He mea waihanga i Aotearoa - Te Tiriti o Waitangi.
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Ngā Āhuatanga i Pā - Te Tiriti
1800 - 1849
1850 - 1899
1900 - 1949
1950 -

Ngā Āhuatanga i Pā - Aotearoa Whānui
1800 - 1849
1850 - 1899
1900 - 1949
1950 -

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WĀtaka

HE WĀTAKA MŌ TE TIRITI 1850-1899

1852 KĀore i tukua a ngĀi MĀori e te PĀremata tuatahi o Aotearoa kia uru ki roto

New Zealand. Parliament. House of Representatives: House of Representatives. [List of politicians and their electoral districts. 1853].

Te rārangi o ngā mema pāremata me ō rātou rohe pōti i te Whare Māngai o Aotearoa, 1853.

Image: ATL Eph-D-POLITICS-1853-01
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I roto i te Ture Kaupapa Taketake 1852, nāna i whakatū te pūnaha whare pāremata o Aotearoa, ka whakatakotoria te whakaaro kia hangaia tētahi pūnaha rangitahi mō te whakahaere ā-rohe a te iwi Māori i a ia anō. I raro i te Wāhanga 71, "ka taea te whakaingoa i ētahi rohe tāngata whenua mō rātou... e taea ai ngā ture, ngā whakaritenga, me ngā tikanga whakahaere o te tangata whenua, o ngā tāngata ake rānei, te pupuri hei kāwana i a rātou anō, i roto i ngā whakahaere katoa e pā ana ki a rātou, i waenga hoki i a rātou..." Engari kāore a Kāwana Kerei i whakaingoa i ētahi Rohe Tangata Whenua, i runga anō i tana titiro kua mārō kē te "whakakotahitanga o ngā iwi", mā te hokohoko me ngā kura mīhana. Hei whakahaere i ngā ture, ka whakaritea e Kerei kia tohua ko ngā rangatira hei “āteha Māori”, i utua ai he utu ā-tau e te Kāwanatanga ki a rātou, me ētahi pirihimana hei āwhina i ngā Tiati ā-Takiwā. I te mutunga, i pai noa iho tēnei āhua i runga i te tirohanga ki ngā tikanga me ngā whakaritenga Māori. Heoi, ko tētahi whakaritenga mō te mana pōti, i takea mai i te pupuri taitara takitahi a te tangata i ētahi whenua. Nā te mea he pupuri ā-iwi, ā-hapū te pupuri a te iwi Māori, i aukatia katoatia rātou i te pōti mō te Whare Pāremata. I pēnei rātou ko tēnei mea te "whakakotahitanga" ki te iwi Pākehā te huarahi pai anake mō tētahi iwi, e ai ki a rātou, meake ka heke ki te reinga. Engari he nui anō hoki ngā āhuatanga matua, pēnei i te Whare Pāremata o te motu me ngā Whakaminenga ā-Rohe, kāore te iwi Māori i uru ki roto. I mahue ki waho i ēnei whare whakahaere hou. I te tino mārama rātou ki te apu a te iwi Pākehā i te whenua, ā, ka āwangawanga ngā iwi Māori mō te āhua o tō rātou noho ā ngā tau kei te heke mai.

1858 Te kĪngi MĀori tuatahi

Angas, George French 1822-1886 :Te Werowero, or Potatau the principal chief of all Waikato. Te Waru, principal chief of the Nga Ti Apakura tribe. Te Pakaru, principal chief of the Nga Ti Maniapoto tribe. George French Angas delt & lith. Plate 44. 1847.

Te Wherowhero, ca 1847.

Image: ATL PUBL-0014-44
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I te tau tonu i nui kē atu te taupori Pākehā o Aotearoa i tō te iwi Māori, ka tohua te Kīngi Māori tuatahi. I whakatakotoria tuatahitia tēnei kaupapa tekau tau ki muri, i kōrerotia hoki i tētahi hui nui o Ngāti Ruanui i te tau 1854, i te whiriwhiringa tuatahi i waenganui i ngā Māori o Te Ika a Māui, hei aukati i ngā mahi whakanohonoho whenua a tauiwi, hei aukati anō i te ngoikore haeretanga o te Māoritanga i waenganui i ngā iwi o te motu. Kua ahu whakamua te whakaaro whakatū kīngi, i runga i te whakaaro o te iwi mā te taonga nei mā te Kīngitanga e whakakotahi ngā nekenekehanga o ngā iwi o te motu. Ka noho te ariki o Waikato, a Te Wherowhero, hei kīngi Māori tuatahi (kīhai a Te Wherowhero i haina i te Tiriti). Ko tētahi o ōna ingoa i muri i tōna pōtaetanga, ko Pōtatau. Ka tupu mai te Kīngitanga i tōna taha, mai i Hauraki ki Horowhenua. Kāore tonu te Kīngitanga i paingia e te katoa o te iwi Māori. He maha ngā rangatira kāore i whakaae ki te waiho i tō rātou mana ki raro i te mana o iwi kē. Kāore hoki ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau i whai wāhi ki te Kīngitanga i te mea, he maha ō rātou here ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. E ai ki ētahi i te taupatupatu te kirimana o te Tiriti ki te Kīngitanga. Ko rātou me ētahi atu kāore i rata ki ngā tātai o ngā iwi o Tainui ki te Kīngitanga. Ki te titiro a te Kīngitanga hei hoa tū tahi te Kuini me te Kīngi Māori, ehara i te hoa tauwhāinga, engari kāore i pēnei te titiro a te kāwanatanga o te koroni. He tino kaha rawa ngā whakahaere o te Kīngitanga i muri, ahakoa whakahaere pakanga, ahakoa whakakotahi whakaaro o te iwi i raro i te Kīngi tuarua, i a Tāwhiao. Ka noho a Tāwhiao i tōna torona mō te 34 tau, mai i 1860.

