neke atu i te 500 ngā rangatira kua haina i ngā tōpito maha o te whenua (e rima neke atu ngā wāhine i haina.) Tata ki te katoa o ngā rangatira i haina i te kaupapa reo Māori, kāore te mea reo Pākehā. Tērā ngā rohe kāore i haerea e rātou, tērā hoki ngā rangatira kāore rawa i whakaae ki te haina. Inā koa, kāore a Te Heuheu, te ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa (i te rohe o Taupō) i "whakaae ki te mana wahine [te Kuini] kia noho hei mana tiketike mō ēnei motu”.

Ki Runga.

1840 Mei Ka pĀnuitia te mana whenua ki runga o Aotearoa

Williams, Edward Marsh :H.M.S Herald in Sylvan Cove, Stewarts [sic] Island, 1840. [n.d.].

Te H.M.S Herald i Sylvan Cove, Rakiura, 1840. I reira te Herald e kimi tāngata ana hei haina i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Image: ATL A-083-005
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Nō te tīmatatanga o te marama o Māehe, i a ia e heke whakarunga mai ana i te rāwhiti, ka pāngia a Hopihona e te mate roro ikura. Ka tonoa e ia ētahi tāngata, tae atu ki ētahi mihingare e whitu, kia haere ki te kohikohi hainatanga huri noa i te motu, i runga i ētahi kape o te Tiriti. I tino hiahia a Hopihona kia hainatia e ngā rangatira o Raukawa Moana (ko Te Rauparaha te tangata i tino hiahiatia), nā reira ka tonoa a Henry Williams (Te Karuwhā) kia tīkina mai ērā, ā, ka tonoa ētahi kape ki Te Moana a Toi, ki Waikato, ki Tauranga, me Kaitaia. Ka tonoa a Meiha Bunbury, i runga i te Herald, kia rapu hainatanga i Te Waipounamu, i Rakiura me Te Matau a Māui. I te 21 o Mei, ka pāhotia e Hopihona te rironga o te mana whenua o Aotearoa katoa i te Kuini. I riro te mana o Te Ika a Māui i runga i te tuku o te mana whenua i te hainatanga o Te Tiriti, me ngā moutere o te tonga i tōna ‘kitenga tuatahitanga'. E ai ki ētahi karu hītori i hiahia pea ia kia whakapūmautia te mana o te Karauna ki runga o Aotearoa i te mea kua rongo ia tēnei te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni te takatū ki te whakarite kāwanatanga mōna anō i Raukawa Moana. Nā tana āpiha i raro i a ia, nā Bunbury i whakapāho te rironga o te mana whenua o Rakiura i te Kuini i te 5 o Hune, nā te aha, nā tōna kitenga tuatahitanga, i te mea kāore he tangata Māori i kitea i reira hei haina. I pērātia anō Te Waipounamu katoa i te 17 o Hune i runga i te tuku i te mana whenua.

1841 Ka whakatūria he Kaitiaki Matua mŌ te Tangata Whenua

Governor George Grey disbanded the Native Protectorate in 1846.

Tā Hōri Kerei, ca 1860.

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Nō te marama o Āperira 1840, i a ia e whakatā ana i Waimate, ka whakapā atu a Te Hopihona ki te mihingare kaiāwhina nei ki a George Clarke (Te Karaka), me kore ia e whakaae ki te noho i te tūranga Kaitiaki mō te Tangata Whenua, ā, i whakaae a Te Karaka mōna taua tūranga. Nō te whakatūranga o te Koroni hou i te tau 1841, ka uru atu a Te Karaka hei Kaitiaki Matua mō te Tangata Whenua. Ka tukuna tētahi atu mahi ki a Te Karaka, i āhua taupatupatu anō ki te mahi tuatahi. Ko te mahi tuarua he hoko whenua mā te Karauna. I puta he kōrero nā Te Hopihona i te marama o Āperira 1840, i tana tuhinga ki a Te Karaka: "E mea ana ahau i konei, i ētahi wā me takahi koe i ngā huarahi ki te manawa tonu o te whenua, ki te whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō ngā whenua Māori, otirā ki te hoko whenua." Ahakoa i āhei anō a Te Karaka te kawe i ngā whakaaro o te Kāwana kia tangohia te mahi hoko whenua kei taupatupatu ki tana tūranga kaitiaki, ka noho tonu aua mahi me aua mana hoko whenua ki ana kaitiaki o raro. Tērā ētahi kaitiaki o raro i tino kaha rawa te mahi āwhina i te iwi Māori, ko te taitama nei a George Clarke Jnr tētahi. Nō mua atu tēnei i te Komihana e mōhiotia nei ko te Komihana Kerēme Whenua a Spain, ko ia anō te tangata nāna i wherawhera ngā āhuatanga o te pakanga i Wairau.