1860 Te riri i Taranaki

Illustrated London news The war in New Zealand. The 57th Regiment taking a Māori redoubt on the Katikara River, Taranaki. Illustrated London news, 29 August 1863, page 212.

Te Matua 57 e huaki ana i tētahi pā tūhāhā Māori i te awa o Katikara, i Taranaki.

Image: ATL PUBL-0033-1863-212
© Image copyright conditions

Ka toro te ahi i te rarauhe i Taranaki, i te marama o Maehe 1860. Ko te take ko te whenua. Ko te hiahia o te Kāwanatanga kia kitea ai tōna mana rangatira, ka tahuri ki te hoko whenua i tētahi poraka iti i roto o Waitara, i tētahi rangatira o reira. Ka whakahētia e te rangatira ariki e Wiremu Kingi, me te nuinga o te iwi kāinga i te noho i taua poraka. Ka whakahē tonu te iwi Māori ki te rironga o ō rātou whenua, engari ka kīia ā rātou nei ātetetanga he mahi 'tutū' e takahi ana i te mana o te Karauna, me te Upoko 1 o te Tiriti e tohu ana i te mana o te Kuini o Ingarangi. Ka tonoa e te kaiwhakahaere hōia o Niu Pāremata ana ope ki te whakapūmau i te hoko, arā, ka huri i te tautohe hoko whenua ki te kawe riri tonu, ka mau mō te tau kotahi. I haere mai te tini o ngā iwi Māori ki Taranaki ki te whawhai i te taha o Wiremu Kingi mō ana whenua, ā, he nui tonu ngā iwi huri noa i te whenua i tautoko ā-wairua i a ia.

Ki Runga.

1860 Te Kawenata o KohimĀrama

Freeman Brothers (Sydney) fl 1860-1867 :Portrait of Sir Thomas Gore Browne 1807-1887.

Tā Thomas Gore Browne.

Image: ATL PA2-0740
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Nā te Kāwana nei nā Thomas Gore Browne (Kāwana Koa Parāone) (Kāwana mai i 1855-1861) i whakatū ngā hui tuatahi o te Tiriti. Ko tētahi o ngā hiahia kia warewaretia te Kīngitanga me ngā whawhai. I tīmata te whakaaro kawenata hei ingoa mō te Tiriti i te tau 1840, arā, he kirimana tapu te Tiriti i waenganui i te Māori me te Karauna. Nā ngā mihingare taua kupu i taua wā, he mea whakahuahua e rātou hei kawe i ngā whakaaro o ngā rangatira o te iwi Māori kia haina rātou i te Tiriti. Ka kaha ake te whakamahi o taua kupu i te hui ki Kohimārama i Tāmaki-makau-rau. Mō te whā wiki i Kohimārama, ka hui te tini o ngā iwi Māori, arā, ērā kāore i te whawhai ki te Kāwanatanga i taua wā, ki te whakawhitiwhiti kōrero mō te Tiriti me ō rātou āwangawanga mō te whenua. I raro i te Kawenata o Kohimārama, ka puta he kaupapa whakatū Kaunihera mō te Tangata Whenua me ētahi atu whakaaro, ko ētahi i whakaurua ki te Ture mō ngā Whenua Māori tuatahi, e rua tau i muri mai. Engari te Kaunihera mō te Tangata Whenua, kāore rawa i whakatūria. Kāore i ngāwari ake ngā ākinga a te iwi Pākehā kia rapua he whenua mō ngā tauhou e taetae tonu mai ana i tāwāhi.

1862 Ka neke te mana whakahaere i ngĀ take MĀori ki te KĀwanatanga

Sir George Grey.

Tā Hōri Kerei, ca 1880.

Image: ATL 1/2-067938 F
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I te wāhanga whakamutunga o te tau 1861, ka tohua tuaruatia a Hōri Kerei hei kāwana mō Aotearoa. I mua atu i tēnei wā ko te kawenga mō ngā Take Māori i whakanohoia ki te tūranga Kāwana, i runga i ngā māharahara i Ingarangi, kāore e kore ka titiro ngā kāwanatanga tauiwi o Aotearoa ki ō rātou whāinga tika i te tuatahi, ka whakarērea ō te iwi Māori. Nō te tau 1862 ka whakahau te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi i a Kāwana Hōri Kerei, kia aro mai ki āna minita mō ngā take Māori i Aotearoa. Engari, tā te mea koia te kaiwhakahaere o ngā ope hōia i Aotearoa, ka puritia e ia tētahi mana nui. Kāore kē te mana whakahaere mō ngā take Maori i hoki katoa mai ki te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa, kia tae rā anō ki te tau 1865. I muri i ngā kino o te hoko whenua i Waitara, i runga hoki i ana kawenga hou, ka whakaritea e te kāwanatanga tauiwi hou te Ture Whenua Māori o te tau 1862, nāna i whakatū te Kōti Whenua Māori, hei whakawā i ngā taunahatanga tauwhāinga nei ki te whenua. I whakatūria e taua Ture he kōti, ko ngā rangatira Māori ngā kaiwhakawā, ko te timana he tiati Pākehā. Ka whakaaetia anō i reira te hokohoko tika atu a te Māori i ōna whenua ki ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua. Me mātua whakaae tēnei i Ingarangi, nā te mea i hē tēnei i raro i te Tiriti. I runga i te nui o te wā mō tēnei whakaae, me te haere tonu o te riri huri noa i Te Ika a Māui, kāore tēnei ture i whakamahia i mua i tōna turakitanga e tētahi ture tino rerekē, i uru mai i te tau 1865.

1863 Te Ture Whakanoho Whenua o Aotearoa

[Fox, William] 1812-1893 :At Ahaura. [1865?].

Ētahi whare tauiwi e rua i tētahi waerenga i Ahaura, ca 1865.

Image: ATL WC-085
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Ka whakaurua mai e te Whare Pāremata te Ture Tāmi i te Mahi Tutū, i āhei ai te whakatārewa i ngā ture mō te wā o te riri, ā, ka whakaurua mai hoki te Ture Whakanoho Whenua o Aotearoa, i whakaaetia ai te tango i ngā whenua o te iwi Māori. Ko te whāinga matua o te Ture nei, he whakawhiu i ngā Māori "tutū" mā te tango i ō rātou whenua. Engari i raro i te ingoa o te Ture i hunaia tēnei whāinga. Ka pōhēhē te tangata hei āwhina kau tēnei Ture i te whakanoho whenua a te Pākehā. Ko te āwhina nui i kōrerotia i te ingoa, he whakanoho i ngā hōia me ō rātou whānau ki aua whenua, hei tauārai i te Māori me te Pākehā. Ko ngā Māori i kīia he tutū, kāore i whiwhi kapiheihana, otirā ngā Māori piri ki te Karauna, ahakoa ka tukua he moni kapiheihana ki a rātou, kāore i whakahokia atu ō rātou whenua. I muri, ka whakarerekētia te ture kia taea ai te whakawhiwhi pitopito whenua, me te whakamana i te tuku wāhi whenua iti ki ngā tāngata tutū, kua tukuna e rātou ā rātou rākau whawhai.

1863-65 Te riri i Waikato, i Te Moana a Toi me Te Tai RĀwhiti

Illustrated London news: The war in New Zealand. The Alexandra Redoubt at Tuakau, on the Waikato River [London, 1863].

Te Pā Tūhāhā Alexandra i Tuakau, i te awa o Waikato.

Image: ATL PUBL-0033-1863-573
© Image copyright conditions

He pakanga te kai i ēnei tau. Ka pakaru mai anō te raruraru i Taranaki i te marama o Mei 1863. Nō te marama o Hūrae 1863 ka whakahau a Kāwana Kerei i a Rūtene-Tianara Duncan Cameron kia whakawhiti ia i te awa o Mangatāwhiri (ko te taupā tēnei o te rohe o Waikato nui tonu) me ana hōia, nō Ingarangi ētahi, nō Aotearoa ētahi. Ko te take i pērā ai, ki ana kōrero ko te Kīngitanga te rōpū kaha rawa ki te ātete ki te mana o Ingarangi, ā, i te mataku a tauiwi tērā pea ka kōkiritia a Tāmaki-makau-rau. I haere tonu te pakanga i Waikato tae noa mai ki te parekura i Ōrākau i te marama o Āperira 1864.

I muri ka toro te whawhai ki Tauranga, ā, ka toa te iwi Māori i Gate Pā, ka raru i Te Ranga. I reira ngā iwi Māori o Te Tai Rāwhiti, i haere atu hei taituarā mō Tauranga, engari ka hinga i te taha Kāwanatanga. He nui ngā tautohetohe a ngā karu hītori mō ngā pūtake o ngā riri. E kī ana ētahi ko ngā pakanga tētahi tauwhāinga kia whakaūria te mana Ingarihi tūturu, hāunga te mana ā-ngutu nei, ki runga i te iwi Māori. Engari ka kitea ētahi atu āhuatanga toro whānui hei wehenga o tēnei take pakanga. I roto i ēnei ko te hiakai ki te whenua, te hiahia rānei kia whakaūria te mana whakahaere me te ture o Ingarangi, me te hiahia kia whakapākehātia te Māori. E kī ana ētahi atu karu hītori ko te whenua te tino take matua i ara ake ai te pane o te pakanga.