I te tau 1846, ka whakakorea atu e Kāwana George Grey te Kaitiaki i te Tangata Whenua, ka whakatūria kētia he Hēkeretari mō te Tangata Whenua. Kāore rawa ia i rata ki te tangata Pākehā whai mana ki te iwi Māori, hāunga ko ia. Ko ngā mihingare tonu ngā tino tāngata kāore i paingia e Kerei.

1842 Ka wherawhera te Komihana i ngĀ hoko whenua tuatahi

Portrait of Major Mathew Richmond, around 1860.

Meiha Mathew Richmond, ca 1860.

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E toru ngā Kaikomihana Wherawhera Hoko Whenua ka whakatūria i runga i ngā whakahau a Lord Normanby, i runga hoki i ngā pānui a Governor Gipps i Poihākena me Hobson i tana taenga ki Aotearoa. Koia ēnei ko M. Richmond, ko E. L. Godfrey, ko W. Spain, ā, i whakatūria rātou ki te wherawhera i ngā hoko whenua katoa o mua atu i te Tiriti nā ngā Pākehā i mahi. Me i tatū i ngā kaikomihana āe, he tika ēnei hoko, i āhei anō te Komihana te whakamana i te hoko, me te whakarite Karauna Karāti mō ngā eka 2560 (4 māero pūrua). Mehemea i hē te hoko, i rahi ake rānei i tērā, kāore aua whenua rā i whakahokia ki ngā tāngata Māori rā, engari i haere anō hei whenua Karauna. Ko tētahi o ngā Kaikomihana Whenua, te rōia nei a William Spain, i whakatūria hei kaitūhura i ngā hoko nunui i kerēmetia e te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni. I muri i ētahi tau, ka tatū i a William Spain kāore i whai mana te nuinga o ngā hoko a te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni i Pōneke me tua atu, engari kāore āna tohutohu katoa i hāpainga. I muri ka kawe kētia ngā tūhuratanga, ka mahue te titiro ki te whāinga take o ngā kerēme o te Kamupene, ā, ka takawaengatia he kirimana ki te iwi Māori, kia whakawāteatia a Pōneke mō te whakanoho whenua.

1842 Ka kĪia kei raro te iwi MĀori i te mana o te Karauna

Photographer unknown :Portrait of Taraia Ngakuti te Tumuhia 1790?-1872.

Taraia Ngakuti te Tumuhia

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Nō te tau 1842 i muri i ngā tautohetohe tawhito, ka pakaru mai te pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi o Hauraki me Tauranga. Kāore i taea te aha e te Kāwanatanga. Ka puta te whakaaro o te Rōia Matua, ko ngā rangatira kāore i haina i te Tiriti (pēnei i a Taraia, tētahi o ngā kaihautū i ngā pakanga) kāore i herea e te mana o te Karauna. Ka whakakāhoretia tonutia atu tēnei whakaaro i Rānana. Mai i te whakapuaki a Te Hopihona i te mana o te Kuini o Ingarangi i te marama o Mei i te tau 1840 (mai i te pānuitanga rānei o tēnei i te kāheti i Rānana i te Oketopa 1840), ka whakaarotia ko te katoa o Aotearoa me ngā tāngata katoa i te noho i konei, ka uru ki raro i te mana o te Kuini. Ehara i te mea me whakapūmau tonu atu ngā ture o Ingarangi i taua wā tonu, ki runga i ngā iwi Māori. Ko ētahi o ngā mahi, pēnei i te kawe riri, i te kaitangata me te whakamōkai i te tangata hei taurekareka, tōna tikanga kia pēhia wawetia mehemea ka taea. Engari tērā anō ngā tikanga me waiho mā ngā mihingare hei whakatika, mā te noho tahi rānei o te iwi Māori me ngā kāinga Pākehā e nui haere ana i taua wā.