Ki Runga.

1864 Te “mana motuhake" o te Koroni

Frederick Weld.

Frederick Weld, ca 1860.

Image: ATL MNZ-0439-1/4 F
© Image copyright conditions

I te ngoikore haere te Kāwanatanga o te Emepaea ki te utu i te mano hōia e whawhai ana i Aotearoa. Nā reira ka tīmata te kawe a te Weld Ministry i ētahi kaupapa-here e kōrero ana mō te "mana motuhake" o te koroni, hei whakahaere i te Māori, kia taea ai e ngā kaiwhakanoho whenua ngā mahi nei te kawe. Ahakoa ngā māharahara mō tēnei āhua, ka whakaaetia tēnei e ngā mana o te emepaea. He tere tonu te whakauru i ngā tikanga hou i ngā tau 1864-65, ā, ka ngaro te mana o te Kāwana ki te whakahaere i ngā take Māori. Ka totohe a Kerei, ā, ka puritia tonutia e ia ētahi hōia mō ētahi tau, engari i muri i te marama o Hune 1865, ka tau te tikanga me noho anō rātou i ngā puni hōia.

1864 NgĀ muru raupatu

[Fox, William] 1812-1893 :Tuakau. Waikato. [1864?].

Tuakau, Waikato, ca 1864.

Image: ATL WC-017
© Image copyright conditions

Ko te whakapuaki muru raupatu tuatahi i raro i te Ture Whakanoho Whenua o Aotearoa i puta i te marama o Tīhema 1864. E rima ngā rohe i whakapuakina kia noho i raro i te Ture Whakanoho Whenua i ngā tau e toru o muri mai: ko Taranaki, ko Waikato, ko Tauranga, ko Mātaatua, me Mōhaka-Waikare. Ko te rohe i pāngia e te Ture nei, ko tōna 1.5 miriona eka. Ka whakatūria tētahi Kōti Kapiheihana (ko te nuinga o ōna kaiwhakawā, nō te Kōti Whenua Māori), hei whakarongo ki ngā kerēme a ngā Māori i “piri ki te Kuini”, mō tētahi kapiheihana ā-moni, kia hoki mai rānei ō rātou whenua ki a rātou.

1865 Ka whakatŪria te KŌti Whenua MĀori

Artist unknown :[Portrait of F. E. Maning. ca 1850], Half-length frontal portrait of author and judge of the Native Land Court, Frederick Edward Maning.

F. E. Maning, ca 1850. He kaituhi pukapuka a Maning, he tiati anō i te Kōti Whenua Māori.

Image: ATL G-331
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Whai muri i te Ture mō ngā Whenua Māori 1865, ka whakatūria tētahi kōti tikanga Pākehā e mōhiotia nei te Kōti Whenua Māori, ka waiho ki rahaki te kōti i whakaritea i raro i te Ture o te tau 1862. I kīia, kia tika ai tāna whiriwhiri i ngā pānga ki aua whenua, me noho anō i te 10 ingoa noa iho iti ake rānei te hunga whai pānga, ahakoa pēhea te rahi o te poraka. Nā konei ka noho whenua kore ērā atu tāngata o te iwi he uri whai pānga rātou i mua. Ko te pupuri hou a ngā tāngata i whakaingoatia he pupuru takitahi, kāore i noho ā-hapū katoa te mana pupuru whenua, kāore i puritia i raro i tētahi rōpū kaitiaki mō te hapū me te iwi rānei. I āhei anō rātou te tukutuku whenua, tae atu ki te hoko rawa mō te moni, hoko ā-tangata takitahi nei, mōna anō te painga. He nui tonu rātou i pērā, ko ētahi i hiahia ki te hoko, ko ētahi ka whāia e ngā kaihoko mai. He nui tonu ngā hoko i whakaotingia mā te ārahi i aua kaipupuru whenua kia noho nama ai rātou. He mahi māminga tēnei kia mātua tahuri ai rātou ki te hoko i ō rātou whenua.

Ki Runga.

1865-1867 He ture mŌ te rongomau

Illustrated London news :The New Zealand chief William Thompson, negotiating with Brigadier-General Carey. [London, 1865].

Te rangatira nei a Wiremu Tamehana, e whiriwhiri ana ki a Pirikitia-Tianara Carey.

Image: ATL PUBL-0033-1865-228-1
© Image copyright conditions

Nō te tau 1865 ka whakatakotoria e ngā rangatira o te Kīngitanga ā rātou rākau whawhai, kātahi ka whakapuakina e te Kāwanatanga o Ingarangi meake ka tīmata tāna kukume atu i ana hōia i Aotearoa. I roto i ngā mahi hohou rongo i roto i ngā tau, nā ngā kāwanatanga o te hunga whakanoho whenua i whakamana ētahi ture hou. Ko te whakaaro i muri i ētahi o ēnei, he whai kia whakamanaia ētahi o ngā kī taurangi o te Tiriti. Inā rā ētahi, ko:
  • Te Ture mō ngā Whāinga Tika o te Tangata Whenua 1865, i tukua ai ki ngā tāngata Māori ngā whāinga tika o ngā tāngata o Ingarangi, i āhei ai rātou te whakapae ā-kōti i te tangata kē, kia whakapaetia rānei ko rātou, i te Kōti Matua.
  • Te Ture mō ngā Tūru Māori 1867, i hangaia ai ētahi tūru tokowhā mō te iwi Māori, i runga i ngā pōti a ngā tāne pakeke o te iwi Māori;
  • Te Ture mō ngā Kura Māori 1867, i hua ai ētahi pūtea moni mō ngā kura i ngā kāinga Māori, ko te reo Pākehā te reo whakaako. He nui tonu ngā kāinga Māori i tango wawe atu i ngā painga o tēnei kīma i te tekau tau mai i 1870, tukua atu ana he whenua hei tūranga kura;
  • Te Ture mō ngā Tiati ā-Takiwā o te tau 1867, i haere tonu ai ngā tikanga whakatū Āteha Māori e utua ana, me ngā pirihimana i te taha, me ētahi atu whakaritenga kākano-rua mō te whakahaere i te ture i ngā rohe o te tuawhenua (engari i whakawhāititia tēnei kaupapa i te tekau tau mai i 1880, ā ka whakakorea rawatia atu i te tau 1893).

Heoi anō, i haere tonu ngā muru raupatu a te Kāwanatanga (ngā "tukunga" rānei i whakahautia), i hua ake ai te tū mārō me te ātete a Te Kooti rāua ko Tītokowaru.

1865 Ka mauheretia a Te Kooti kĀore he whakawĀ

[Artist unknown] :Te Kooti at Rotorua 1887. [i.e. December 1883?].

Te Kooti Rikirangi.

Image: ATL A-114-004-2
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Tae mai ki te tau 1865 i mea te Kāwanatanga i te nuinga o te wā, ko ngā Māori ka mauheretia i te pakanga ka kīia he 'whakarau o te riri'. I te tau 1865, i te toronga o te "Pai Mārire" ki te motu, ka mauheretia ētahi tāngata i whakaarotia i te āwhina rātou i ngā "tāngata tutū". Ko Te Kooti Rikirangi o Tūranga-nui-a-Kiwa tētahi o ēnei. Ka tonoa ia ki Wharekauri, me ōna kaitautoko 300. Ahakoa ana īnoi kia whakawākia ia ki mua i tētahi kōti, tē rongo te Kāwanatanga. Nō te 4 o Hūrae 1868, ka rere a Te Kooti me ētahi atu i Wharekauri, ā, ka whāia haeretia i Te Tai Rāwhiti, i te Urewera me Taupō. Ka whakatūria e ia te Hāhi Ringatū me ōna tikanga, ōna whakaritenga hoki, e mau tonu nei i ēnei rā. Mai i te tau 1868, ka tīmata te whakapae a te Kāwanatanga i ētahi o aua tāngata mō ngā hara pēnei i te kōhuru, mō te tuku ki te hoariri rānei, engari ka tahuti atu a Te Kooti i ngā hōia whaiwhai i a ia (mō tētahi whā tau) ā, murua rawatia atu te hara i runga i a ia i te tau 1883.

1868 Ka Ātete a TĪtokowaru ki te muru raupatu

Titokowaru.

a Titokowaru (taha mauī) rāua ko Te Whiti, i te whakawānga o Te Whiti, Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, 1886.

Image: ATL B-034-015
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I te tau 1868, ka whakahē te kaihautū o Ngāti Ruanui, a Tītokowaru, me ana kaitautoko, ki ngā muru raupatu i ngā rohe whaka-te-tonga o Taranaki. Nā tōna ope matua i kawe ngā whakaaro, i whakahau hoki ngā iwi o te takiwā kia tū tahi rātou ki te whawhai. I rere whaka-te-tonga rātou i te rohe o Hāwera, whakahingaia ana e rātou ngā ope o te koroni. Ka anga rātou ki te tāone o Whanganui, meake pea ka tūria e rātou. I te marama o Noema, kāore i te mōhiotia te take i ēnei rā, ka whati te ope o Tītokowaru i te pō. Ka noho ia hei manene, hei mōrehu i whāia ki ngā awaawa o te kāuru o Waitara. I muri ka tūhono ia ki ngā mahi ātete i runga i te hūmārie o Parihaka.

1868 NgĀ mema pĀremata MĀori tuatahi

Mete Kingi Te Rangi Paetahi, one of New Zealand's first four Māori Members of Parliament.