Ki Runga.

1843 Te pakanga i Wairau

Oliver, Richard Aldworth, 1811-1889 Te Nangihaeta. New Zealand chief. Capt Oliver delt. Dickinson & Co. lith. [London, 1852].

Te Rangihaeata, rangatira o Aotearoa.

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I te hiahia ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua i te tāone o te Kamupene o Niu Tīreni e kīia nei ko Nelson ki te whakamakoha i ō rātou whenua i te Wairau, i mua i te uiuinga a te Kaikomihana Whenua ki ngā whenua o taua wāhi. E ai ki ngā tāngata Māori o te rohe, otirā ki a Ngāti Toa, kāore kē rātou i hoko i taua whenua ki te Kamupene. Nā tētahi o ngā rōpū i raro i a Te Rauparaha rāua ko Te Rangihaeata i aukati te mahi a tētahi puni kairūri, me te tahutahu i ō rātou wharau. Ko te whakautu, ka tukua tētahi ope i raro i te tiati o te rohe i a Thompson, me te kanohi o te Kamupene, a Kāpene Arthur Wakefield, ki te hopu i aua rangatira. Nō te tūtakitanga o ngā taha e rua i Tuamarina, ka kī a Te Rauparaha nāna kē ngā rawa i raweketia e ia. Ka whakatakariri a Thompson, ka karangatia ana tāngata kia ahu whakamua, ka pakū te pū, ā, ka mate te wahine a Te Rangihaeata. E 22 ngā Pākehā i mate i te pakanga whai i muri, tae atu ki ngā whakarau, i whakamatea hei utu mō ngā Māori i mate. Ka tino māharahara te ngākau o ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua, tērā tonu a Ngāti Toa e whakaeke i a rātou ki ētahi atu wāhi, otirā ki Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara. Engari ki a Kāwana Fitzroy, te Kāwana hou, nā te whakaaro kore o te ope Pākehā rātou i raru ai, tae atu ki tā rātou mahi whakatete, ā, kīhai ia i whakawhiu i a Ngāti Toa.

1844 Te riri i Te Tai Tokerau

Bridge, Cyprian 1808-1883 :View of the pah at Ruapekapeka from the lower stockade at the time it was entered and captured by the allied force of friendly natives and troops, under Lt Colonel Despard, 11th Jany, 1846.

He tirohanga ki te pā i Ruapekapeka, atu i te tīwatawata o raro, i te tomokanga e te “matua o ngā tāngata whenua kūpapa me ngā ope taua”, i raro i a Rūtene Kānara Despard, 11 Hānuere 1846.