Te Rangi Paetahi, Mete Kingi, te Mema Pāremata tuatahi mō te Tūru Māori ki te Uru, ca 1869.

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I muri i te Ture mō ngā Tūru Māori 1867, i a Tītokowaru rāua ko Te Kooti e ārahi ana i ngā mahi ātete ā-pakanga, ka pōtitia ngā mema Māori tuatahi e whā ki te Whare Pāremata. I raro i tēnei ture, i hoatu te mana pōti ki ngā tāne Māori pakeke katoa – 11 tau tēnei i mua atu i te tukunga i taua mana ki ngā tāne Pākehā o Aotearoa. Me mātua whai pānga whenua ngā tāne Pākehā, kātahi anō ka āhei te pōti. Ahakoa rā, e whā noa iho ngā tūru Māori, me i tatauria te tokomaha o te iwi Māori i taua wā, te tikanga kia nui noa ake. Nō ngā tau 1890 rā anō ka piki te iwi Māori ki ngā taumata i te Whare Pāremata. I te tuatahi ko te hunga pēnei i a James Carroll (Timi Kara – te mema mō Te Tai Rāwhiti, ā, i muri mō Tūranga-nui-a-Kiwa), i muri ko ngā tāngata o te reanga hou pēnei me Apirana Ngata, rātou ko Hone Heke Ngapua, ko Peter Buck, ko Māui Pōmare. I noho anō i te whā tūru te kaha o te iwi Māori i te Whare Pāremata, tae tonu mai ki te pōtitanga MMP tuatahi i te tau 1996. Mai i tērā wā, kua piki aua tūru mā te kotahi tūru ia pōtitanga (e whai ana tēnei i te pikinga ake o ngā kaipōti Māori i te rārangi pōti Māori).

Ki Runga.

1873 Te wĀwĀhanga o te pupuru whenua o te iwi MĀori

Members of the repudiation movement, probably in Napier, February 1876.

Te rōpū whakahētanga hoko whenua, i Ahuriri pea, Pēpuere 1876.

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Nā te Ture mō ngā Whenua Māori o te tau 1873 i whakaaetia ai te Kōti Whenua Māori ki te wāwāhi i te whenua Māori. Ka mutu i reira te whakaingoa i te tekau tāngata i te taitara me te kape i te nuinga o te iwi ki waho. Mai i taua wā, me uru katoa atu ngā tāngata whai pānga ki te taitara. Ko tētahi hiahia pea o ngā kaihanga i tēnei ture, mā reira e whakapūmautia ai te pupuru a te iwi katoa i te taitara, heoi anō te mate, nā te ture nei i wāwāhi ngā taitara. Kāore he poraka nui i hoatu ki te tāngata Māori takitahi, e taea ai te whāngai i ō rātou whānau pēnei i ngā kaiahuwhenua Pākehā. I hoatu kē he hea ki a rātou i ētahi poraka, ā, i wehea aua poraka, nāwai ā, ka wehea anō kia kongakonga tonu, arā, kia takoto he wāhanga kore rawa nei e puta he hua ā-moni. He nui te moni i pau hei utu mō ngā rōia me ngā kairūri. Nā konei, nā ngā raruraru hoki o te whakatū whare me te whāngai i te whānau, i kawea te Māori kia hoko i ō rātou whenua. Ko te whakaaro kei muri i ēnei whakarerekētanga he whakapōturi i te hoko whenua o te Māori. Heoi anō, i tahuri ngā kaihoko (a te Karauna me ngā kaihoko noa) ki te whai i ētahi tikanga mūrere. Tētahi ko te utu moni taupū ki ētahi tāngata takitahi maha o roto i tētahi poraka, mō te hia tau i ētahi wā. I muri kua tū ki mua i te Kōti ki te taunaha i te ōrautanga o te poraka e hāngai ana ki ngā hea kua hokona e rātou. Ka tino raru te iwi Māori i konei. Ko tēnei wehenga kia takoto maramara kau tētahi mate nui o ngā whenua Māori, tae noa mai ki nāianei. Nā konei i uaua ai te tiki pūtea whakapakari, i uaua ai hoki te whakamahi whenua Māori kia puta ai he hua. I tupu tētahi Rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua, i runga i te aranga ake o ngā whakahaere ā-rūnanga, ā-iwi hoki. Ko tāna mahi he whakahē, he kimi utu mō ngā hoko hē i te whenua.

1877 Ka whakatauria e te KŌti ko te Tiriti o Waitangi tĒtahi hanga “kore rawa noa iho i raro i te ture”

James Prendergast, New Zealand's third chief justice.

James Prendergast, te kaiwhakawā matua tuatoru o Aotearoa.

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Kātahi ka tino kino rawa atu. Ka kīia ko te Tiriti o Waitangi e Chief Justice James Prendergast, i te kēhi a Wi Parata v Te Pīhopa o Pōneke, he "wāriu-kore", ā, i kī ia, i hainatia "e te iwi ritenga tōtika, whanonga tōtika me te iwi mohoao”. E mea ana tēnei whakaaro whakakāhore nei, kāore he mana o te Tiriti i raro i te Ture, kāore rānei he mana taketake o te Tiriti i roto i ngā mahi Kāwanatanga, i te mea, ehara te iwi Māori i te whenua whai mana i waenga i ngā whenua o te ao, e taea ai tētahi Tiriti te haina e ratou. Nā te mea kāore anō kia whakamanaia i roto i te ture o te whenua, ka meatia he "kore rawa noa iho i raro i te ture". Ahakoa he maha ana tikanga i taupokina e te Kaunihera Piriwa i ngā tau i mua i te 1900, koinei te whakaaro o ngā kōti me te nuinga o te tangata Pākehā mai i 1870 ki te tau 1970.

1879 NgĀ hui nunui mŌ te Tiriti

Waitangi marae at Te Tii, on the banks of the Waitangi River, showing the hall Te Tiriti o Waitangi and the Waitangi Treaty Memorial. Taken by Josiah Martin shortly after the completion of the meeting house in 1880.

Te marae o Waitangi i Te Tii, i ngā parenga o te awa o Waitangi. E kitea ana te hōro e kīia nei ko Te Tiriti o Waitangi me te Kōhatu Whakamaumahara, 1880.

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Ka tū anō ētahi hui Tiriti nunui, i Kohimārama (i Ōrākei) i 1879, i Te Tii i Waitangi i te tau 1881, me ētahi atu wāhi i te tai rāwhiti me te tai hauāuru. Nā ēnei hui ka hoki anō te titiro ki te Tiriti. Neke atu i te 3000 ngā tāngata i tae atu ki Te Tii, ā, i reira ka whakatūria tētahi kōhatu whakamaumaharatanga ki te Tiriti, i Te Tii Marae. Ka puta hoki i reira te karanga kia whakatūria he pāremata Māori.

Ki Runga.

1881 Ka whakaekea a Parihaka e ngĀ ope hŌia

Armed constabulary awaiting orders to advance on Parihaka Pa.

Ngā pirihimana whai pū e whanga ana ki te tomo i te Pā o Parihaka, 1881.

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Kua rua tau e pōraruraru ana te noho i ngā whenua whaka-te-tonga o Taranaki, i runga i ngā whakahē a ngā tāngata Māori ki ngā tangohanga whenua i tērā takiwā, kātahi ka tomo te Kāwanatanga ki te tāone o Parihaka, me ana hōia mau pū. Mai i te tau 1879 kua tīmata te akoako a te poropiti, a Te Whiti o Rongomai, i ana pononga kia unuunuhia ngā turu whenua a ngā kairūri, kia parautia hoki e rātou ngā rori me ngā taiepa i ngā whenua i mea rā rātou nō rātou kē. Nā tēnei mahi ka whakapuaki rātou i te whakahē tonu rātou ki te muru raupatu i Taranaki. Ka mauheretia ngā "kaiparau", kāore he whakawā ā-kōti mō rātou. Ka haere tonu ngā mahi hanga rori i ngā raorao o Waimate, i ētahi wā i runga tonu i ngā kāinga me ngā māra o te iwi Māori, heoi, ka huri te Māori ki te whakatū taiepa i runga i ngā rori, ā, ka mauheretia ko ētahi atu. Ka ātete tonu a Te Whiti, nō reira ka tonoa e te Kāwanatanga tētahi ope hōia nui ki Parihaka i te 5-8 o Nōema 1881. Ko te kaiārahi ko te Minita Māori, a John Bryce. Ahakoa kāore tahi he ātete, ka pānuitia e Bryce te Ture Tāmi Whakatutū, arā te Riot Act, whakarautia ana ko Te Whiti rāua ko tōna hoa poropiti, a Tohu. Ka whakamararatia ana pononga e ngā hōia. Ka whakawākia a Te Whiti mō te whakatipu ngangare. Ka whakaae ngā āpiha tonu o te Kāwanatanga i te kōti, ko tētahi 10125 heketea kua oti kē te rāhui mō te iwi Māori, kāore rawa i tukua ki a rātou hei nohanga, hei mara kai rānei. Ka tonoa a Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu ki Te Waipounamu kia noho i te whare herehere. Mai i tērā wā ki nāianei ko Parihaka tētahi ingoa mō te mana Māori motuhake.

1882 Ka houhia te rongo e KĪngi TĀwhiao (ko te mutunga tĒnei o te Kawe Riri o Aotearoa)

Tukaroto Potatau Matutaera Te Wherowhero Tawhiao.

Kīngi Tukaroto Potatau Matutaera Te Wherowhero Tāwhiao i ngā 1880.