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He nui ngā raruraru mō ngā rangatira i te tīmatanga o ngā tāke rawa i ngā utanga i heria mai ki Pēwhairangi. Ka piki i konei te utu o ngā taonga, ka heke te maha o ngā hoko. Ka raru anō rātou i te tau 1841 i te whakanukutanga o te tāone matua o Aotearoa ki Ākarana. Nā te Kāwana hou nā Robert FitzRoy (Te Pitiroi) (1844-45) i muku te mana o te Karauna kia noho koia anake te kaihoko whenua. Te take i pērā ai ia, he whakamāriri i a Heke me ētahi atu rangatira o Te Tai Tokerau, kāore kē nei i hiahia kia herea tō rātou mana hokohoko ki te tangata kē. I te whakatakariri a Heke i te mea kei runga ake te Haki o Ingarangi, te tohu o te kāwanatanga o Ingarangi i runga i Kororāreka, kāore hoki te kara o Aotearoa o te tau 1834 i kitea i te taha. Ka whai i muri ana topenga e whā i te pou haki, i 1844-45. Ki ētahi, he mahi hāpai noa iho i te mana Māori te mahi a Heke. Heoi, i te topenga whakamutunga, ka whakaekea te tāone o Kororāreka, ka tahuna ngā whare, ā, ka murua hoki te nuinga, hāunga ia ngā whare karakia. I kawea te nuinga o ngā tāngata Pākehā o te tāone ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Nō te taenga mai o ngā ope ka huri mai ētahi Māori, pēnei i a Nene, ki te āwhina i ngā hōia o Ingarangi. Ka tū tētehi kakari kino i taua wā ki ngā ope Māori i raro i a Heke rāua ko Kawiti. Nō te 15 o Hanuere 1845, ka puta tētahi pānui i roto i ngā reo e rua, me tōna whiwhinga pūtea ki te tangata mauhere i a Heke. Heoi, ka whakahokia a Te Pitiroi e ōna rangatira ki Ingarangi, tukua mai ana tētahi Kāwana ārahi hōia, a George Grey (Kāwana Hori Kerei), i te mutunga o te tau 1845. Nā ngā maioro o te pā Māori me ngā tikanga o te Māori mō te whawhai, i toa ai te taha Māori i raro i a Heke rāua ko Kawiti ki te kawe pakanga ki ngā hōia o Ingarangi. Ka ārahina e Heke ōna toa ki waho o te pā o Ruapekapeka, ka riro te pā i ngā hōia a Kāwana Kerei, engari nā te kore o tētahi taha i toa ake i tētahi, kore kau te take i tau.

1846 Ka tangohia ngĀ whenua "wĀtea"

Gold, Charles Emilius 1809-1871: [Ruined raupo whare by a stream in New Zealand bush, Wellington region, between 1848 and 1860].

He whare raupō kua tāhorotia, i te taha o te kōawa i te ngahere, takiwā o Te Ūpoko o te Ika, i waenga i 1848 me 1860.

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I te tau 1846, ka pānuitia e te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi tētahi tūtohinga tuku mana kāwanatanga ki te koroni, kei roto nei ana whakahau kia rēhitatia ngā kaipupuri whenua Māori katoa. Ko ngā whenua katoa kāore i te whakamahia ka huri hei whenua Karauna. Ka whakamanaia anō e Kāwana Kerei te wāhanga o te Upoko 2 e mea ana kia noho te mana hoko whenua Māori ki te Karauna anake me ana kaihoko. E rua tau noa iho tēnei i muri i tōna whakakāhoretanga e te Kāwana o mua atu i a ia, e Pitiroi. Ko te tikanga o tēnei mea te whakanoho i te mana hoko ki te Karauna anake, ko te Kāwanatanga anake e āhei te hoko i ngā whenua. Ehara i te mea i āhei te Māori ki te haere ki te tangata kē i muri i te titiro a te Karauna ki aua whenua, māna e hoko. Ka mahi nui ngā tāngata o te Karauna ki te hanga tikanga hei whakawhere i te iwi Māori ki te hoko whenua. I runga i te 'mana anake' o te Karauna ki ēnei hokohoko, i āhei rātou ki te whakapāpaku i te utu ki tā te Karauna i whakaae ai, kāore i piki ki tā te mākete hoko e whakatau. Ka haere a Kāwana Kerei ki te hoko whenua nui i Te Waipounamu, i Te Wairarapa me Te Matau a Māui. Ka piki ngā whakahē, ka noho ko te Kāwanatanga hei kaiwhiriwhiri i ngā amuamu, engari koia hoki te rōpū e whakapaetia ana. Ka whakahē te iwi Māori i ēnei whakaritenga, i kore ai rātou e wātea ki te rīhi atu i ō rātou whenua, i kore ai e riro mai ngā moni tika. Inā hoki, he nui tonu ngā Pākehā i hiahia ki te hoko hāngai tonu i te whenua i a rātou.

Ki Runga.

Tō muri mai.


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