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Ka mana te rongomau tūturu i te Kīngitanga i te tau 1882, i te putanga mai o Kīngi Tāwhiao ki mua i te Kaiwhakawā ā-Takiwā, a Meiha William Mair, i Alexandra, (ko Pirongia tēnei ināianei). I whakaarotia ko tēnei tūnga a te Kīngi he hohou rongo, hei tohu mō te maunga-ā-rongo i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā.

1882 NgĀ ope MĀori i haere ki te Kuini o Ingarangi

Queen Victoria.

Kuini Wikitōria i te wāhanga whakamutunga o te rautau tekau mā iwa.

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Ka haere te tuatahi o ngā ope ki Ingarangi, ki te kimi rongoā i te Karauna mō ana hara. Ki te whakaaro o te iwi Māori i taua wā, he whanaungatanga pātata tō rātou ki te hoa Tiriti, ki a Kuini Wikitōria. Engari i ēnei haerenga, me ngā haerenga katoa a ngā ope Māori ki Ingarangi, ka kīia me hoki mai rātou ki te Kāwanatanga o Aotearoa. Te take i pērā ai, i kī te Kāwanatanga o te Emepaea kāore noa iho ana haepapatanga mō ēnei kaupapa.

1891 Te tirohanga hŌhonu ki te whenua MĀori

Whare at Heipipi, Whakatane, in the late 19th or early 20th century.

He whare i Heipipi, i Whakatāne, i te mutunga o te rautau 19, te tīmatanga rānei o te rautau 20.

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Ka tū tētahi Komihana a te Kuini, ko tāna mahi he wherawhera i ngā ture e pā ana ki te whakahaere whenua Māori. I kitea e ia kua ārau noa iho ngā tini aho o te ture, me te mea nei nā ngā kāwanatanga i roto i ngā tau i āta whakapōraru, kia hē ai te haere o te ture. Nā te wāwāhanga o te pupuru a te hapū i ōna whenua ki ngā taitara takitahi, nā ngā whakaritenga whakapōrahurahu i te māhunga, mā wai e tātā te wai i te waka? Ahakoa e 50 tau noa iho i muri i te hainatanga o te Tiriti, kua korekore katoa ngā whenua Māori i Te Waipounamu, ā, 40 ōrau noa iho o Te Ika a Māui i noho tonu ki te iwi Māori. Ko ngā whenua i te toe he whenua pākeka nei, he uaua ki te whakapai hei mahi ahuwhenua, he whenua kīhai i hiahiatia e ngā kaiahuwhenua Pākehā. He maha ngā tohutohu a te Komihana mō te whakatikatika i ngā mea hē, engari he ruarua i whakatinanatia. Ko te take, kāore i tautoko i ngā kaupapa-here a te kāwanatanga.

1892 Te whakatŪranga o ngĀ whare pĀremata MĀori

Whare at Heipipi, Whakatane, in the late 19th or early 20th century.

Te whakatuwheratanga o te wharenui i Pāpāwai Pā, te pokapū o te Kotahitanga, i Kereitāone, i te tau 1897; ko Richard John Seddon kei te taha mauī.

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I runga i te pōkaikaha o te iwi i te kore e tika o ngā mahi e pā ana ki te whenua, ka karanga hui ngā iwi o te motu i ngā tōpito maha o te whenua. I kīia ēnei hui he pāremata. I muri i ētahi hui i Waitangi me Ōrākei, ka hui tētahi rūnanga nui, pāremata rānei i kīia ai he "Kotahitanga", i Waipawa, i Te Matau a Māui. Kātahi anō he hui pērā ka karangatia kia pērā rawa te tokomaha o te tangata. Ka nukunuku haere tēnei Kotahitanga ki ētahi takiwā, i muri ka tūmau te noho ki Pāpāwai, i te Wairarapa. Ka kīia te pāremata o te Kīngitanga ko te Kauhanganui. Ko te whai o ēnei wāhanga e rua, he whakakotahi i te iwi Māori, engari kīhai i tutuki. Nā ngā Mema Pāremata Māori pēnei i a Wi Pere rāua ko Hone Heke Ngapua i whakatakoto ture, ka whakaurua ai ki te Whare Pāremata i Pōneke. Ko te whai o aua pire kia whakamanaia te Kotahitanga. Kāore i tutuki ō rāua hiahia, engari nō te tau 1900 ka huri a Kara rāua ko Ngata ki te unga i te Kāwanatanga Liberal o Richard Seddon kia whakatūria tētahi pūnaha mō ngā kaunihera Māori ā-rohe, ā-takiwā hoki. I oti i ngā kaunihera ētahi take nunui te whakatika, ko te hauora tērā, ko te hoko waipiro tērā, me te whakapōturi i te hoko whenua. Engari mai i 1905, ka ngoikore haere anō ngā kaunihera i te mahi a te Kāwanatanga Reform nei, i eke ai hei Kāwanatanga i te tau 1911. Ka tīmataria e taua Kāwanatanga tētahi kaupapa hoko whenua nui. I muri i te hurihanga o te rau tau ka hohoro tonu te ngoikore haere o te Kotahitanga.

Ki Runga.

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